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Full text of "Valentine's manual of the city of New York"

1 



Valentine's Manual 

of the 

City of New York 

for 1916-? 



New Series 



Edited by 

Henry Collins Brown 



New York 

The Valentine Company 

15 East 40th Street 



FOUNDERS EDITION 



^JSTHSO/vT^s 



Copyright, 1916 

by 

Henry Collins Brown 



TO ALL NEW YORKERS 

NATIVE OR ADOPTED 

WHO LOVE AND VENERATE THIS OLD TOWN— 

AND TO HER SONS AND DAUGHTERS, 

WHEREVER THEY MAY BE 

THIS VOLUME IS AFFECTIONATELY DEDICATED 




David Thomas 'Valentine, famous editor of the original Manuals 
of New York, 1842-1868. 



The New Manuals : Retrospect and Revival 

Henry Collins Brown 

Any attempt to revive Valentine's famous Manuals 
is, of necessity, an undertaking fraught with the liveliest 
anticipation to all old New Yorkers, and of more than 
passing interest to the generation to whom his work is 
fast becoming merely a romantic tradition. 

The present year marks a full half century since the 
gifted pen of David Thomas Valentine ceased to labor 
on the work he loved so well. It has also seen the real- 
ization of his wildest dream — that New York would some 
day be the greatest city in the world. And this effort 
to continue the brilliant record of the " faithful old 
clerk" is attended with no small amount of apprehen- 
sion and a due appreciation of the difficulties to be sur- 
mounted. For his was the work of the heart as well as 
of the head. 

To those of us who know, and appreciate, the worth 
of these veritable store-houses of antiquarian lore con- 
cerning the past of our glorious city, the mere mention 
of Valentine's Manual conjures up visions of a city with 
tree embowered streets, little two-and-a-half-story red 
brick houses with quaint dormer windows, and awnings 
over most of the stores along Broadway. Our churches 
were still below Fourteenth Street and Sunday morning 
in any part of old New York was sure to be crowded 
with worshippers in goodly numbers ; the women in wide 
hoop-skirts, poke bonnets and dainty little parasols; the 
men .in huge furry beaver hats, fancy waistcoats, brass 
buttons, etc. Washington Square, St. John's Park, St. 
Mark's on Stuyvesant Place, and Union Square Park 
marked the extreme northerly limits of fashionable up- 
town in Valentine's day. Greenwich village was still a 
village only to be visited with trunks for a two weeks' 
stay ; Chelsea, Harsenville, Bloomingdale, Manhattan- 
ville, Tubby Hook, Ft. Washington, Inwood, Kingsbridge, 

[1] 



were all small settlements on the West Side, quite remote 
from the city, while Corlears Hook, Manhattan Island, 
Yorkville, Kips Bay and Harlem were scattered on the 
East. Stage coaches were still the main means of trans- 
portation although street cars were beginning to appear. 

But for Valentine, and this is now admitted to have 
been his greatest work, many of the characteristics of 
our city at this interesting period of its development 
would have been lost. "The trash of today," historically 
speaking, "becomes the treasure of tomorrow," and it is 
to the pictures, which he preserved for us at a time 
when their value was little realized, that we owe him 
a debt of inestimable value. Photography and the pres- 
ent inexpensive methods of engraving were undiscovered. 
Lithography and wood engraving were practised to a 
limited extent, but copper-plate printing was still the 
popular method of preserving the work of the artist. 
All three methods were still in an expensive state, which 
necessarily restricted their use to works supposedly of 
prime importance and precluded their use in the average 
book of moderate cost. For this reason, few publica- 
tions of that period contain illustrations of our city, and 
to the Manual we are indebted for the preservation of 
street scenes, notable buildings, land marks, maps, etc., 
between 1840 and 1868. All of them have long ago dis- 
appeared and but for Mr. Valentine the record would 
have been lost irretrievably. 

Turning to the issue of 1841-1842, the first under 
Mr. Valentine's editorship, we find an insignificant vol- 
ume only 3% by 5 inches in size, containing 186 small 
pages and bound in inexpensive board covers. A com- 
plete Table of Contents follows : 

PAGE 

Calendar 9 

Rules and orders of the Board of Aldermen 21 

Rules and orders of the Board of Assistants 25 

Joint Rules of the Boards of Aldermen and Assistants 30 
Mayor, Aldermen and Assistant Aldermen of the City 

with their residences 31 

Standing Committees of both boards 33 

Board of Supervisions 38 

Board of Health 39 

Financial Condition of the City 40 

Public Offices 53 

Ferries from the City of New York to adjacent places 44 
Rates of Fare of Hackney Coaches, Carriages and Cabs 45 

[2] 



Value of Real and Personal Estate in the City, etc ... . 48 

Offices of the Corporation 51 

Court of Sessions 69 

Water Commissions 70 

Assessors 70 

Collector of Taxes 71 

Constables 72 

The frontispiece is the first of the City Maps for 
which Mr. Valentine was afterwards to receive so much 
credit. This map shows the extent of the city at that 
time (1842) and is now an eagerly sought item for New 
York collections. These were followed in later numbers 
by other similar productions showing the constant and 
rapid growth of the city. 

The preface of this volume contains the following 
significant statement: 

"It has been thought expedient to enlarge on the substance 
of the City Hall Directory by the introduction of added 
matter, interesting and useful to the members of the Cor- 
poration and others. The contents and form of this vol- 
ume have been selected as most useful and convenient 
for reference." 

The City Hall Directory, to which reference is here 
made (and of which the Manuals were the successor), 
appears upon investigation to have been a small pam- 
phlet issued by the City Government as far back as 
1818. And this in turn to have been preceded by a 
similar publication, which consisted of a couple of leaves 
or so containing the names of the Mayor, Aldermen, 
Assistants, and other officials of the City Government 
dating back to 1801. The entire series, starting with this 
modest leaflet, continuing with the City Hall Directory 
and ending with the Manuals can be seen at the Public 
Library on Fifth Avenue. They form an interesting 
item of municipal effort in this direction. 

After the death of Mr. Valentine, the Manuals, as 
we speak of them here, ceased. Mr. Shannon's work 
belonged to another period. Under Mayor Gaynor the 
City provided a Municipal Year Book giving certain 
statistical information regarding the personnel of the 
Mayor's office and the various departments and the work 
has been continued by his successor, Mayor Mitchel. 
Up to the present time (January 1, 1916) two issues have 
appeared of the Year Book and it may be continued. 

[3] 



This, briefly, is the history of such publications as have 
been issued by the City along the lines of the Manuals. 

Of recent years the huge size of the City and its 
Boroughs has necessitated a daily publication to keep 
track of its enormous business and the City Record has 
taken the place of these old once-a-year periodicals. 
Naturally, they are of the strictest business character 
and have no room for anything but statements of the 
most highly condensed facts. And no doubt material 
such as Valentine used would be sadly out of place in 
these modern papers. Nevertheless, the city changes so 
much and so rapidly in its physical aspect, that some 
record of these changes might properly come within the 
scope of a city enterprise. 

In order to get a better idea of what Valentine's pages 
actually contained it may not be amiss to state that no 
less than seventeen of them are occupied by the names of 
persons on the City's pay-roll in one capacity or another, 
ninety more are taken up with a list of members of the 
City Council from 1653 to 1842. 

The calendar takes up twenty pages. Rules of the 
Aldermen and Assistants, nine pages. Names and resi- 
dences of the Mayor, Aldermen, etc., ten, and so on. 

The calendar itself is worthy of special commenda- 
tion. It is a huge depository of American history. It 
is arranged after the manner of the old-fashioned New 
England almanac, but instead of giving prognostications 
of the weather, signs and portents of the zodiac and 
other absorbing items of like nature, it gives dates and 
facts concerning the late Revolution, meeting days of 
the Corporation, days for receiving claims, taxes, etc. 
In the twelve months included in this calendar there is 
a veritable chronological table of past, present and future 
dates referring to the City or the country as a whole. 
It is certainly a painstaking and exceedingly interesting 
compilation and yet is only one instance of the thorough 
manner in which Valentine did all his work. The 
amount of research this man accomplished is certainly 
remarkable; no exertion proved too severe nor did any 
apparent difficulty discourage him in his search for facts. 

[4] 




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At a later date Mr. Valentine included the names of 
all school teachers, constables, policemen, junk-dealers, 
pawnbrokers (and all other persons who were licensed 
by the city), scrub-women, bell-ringers, firemen in charge 
of firehouses owned by the City (the department was 
volunteer) and numberless other items which today have 
so expanded that a work of ten volumes would not 
include all this material. For instance, the total number 
of employees of every kind given in the Manual for 
1842 is 427. The permanent number of city employees 
on the pay-roll today is never less than about 85,000, 
and that is constantly increased by temporary additions, 
which make the daily average figure considerably over 
110,000. In Valentine's day the constables numbered 34, 
while our present police department numbers consider- 
ably over 11,000. And so on it would go all through the 
list. 

A new Manual, therefore, based on the exact lines 
of the old would be doomed to failure. But by taking the 
good out of the old, and expanding the same material 
existent today ; by preserving the rapid changes that are 
constantly going on ; by collecting and reproducing the 
"trash" of today ; by such means it is possible that a new 
series might be produced that would prove of interest 
to its present-day inhabitants and valuable to the future 
historian. 

Such, then, is the task confronting the present editor. 
How near he will realize the just expectations of the 
people of New York in this respect remains to be seen. 
The present volume is offered as his idea of about what 
the new Manuals should be. Such changes as the com- 
ments of his readers suggest and experience dictates, 
will be found in subsequent issues. All New Yorkers 
are cordially invited to assist in making the Manual a 
book in keeping with the dignity, importance and glory 
of the chief City of the world. 



[5 



The Hitherto Unpublished Minutes of the 
Common Council from 1784 Until 1831 

A matter that has deeply perplexed librarians, archiv- 
ists, men of letters, and the public, throughout the United 
States, is the continued failure of the city of New York 
to print the minutes of its own Common Council from 
the years 1784 to 1831. This period covers what is 
easily the most interesting days of our infantile exist- 
ence. They set forth as no other medium can, condi- 
tions as they existed at the time the British evacuated 
New York, and the city took up the burden of separate 
existence on its own account. As we read those absorb- 
ing chapters of our early infancy, there is spread be- 
fore our eyes the picture of a little town struggling to 
right itself after an occupancy by a foreign foe of near- 
ly eight years. Disorder and crime prevail throughout 
the city; most of it is still in ruins from the great fire 
of '76, and years of neglect have left their streets in 
a deplorable condition. 

The corporation is hard pressed for funds to meet 
immediate obligations, and is frequently obliged to seek 
private assistance. Public lands are pressed for sale, 
in order to raise money, and in a dozen ways these min- 
utes depict as nothing else can, the trials and ordeals 
through which the young metropolis was passing. Even 
as we read, we see the little village rise with a courage 
which cannot be denied, to face difficulties that seem in- 
surmountable. The burden at times seems almost too 
great to bear, but gradually we see order emerge out 
of chaos, and tranquillity reign where formerly anarchy 
held sway. 

As we continue a perusal of these minutes, we see 
the city gradually emerging from its apparent hopeless 
condition. Large numbers of its former residents, ban- 
ished under British rule, have now returned and their 
appearance is noted in the minute books. 

[6] 







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In the following pages we have printed a few of 
these minutes of the first years including the resolutions 
offering to Lafayette the freedom of the city. As a 
particularly valuable item for our readers we have also 
reproduced in facsimile General Washington's reply to 
the Common Council tendering him a similar honor, 
in which he refers for the first time to New York as the 
"Empire" city. The origin of this title is not generally 
known and it will be a pleasure to read in Washington's 
own language his description of our city which already 
he foresees as the "seat of Empire." We have repro- 
duced this document on another page, from the orig- 
inal which is in the possession of the New York His- 
torical Society. 

The first selection we make is the minutes of a 
meeting held September 20, 1786, regarding the banish- 
ment of Hogs from the streets of New York. The mo- 
tion was at first defeated, then accepted and becomes a 
law. For many years hogs played an important part 
in keeping the streets clean, hence the opposition to 
their banishment. 

City of \ At a Common Council held at the City Hall 

New York ) of the said City on Wednesday, Septr. 20, 1786. 

Present Richard Varick, Esqr., Recorder 

Benjamin Blagge "| 
£££££ Usars.A.dn. 

Nichs. Bayard J 

Abm. Van Gelder "1 

Thos. Ten Eyck 

Geo. Janeway rAssists. 

Corns. C Roosevelt 

Henry Will J 

The Committee to whom was referred the Petition against the 
going at large of Hogs reported a Law for the purpose which was 
read and thereupon Aldn. Blagge moved that the consideration thereof 
be postponed until a future meeting. Debates arose & the Question 
being put on the said Motion it passed in the Negative in manner fol- 
lowing. 

For the Affirmative For the Negative 
Aldn. Blagge Aldn. Broome 

Aldn. Lott Aldn. Bayard 

Aldn. Gilbert Mr. Ten Eyck 

Mr. Van Gelder Mr. Roosevelt 

Mr. Janeway Mr. Will 

The Board being equally divided Mr. Recorder voted in the Negative. 

[7] 



The Law then read & considered by Paragraphs And on Mr. 
Recorders asking whether the Law should pass ; Debates arose 
& the Question being put it passed in the affirmative in the manner fol- 
lowing vizt. 

For the Affirmative For the Negative 
Aldn. Broome Aldn. Blagge 

Aldn. Bayard Aldn. Lott 

Ten Eyck Aldn. Gilbert 

Mr. Will Mr. Van Gelder 

Mr. Roosevelt Mr. Janeway 

The Board being again equally divided Mr. Recorder voted in the 
Affirmative. Thereupon the Law passed accordingly which with the 
Title thereof is as follows. 

"A Law to prohibit the going at large of Hogs within this City. 
Whereas the going at large of Hogs Shoats & Pigs in the Streets 
and Highways of this City is attended with many Inconveniences to 
the Citizens at large & with great Injury to Individuals. 

Be it ordained by the Mayor, Aldermen and Commonalty of the 
City of New York in Common Council convened and it is liereby or- 
dained by the Authority of the same That from & after the first Day 
of January next no Person or Persons shall permit his her or their 
Hogs Shoats or Pigs to go at large in any of the Streets or High- 
ways of this City under the penalty of forfeiting such Hogs Shoats 
or Pigs to the use of the Poor of the said City. And be it further or- 
dained by the Authority of the same That from & after the first Day 
Constables & Marshalls of the said City and any other Person is hereby 
authorized to take up & Secure all such Hogs Shoats or Pigs as 
they or any of them shall find going at large contrary to this Law 
& to deliver them to the Keeper of the Alms House of the said City 
who is hereby authorized & required to receive them for the use of 
the poor as aforesaid & to pay such Constable Marshall or other 
Person for their trouble the Sum of four Shillings for each Hog & 
the Sum of two Shillings for each Shoat or Pig. 

The meeting of September 14, 1784, records an 
event of great historical importance — the freedom of 
the city offered to Lafayette. 

City of New York, SS. James Duane, Esqr., Mayor, the Recorder, Alder- 
men & assistants of the City of New York in Common Council con- 
vened. 

To all to whom these Presents shall come Send Greeting : 

Whereas the Right honorable The Marquis De la Fayette Mareschal 
De Camp of the Armies of his most Christian Majesty and Major Gen- 
eral in the Service of the United States of America, by the early 
and adventurous Part which he took in the late Revolution by which 
the Liberties and Independence of the United States are happily estab- 
lished and the essential Services he hath performed in different 
situations hath endeared himself to all to whom the Rights of America 
are Dear And we being desirous of giving him a Public Testimony of 
our Esteem and of our high Sense of his distinguished Merit and 
essential Services. 

Be it therefore known to all whom it may concern that the said 
Marquis De la Fayette is by these Presents admitted and received a 
Freeman and Citizen of the City of New York in the State of New 
York in America. 

In Testimony whereof We cause the public Seal of the said City 
to be here unto affixed. 

Witness James Duane, Esqr.. Mayor of the said City, this four- 
teenth Day of September in the year of our Lord 1784 & of the 
Independence of the State the nith — 

"James Duane. 



[8] 



To which the Marquis De la Fayette makes the fol- 
lowing gracious answer : 

Meeting Sept. 15, 1784 

The Members having waited on the Right Honble. the Marquis 
De la Fayette with the Address of this Corporation Mr. Mayor laid 
on the Table the Marquis' answer which was read & is in the words 
following vizt : 

"To the honorable the Mayor Aldermen & Commonalty of the 
City of New York. 

"Gentlemen, While I am honored with so flattering Marks of 
your Esteem it is a peculiar Gratification to me to receive them in 
this City where with Delight I see the triumphant Restoration of the 
American Flag. 

Amidst Hardships of War, which so heavily fell upon you, it has 
been your noble Task to give the World an Example of Disinterested- 
ness & Fortitude. To unite with you in common Efforts and com- 
mon Wishes, became my fortunate Lot ; And altho' from a power- 
ful Cooperation, then in readiness, we had a Right to expect the 
Repossession of New York, yet did I feel much happier, in the far 
better Method by which the End of your Exile was made a signal 
for restored Peace. 

In the precious Testimonies of your Partiality, now afforded me, 
I most pleasingly enjoy the new Tie that connects me with this 
City : and whilst I ardently share with you in every concern for 
its Prosperity I beg leave to assure you, that the warmth of my 
Zeal can only be equalled by the Feelings of my Respect and Grati- 
tude 

De la Fayette. 



The meeting held October 14, 1786 is a picturesque 
account of an old-time ceremony. 

Re-election of Mr. Duane as Mayor 

His Excellency the Governor by & with the advice & Consent of 
the Council of Appointment having been pleased to reappoint The 
honble. James Duane, Esqr., to the Office of Mayor, &c, &c, of this City 
for the ensuing Year : Mr. Mayor attended by the Recorder, Alder- 
men, Clerk & Constables went from the City Hall to the Residence of 
His Excelcy. the Governor & in his presence took the Oaths by the 
Charter of this City prescribed & directed And being returned to the 
Hall after ringing of three Bells & proclamation made for silence the 
Mayors Commission was published. 

The city appropriated money for the printing of the 
Dutch Records which were published in eight volumes 
in 1897, and for the English Records in 1905. It seems 
strange therefore that our own American Records, the 
most vital and important in our whole career, should be 
thus overlooked. 

Should anything happen to the original manuscript 
of these Records, New York, the greatest city in the 
world, would be deprived absolutely of the story of its 
infancy, and the loss could never be replaced. 

[9] 



B* His EXCELLENCY 

GEOFGE WA1HINTON, JEfquire 

General, And Commander in Chief of the Attn) 

of tfec tJ'nhcd £t<3es u^T^0irt&-^m^rica. 

WHEREAS a Bombardment and-AJjwk 
Ifpon the Citv o£Ne\V- York, by qui cruel, 
and inveterate Enemy, may be hourly expelled: 
And as there arc gregt Numbers' of, Women, 
Children, and infirm Perform, }Ct refraining in 
the City, "whofc Condauancc will rather fee |>rc~ 
judicial than advantageous to t- c Avfty, ar^t their, 
Pcrfons e vpofed to great Datigcr and Vt$M.fd ' 
I Do therefore reeornmcBcl.itxa ad-fooh J^rifeJnsr, 
as they value their own afcty and. Prefclvaticn, 
to remove with all xpedltbn, out df fhe iaicl 
Town, at this critical Fcnod.r— tmfdng, triuit \fitli 
#ie tk£irg of Heaven, i j.on 'the American Arms; 
they may fi.cn return t > it in perfqft Security, 
/,nd I do enjoin and re qui c, all theX Seers and 
Solders? in t c nn/, under my Command, to 
fprward And alii.} fuch I"cr(h"ns ;rr their iGompfi* 
ance with this Xcco:r;mer^la^>p». 

C/vf.N ijiv-cr my Hand, ac FfeacF-Qjiarcers, £> r ew-Yof!s 4 
AugiA f 7 , i 77 .<. 

GEORGE WASHINGTON 



NEW-YO^ivr^PiiotuI by Jo»» Holt, -in Water-Street. 

BROADSIDE NOTIFICATION BY GENERAL WASHINGTON OP EX- 
PECTED BOMBARDMENT BY THE BRITISH 

[10] 



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Echoes of the Revolution 

It was a long time before the bitterness engendered 
by the struggle for liberty was assuaged in New York. 
This was particularly true of the theatrical profession 
where alleged indiscreet utterances by foreign artists 
frequently led to riots. The old Park Theatre in Park 
Row was the scene of several serious outbreaks on this 
account and the great Forrest- Macready riot was not 
wholly without this bias. The following item shows the 
feeling that existed in the years directly following the 
signing of peace. 

If there are Englishmen whose attachment to the laws of Bac- 
chus, obliges them to make frequent meetings over old London por- 
ter, and Madeira, they should always carry with them the reflection 
that in a republican government, there are songs which may please 
their palates, and be grating to the ears of freemen. A company 
lately spending the evening in one of the upper rooms at the Coffee 
House ; in the height of their mirth and loyalty, broke out with 
"Rule Britannia" a song very ridiculous in a country like this, where 
their armies were conquered, and their nation defeated. When- 
ever it may again please them to sing the same ditty, they had bet- 
ter alter the chorus, and instead of bawling 

Rule Britannia, Britannia rules the waves, 
Britons never will be slaves. 
To sing it thus 

Poor Britannia, Britannia waves the rules ; 
Britons ever will be fools ! ! 

Origin of How Old Was Ann (1789) 

We hear that to-morrow afternoon near Bayard's house, in the 
Bowery a curious wager will be determined, whether a man in forty-five 
minutes, can collect and deposit in a basket, one hundred eggs laid 
in a right line, at the distance of one yard from each other ; so that he 
goes for the first egg 200 yards, for the second egg 198, and in the same 
proportion for the rest ; the whole distance for gathering the eggs, being 
five miles and 1300 yards. As the country adjacent is beautiful at this 
season of the year, and the distance from town only a pleasant walk, 
much company is expected on the occasion. 

An Old Story 

Take Care of Your Pockets — This forenoon, while a gen- 
tleman from the country was standing in the crowd at an auc- 
tion the pocket of his undercoat was cut open, and his pocket- 
book stolen, containing about 700 dollars. When it was dis- 
covered the thief had made off. (Evening Post, Jan. 11, 1816.) 

[11] 



The First Directory of New York, 1786 

To the casual observer this insignificant volume, con- 
taining less than 800 names, does not reveal the latent 
possibilities of interest which its pages contain. Here 
we have the first tangible evidence that New York had 
outgrown its village days and had realized its coming 
importance. On the South, its more opulent and aris- 
tocratic neighbor, Philadelphia, had a year before com- 
piled a list of its families and merchants. 

Between December 9, 1785, and the 11th of Feb- 
ruary, 1786, appeared the following naive announcements 
of the contemplated publication of the Directory : 

January 2d. 

Will be put to press in a few Days, 

And published with expedition, 

The New York Directory, 

Containing, 

1. The names of all the citizens, their occupations and places of 
abode, in an alphabetical order. 

2. The members in Congress, from what state, and where residing. 

3. Grand departments of the United States for adjusting public 
accounts, and by whom conducted. 

4. Judges, aldermen, and other civil officers, with their places 
of abode. 

5. Members in senate and assembly, from what county and where 
residing in the city, while attending to their legislative duty. 

6. Public state officers, and by whom kept. 

7. Counsellors at law, and where residing in city or country. 

8. Ministers of the gospel, where residing, and of what Church. 

9. Physicians, surgeons, and their places of abode. 

10. President, directors, days, and hours of business at the bank. 

11. Professors, &c, of the university of Columbia College. 

12. Rates of porterage as by law established. 

13. Arrivals and departures of the posts and stages. 

14. Societies, their places of abode, and where meeting, will please 
to give in their names. 

15. Tradesmen, their occupations, and where residing in the city, 
&c, &c. 

To which will be added, 

A valuable and well calculated Almanack, tables of the different 
coins, suitable for any state, and digested in such order as to render 
an exchange between any of the United States plain and easy. 

This useful production, it is supposed, will stand each subscriber 
in about Six Shillings, four of which are to be paid at subscribing, 
and the remainder on delivery. 

Subscriptions are taken in by Mr. Bradford, at the Coffee-house; 
the Printer hereof, and by the compiler 

DAVID FRANKS. 

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In a few days the actual appearance of the Directory 
was announced as follows: 

Jan'y 11th 

The New- York Directory, 

is this Day Published, 

And to be sold by S. Kollock at his book store, opposite the Coffee 
House ; and by Francis Childs No. 189 Water Street. 

To the Inhabitants of the City of New York. 
Gentlemen, 

Mr. Franks returns his sincere thanks to his Friends and 
the Public, for their kind and liberal encouragement towards his pub- 
lication of the New-York, Directory; he humbly requests they may in- 
dulgently excuse any errors, inaccuracies or omissions which may 
appear, and impute them only to the local disadvantages he laboured 
under, in this first attempt ; as he intends in the future editions, he 
shall have the honour of annually presenting them, to have it more 
in his power to be exact, correct and circumstantial ; as the number of 
subscribers are but few (which he attributes to a want of knowl- 
edge of the utility of this production, it being the first of the kind 
ever attempted in this city;) he makes bold to call on the citizens 
at large for every information that they think will prove conducive to 
its future correctness. Their directions will be thankfully received, 
and gratefully acknowledged by Mr. Franks, at his lodgings, No. 66 
Broadway, or at Mr. Kollock's Printing-Office. 

Turning to the pages of this delightful memoir of long 
forgotten days we find it contains about 800 names in 
all. Members of the Continental Congress then sitting 
in New York are given with His Excellency John Han- 
cock, Esq., President, whose address is given as No. 5 
Cherry Street. (There was as yet no President of the 
United States nor Vice President. The country was still 
governed by the Continental Congress.) Mr. Charles 
Thompson of 28 King Street is given as Secretary. Thir- 
ty-six members, representatives of each State, are given. 
Then follows a list entitled, "Grand Department of the 
United States," which apparently corresponds to our 
present Cabinet, as His Excellency John Jay, Esq., is 
mentioned as Secretary for Foreign Affairs, No. 8 Broad- 
way. 

Hon. Henry Knox, Secretary at War, 15 Smith 
Street. 

Henry Remsen, Jr., Secretary to Secretary at War. 

The Hon. Walter Livingston, Samuel Osgood and 
Arthur Lee, Esquires, Commissioners of the Treasury. 

James Milligan, Esq., Comptroller General. 

Joseph Nourse, Esq., Registrar General. 

John Dier Mercier, Esq., Auditor General. 

[13] 



John Pierce, Esq., Pay Master General and Commis- 
sioner of Army Accounts, 14 Dock Street. 

Edward Fox, Esq., General Hospital Department, 7 
Cherry Street. 

William Densung, Esq., Quarter Master General, 20 
Broad Street. 

Jonathan Burral, Esq., Commissory General, 22 Broad 
Street. 

Joseph Bindos, Esq., Clother General, 66 William 
Street. 

Joseph Pennel, Esq., Marine Department. 

The compiler of the Directory, Mr. David Franks, 
was evidently a member of the legal fraternity, as in 
one page of the directory he has an announcement of 
his own as follows: 

David Franks 

Conveyancer and Accountant 

No. 66 Broadway. 

Begs leave to return his sincere thanks to his friends and the 
public and hopes the cheapness of the following will continue 
him their favors : 

Drawing a Lease and Release, on Parchment £ 1.14.0 

Paper 1. 8.0 

Bond 0. 8.0 

Power of Attorney... 0.14.0 

Mr. Franks having served a regular apprenticeship to his 

father, an eminent attorney in Dublin. 

It would be interesting to learn more about this clever 
young Irishman who conceived the idea of publishing 
the first directory of the City of New York but history 
is unfortunately silent on the subject. Like many an- 
other obscure performer in those days, he played his lit- 
tle part with no thought that his humble effort would 
afterward become one of the beacon lights of history. 

He apparently found the publication of the directory 
not at all remunerative, as we find a halt in his labors 
after the second number. A year is allowed to elapse 
before another bold spirit appears, but beginning with 
1789 the New York City Directory has appeared regu- 
larly every year ever since except 1914. There is no 
directory for 1788. 

[14] 




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This year marks the one hundred and thirtieth anni- 
versary of our City Directory. That is not a very long 
period when referred to in connection with the life of a 
municipality. London's directory is now beyond its 900th 
year and yet the New York Directory of 1916 has risen 
to the premier position of all the cities of the civilized 
world and will contain more names by a great many 
thousands in 1916 than will that of any other city in 
existence. 

If David Franks, the compiler, or Shepard Kollock, 
the printer of the first directory, could only see their 
present successor it would be something of a surprise to 
them — the population of the city at that time (1786) was 
23,416— and today it is about 5,800,000. 

Interesting Meeting of the Society of Cincinnati in 1786 

The anniversary meeting of the Society of the Cincinnati was also 
held at Corre's tavern, on the 4th. inst in commemoration of the day, 
when the Hon. Baron de Steuben, was elected President, the Hon. Philip 
Schuyler, Esq. Vice President, Philip Van Cortlandt, Esq. Treasurer, 
and Robert Pemberton, Esq. Secretary of the Society for the ensuing 
year. 

An elegant oration suitable to the occasion was delivered by Col. 
Hamilton, and an address by Col. Walker, greatly pleasing to a crowded 
audience. The Society dined together at four o'clock, after which the 
following toasts were drank, under a discharge of thirteen cannon. 

1. The United States in Congress. 

2. His most Christian Majesty. 

3. The United Netherlands. 

4. The friendly powers in Europe. 

5. Governor and State of New York. 

6. Our brethren in the United States and in France. 

7. The glorious and immortal memory of all who have fallen in 
defence of the liberties of America. 

8. May the powers of Congress be adequate to preserve the gen- 
eral Union. 

9. The 17th of October, 1777. 

10. The 19th of October 1781. 

11. The fair friends of the Cincinnati. 

12. George Washington, Esq. the President of the Society. 

13. The Day. 

The greatest harmony and decorum was observed, the day was 
happily spent, and at the early hour of eight in the evening the com- 
pany broke up. — Weekly Post Boy. 

Perils of Early Navigation on the East River (1786) 

Saturday afternoon, one of the Brooklyne ferry boats, crossing from 
the city, with Mr. Thorn, Mr. Backhouse, and a servant of his Ex- 
cellency Don Gardoqui, together with five horses, about half way over, 
by some accident one of the horses fell to leeward, which threw the rest 
into confusion, and the wind being fresh, the boat overset with a heavy- 
sea. On this occasion, the officers and crew of the French packet, 
acquired much credit, as by their timely exertions no lives were lost, 
the horses were saved by swimming to the shore. 

[15] 



Echo of a Tragedy That Once Stirred New 
York to its Depths 

The Official Record of the Coroner's Inquest Held Upon the 
Body of Alexander Hamilton 

It is doubtful if the inhabitants of New York today 
can realize the consternation, the excitement, which pre- 
vailed throughout the city upon receipt of the awful 
news that Alexander Hamilton had been killed in a duel 
with Aaron Burr. A simple slip of paper pasted on 
the door of the Tontine Coffee House attracted but casual 
attention at first, but when its contents became known 
the excitement became intense and the indignation of 
the citizens knew no bounds. Steps were at once taken 
to apprehend his "murderer." 

In those days dueling was a recognized code of honor 
and to apply such an epithet to the victor was unheard 
of. But it was Alexander Hamilton — the idol of Wash- 
ington, the leading statesman of his time and foremost 
figure in the country. That he had been struck down by 
a Senator in Congress and an ex-Vice-President and 
leading lawyer, availed nothing. Burr was a cowardly 
murderer and the populace thirsted for vengeance. 

Burr escaped in a boat from the rear of his home 
in Richmond Hill. In one unfortunate moment he took 
two brilliant lives — Hamilton's and his own. For Aaron 
Burr from that moment was a hunted, persecuted man 
to the day of his death — in abject poverty nearly fifty 
years later. 

This terrible tragedy cast a gloom over New York 
for many days and on the day of Hamilton's funeral 
all business was suspended and the city gave itself up 
to unrestrained grief. He was buried in Trinity church- 
yard and his grave can be seen within a few steps of 
Broadway. 

This incident had one lasting good result. It brought 

[16] 




Charming view of old St. John's Church and the Park sketched 

from life in 1868 by Mr. E. L. Henry. Note the size of the 

tree trunks. 



about the ultimate banishment of the duello. It 
speedily lost caste in the North and finally disappeared 
entirely from the whole country. The following account 
of the inquest over the body of Hamilton is of great 
interest, being the exact phraseology of the Coroner's 
unique report. 

City and County of New York, ss. : 

An Inquisition Indented taken for the People of the State 
of New York at the third Ward of the City of New York, the 
thirteenth day of July in the year of our Lord One thousand 
Eight hundred and four, and continued by adjournment until the 
second day of August in the year aforesaid, before me John 
Burger, Coroner for the said City and County of New York, 
on view of the body of Alexander Hamilton, then and there to 
wit, on the said thirteenth day of July in the year last afore- 
said, at the ward, City and County aforesaid lying dead. Upon 
the oath of Alexander Anderson, George Minuse, John A. Har- 
denbrook, Peter Bonnett, Elam Williams, John Coffin, John Mil- 
deberger, David A. Brower, David Lydig, Abraham Bloodgood, 
James Cummings, Amos Curtis, Isaac Burr, Benjamin Strong 
and John D. Miller, good and lawful men of the said City and 
County of New York, duly chosen, and who being then and 
there duly sworn and charged to enquire for the People of the 
State of New York, when, where and by what means the said 
Alexander Hamilton came to his death, do upon their oath say, 
that Aaron Burr late of the eighth ward of the said City 
in the said County, Esquire and Vice President of the United 
States, not having the fear of God before his eyes, but being 
moved and seduced by the instigation of the devil, on the 
Eleventh day of July in the year last aforesaid, with force 
and arms, in the county of Bergen and State of New Jersey in 
and upon the said Alexander Hamilton in the peace of God and 
of the people of the said State of New Jersey, then and there 
being, feloniously, wilfully and of his malice aforethought did 
make an assault, and that the said Aaron Burr, with a cer- 
tain pistol of the value of one dollar, charged and loaded with 
gunpowder and a leaden bullet, which he the said Aaron Burr, 
then and there had and held in his right hand, to, at, and against 
the right side of the belly of the said Alexander Hamilton, did 
then and there shoot off and discharge, by means whereof he 
the said Aaron Burr, feloniously, wilfully and of his malice 
aforethought, did then and there give unto him the said Alex- 
ander Hamilton, with the leaden bullet aforesaid, so as afore- 
said shot and discharged out of the pistol aforesaid by the force 
of the gunpowder aforesaid, upon the right side of the belly 
of him the said Alexander Hamilton, a little above the hip, one 
mortal wound penetrating the belly of him the said Alexander 
Hamilton, of which said mortal wound he the said Alexander 

[17] 



Hamilton from the said eleventh day of July in the year afore- 
said, until the twelfth day of July, in the same year, as well in 
the County of Bergen in the State of New Jersey aforesaid, 
as also at the eighth ward of the City of New York in the 
County of New York aforesaid, did languish and languishing 
did live, on which twelfth day of July in the said year, the said 
Alexander Hamilton, at the said Eighth ward of the said City 
in the said County of New York of the mortal wound aforesaid 
died, and the jurors aforesaid on their oaths aforesaid, do fur- 
ther say, that William P. Van Ness, late of the first Ward of 
the City of New York & County of N. Y. Attorney at Law, 
and Nathaniel Pendleton late of the same place Counsellor at 
Law, at the time of committing the felony and murder aforesaid, 
feloniously, wilfully and of their malice and aforethought were 
present abetting, aiding, assisting, comforting and maintaining 
the said Aaron Burr to kill and murder the said Alexander 
Hamilton in manner aforesaid. 

And so the Jurors aforesaid upon their oath aforesaid do 
say, the said Aaron Burr, and the said William P. Van Ness 
and Nathaniel Pendleton, him the said Alexander Hamilton in 
manner and by the means aforesaid, feloniously, wilfully and of 
their malice aforethought, did kill and murder against the peace 
of the People of the State of New York and their dignity. 
In witness whereof as well the aforesaid Coroner, as the 
Jurors aforesaid, have to this Inquisition put their seals, on the 
second day of August and in the year One thousand Eight 
Hundred and four, and at the place aforesaid. 
John Burger, Coroner, L. S. 

Alexr. Anderson. L. S. 

Geo. Minuse. L. S. 

John A. Hardenbrook. L. S. 

Peter Bonnett. L. S. 

Elam Williams. L. S. 

John Coffin. L. S. 

John Mildeberger. L. S. 

David Brower. L. S. 

David Lydig. L. S. 

Abm. Bloodgood. L. S. 

James Cummings. L. S. 

Amos Curtis. L. S. 

Isaac Burr. L. S. 

B. M. Strong. L. S. 

J. D. Miller L. S. 



[18] 




© H. C BROWN, 1916 

A view in Wall Street about 1871, looking West from William Street, 
showing telegraph poles. 



Old Time Marriage Notices 

COMPILED BY 
A. J. WOHLHAGEN 

Assistant Librarian 

of THE 

NEW YORK HISTORICAL SOCIETY 

Scarcely anything in our social life of by-gone 
days excels in quaintness and charm the curious mar- 
riage notices which occasionally appeared in our lit- 
tle newspapers which were issued once a week. The 
ones which follow have been selected from the New 
York Weekly Museum, a fairly complete file of which is 
in the New York Historical Society. 

In those days the law dealing with the return 
of vital statistics was not generally enforced, conse- 
quently some of these notices will be seen here for 
the first time. They now possess an historic value of 
importance, as they recall the marriages of many old 
families whose descendants are among us to-day. 
Aside from the family Bible, this is probably the only 
other record of these interesting events. The oddity 
of expression, the intimate personal description, im- 
part a charm to these notices all their own, and bring 
back, as nothing else can, the atmosphere of the little 
village that was then New York. 

The proprietor of the Weekly Museum occasionally 
became involved in serious trouble on account of these 
marriage notices, some of which were afterwards de- 
nied. In the issue of September 14, 1793, he announced 
the nuptials of "Mr. Levy Phillips to the amiable Miss 
Hetty Hays, daughter of Mr. Michael Hays, of this 
city," and on the week following printed this contra- 
diction : 

The marriage of Miss Hetty Hays handed in by Aaron Henry 
is false . The Printer begs the parties will pardon the inser- 
tion as it was imposed on him by an infamous LIAR. 

[19] 



In this instance the printer merely leaped from the 
frying pan into the fire, as clearly indicated by the fol- 
lowing, which appeared in the next issue. 

The following paragraph was handed in Thursday the 12th inst. 

"Married on Wednesday last, Mr. Levy Phillips to the amiable 
Miss Hetty Hays, daughter of Mr. M. Hays, of this city." By insert- 
ing this you will oblige your humble servant, 

Aaron Henry. 
New York Aug 12 1793 
No. 21 Great Dock Street. 

"In justice to Mr. Aaron Henry, the Printer declares he was not the 
person who handed in the above paragraph but that it was imposed 
on him by a person who called himself Aaron Henry and who has 
added to the infamy of lying that of counterfeiting. For which, unless 
satisfactory concessions are made to Mr. Henry and the Printer, the 
law against counterfeiting will be put vigorously in force against him." 

Evidently this was not the only time that an exciting 
half hour resulted from an error of this kind, as we 
find in the issue of April 5th, of the same year, he was 
compelled to apologize to one Capt. Moses Toulon for 
announcing his marriage to Anna Mott. The doughty 
captain was evidently real rude, and, as befitted a war- 
rior, sought and received satisfaction, as we find the 
printer, as a result, reaching this mournful conclusion: 

"The difficulty of avoiding such impositions compels the Printer 
to refuse the insertion of marriage notices in future." 

This policy, however, did not last long. Evidently 
the value of such items in a news sense outweighed the 
occasional shindies which inevitably followed these mis- 
takes, as we find their publication resumed and per- 
manently continued thereafter. 

Another difficulty he encountered may be inferred 
from the following: 

Mr. William Low aged 25 married Thursday Evening to 
Mrs. Rachel Bryan aged 69. 

In the next week a Mr. William Low of Hanover 
Square objects to the notice as not being sufficiently 
distinctive and compels the printer to insert a notice 
that 

"The Mr. Wm. Low married to Mrs. Bryan is not the Mr. Low 
of Hanover Square." 

The enterprising proprietor of the Museum appar- 
[20] 




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ently led the strenuous life at times. If he could only 
come back again and open his little print shop just for a 
day how happy we would all be to see him! Peace to 
his ashes ! 

We begin the list with a few selections showing the 
curious style of expression common in those days, and 
then abbreviate the others so as to provide a goodly 
number in the short space at our command. Included 
in the list are also some death notices. 

On Monday evening, June 7th, to Miss Mary Ann Jelf, an amia- 

1792, by the Rev. Mr. Beach, ble and accomplished young lady 

John Buchanan, Esq., to the of that place, 
amiable, adorable, incomparable, 

l nfl «n?i le nf w n ^v le N A l n rv T n i?rv 0n Ma ™h 20th, 1786, married in 

K™il e J wh nf thi« £?v New-Jersey, Mr. James Walker, 

Turner, both of this city. merchant, to the amiable Miss 

_ Ann Vanderbeck, daughter of 

On June 30th, Mr. Peter Dustan Isaac Vanderbeck, Junr., Esq. 
to the amiable Miss Sally Gidny. If worldly happiness is 

e'er complete 
On Monday the 31st of July, 1786, It is when two fond lov- 
was married in Washington Coun- ers meet, 
ty, Maryland, Major General Ho- 
ratio Gates to Miss Mary Val- q Wednesday evening (24th of 
^ E; . a vJ ad / ^° St d T rvedl J May, 1786) was married Samuel 
distinguished for her good sense, Osgood, Commissioner of the 
liberal education, and amiable dis- Treasury Board, to Mrs. Frank - 
position, with a handsome fortune. LIN ^ widow of Walter Franklin, 

late an opulent merchant of this 

Married on Sunday last, June 14, city. The lady is possessed of 

1786, at Elizabeth Town, Mr. every amiable accomplishment, 

George Joy, merchant of this city, added to a very large fortune. 

The file of the New York Weekly Museum from 
which the following marriage and death notices were 
compiled, is collated as follows, viz.: 1789, January 31st 
to April 11th and all after November 7th are missing; 
1790, February 28th missing; 1794, December 20th miss- 
ing; 1795, September 26th to November 7th and De- 
cember 5th and 12th missing; 1796, January 2nd, April 
9th and May 28th missing. 

Genealogists and those interested in genealogy will 
find in these pages a valuable addition to the vital rec- 
ords of New York covering a period when these statis- 
tics are otherwise most difficult to obtain. It is the plan 
to continue these notices in each succeeding year of this 
new manual and as many pages will be allotted to these 
records as consistently may be expected within the 
scope of this work, which aims to record many items 

[21] 



of value to all lovers of New York's history not other- 
wise readily accessible. 

1789 — Saturday, January 17. George Fleming, of the Manor of Flem- 
ing, in Sugarloafburgh, Orange County, and Phoebe Yelverton, 
daughter of Abijah, late of Goshen, married December 29, 1788. 

1789 — Saturday, July 11. Isaac Moore and Christiania Slater, 
both of New York City, married Thursday last. 

1789 — Saturday, July 11. James Barron, of the Island of Jamaica, 
and Miss Malcom, daughter of General Malcom, married on 
"Saturday evening." 

1789 — Saturday, July 18. Mrs. Sophia Bicker, wife of Colonel Henry 
Bicker, of this city, aged sixty-three years, died Wednesday 
morning last. 

1789 — Saturday, August 15. Andrew Graham, of Ulster County, 
and Mrs. Hannah Budd, of this city, married Monday last. 

1789 — Saturday, August 29. Robert Gilbert Livingston, of this city, 
in an advanced age, died yesterday. 

1789 — Saturday, September 5. Mrs. Washington, mother of our 
President, died this afternoon. Letter dated Petersburg, Va., 
August 25, 1789. 

1789 — Saturday, September 19. Job Sumner, late Major Massachu- 
setts Line Continental Army, in the 33d year of his age, died 
Wednesday. 

1789 — Saturday, October 3. John Loudon, Lieutenant and Adju- 
tant of the First Regiment, on duty, died Monday last. 

1789 — Saturday, October 17. John Debois and Elizabeth Duryee, 
both of this city, married Thursday last. 

1789 — Saturday, October 24. Joseph Cullen, of Philadelphia, and 
Hester Stevens, daughter of Capt. William Stevens, of this 
city, married Sunday last. 

1789 — Saturday, October 24. Hendrick Wyckoff, of this city, died 
at his father's house on Long Island, Wednesday last. 

1789 — Saturday, November 7. Anthony Franklin, son of John Frank- 
lin, of this city, and Lydia Lawrence, of Flushing, married last 
week. 

1789 — Saturday, November 7. William Durell, printer and book- 
seller, and Maria Schenck, daughter of Abraham, both of this 
city, married Wednesday last. 

1790 — Saturday, January 23. Samuel Deremer, attorney at law, and 
Hester Anthony, daughter of Nicholas, married Sunday last. 

1790 — Saturday, February 13. Frederick Turk and Jane Anthony, 
daughter of Nicholas, both of this city, married Thursday last. 

1790 — Saturday, February 20. John B. Van Wyck and Gitty Brinck- 
erhoff, daughter of Col. Abraham, both of Fishkill, married 
at Fishkill, Thursday last. 

1790 — Saturday, March 6. Capt. George Codwise and Maria By- 
vanck, both of this city, married last Saturday. 

1790 — Saturday, March 6. Francis Wainwright, of this city, drug- 
gist, and Maria Staples, daughter of John (Sugar-baker), mar- 
ried Wednesday last. 

1790 — Saturday, March 27. Robert McDamitt and Susan Arden, 
daughter of John, both of this city, married Saturday, the 
20th inst. 

1790 — Saturday April 3. Miss Abigail Otis, daughter of the Sec- 
retary of the Senate of the United States, died on the 18th at 
Boston, age 16 years. 

1790 — Saturday, April 3. Thomas White and Miss Marston, daugh- 
ter of John, of this city, married Saturday evening. 

1790 — Saturday, April 3. Hon. John Page, of Virginia, and Miss 
Lowther, daughter of William, of this city, married Saturday 
evening. 

1790 — Saturday, April 24. Isaac DePeyster Teller, and Alice 
Schenk, daughter of Henry, both of Fishkill, married Monday 
the 12th. 

(A continuation of this list will be found in back of book.) (See Index.) 

[22] 




z 



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bx 



PL 

X 



An Express 

Juft arrived from 
General WASHINGTON. 



Camp it Cambridge* OU. 24, 1775. 
o 1 R, 

THE inctefed information being of the higheft 
importance, I thought it proper to tranfmtt 
it to you with all difpatch, lam Sir, 

Your obedient fitrvahr, 
CEORGE WASHINGTON. 

On thi Service of the United Colonies. 

To the Hon. Nicholas -Cuke, Efqj Dep. Gov. 
«FRhode-Ifland, Providence. 
(Indofed.) 

lFalmoutb % Monday, i6ch 0£. jjj;. 
*T"HE Canceaux fbip of Gxteen suns, commanded 
by Captain Mowat, a large (hip, fchooner, and 
* floop armed, anchored below the town the 17th 
inft. At 3 o'clock P. M. they weighed and came 
■up, and anchored within gun fhot, and immediately 
'Capt. Mowat fent a letter on fhore to the town, 
•giving them 'two hours to move their families out, 
as he had orders to fire the town. The town im- 
mediately chofe a committee of three gentlemen, 
and fent them on board to know the realon of the 
town's being fet on fire. He returned for anfwer, 
that his qrders were to fet on fire all the lea-pert 
towns between Bofton and Halifax, and that he 
expe&ed New-York was then burnt to afhes. He 
farther laid, that when he received orders from the 
Admiral, he defired rha: he might fhew fbme fa- 
vour to the town of Falmouth, 'which the Admiral 
granted ( I foppofe as Capt. Mowat was under par- 
ticular obligations to (ome gentlemen at Falmouth 
for civilities fhewn him when in captivity amongft 
them) and which favour was to fpare the town tifl 
9 o'clock, Wednefday morning, in cafe wc would 
fend him off eight imall arm?, which the town 
immediately did. 

Wednefday morning Veing the iSth, the Com- 
mittee went on board of Capt. Mowat a^ain, in 
order to fave the town j he laid he would fave the 
town till he heard from the Admiral, in ofe we 
would fend off four carriage guns, deliver up all 
our Imall arms, ammunition, &c. and fend four 
gentlemen of the town as hofeiges, which, the to w.i 



would not 'do. Aboct half paft nine in the morn- 
r ing he began to fire from the four armed veflels, 
and in five minutes fet fire to feveral houfes. He 
-continued firing till after dark the fame day, which 
deftroyed the larg<.ft part of the town. He farther 
informed the Committee that he fhould proceed to 
Portfmouth, and deftroy that place alfo. The 
foregoing is as near the fads as I am able to remem- 
ber. Witnefs my hand. 

PEARSON JONES; 

Tnfpfff-r'HUi, OBobtt 24. 1775. 

"D Y an expreft. that arrived from Falmouth laft 
** night, we learn the greatest part of the town 
-is in afhes. The tBemy fired about three thouland 
fhot into it, and a large number of carcafes and 
bombs, which fet the town on fire, the enemy 
landed once dr tw ; ce*to fet fire to the ftores, they 
loft eight or ten men in the attempt, and had one 
taken priloner, the inhabitants got out a very con- 
fiderable prt of their furniture, no perlort killed or 
wounded during the whole time of their firing* 
the enemy produced orders from admiral Graves, 
to burn all the towns from Boffon to Halifax* 
Capt. Mowat informed the committeeat Falmouth, 1 
there had arrived orders from England about ten 
days fince, to burn all the fea port towns on the 
continent, that would not lay down and deliver up 
their arms, and give hoftages for their future good 
behaviour •, he alfo acquainted them that he ex- 
pected the city of New- York was in afhes ; by 
thefe accounts we may learn what we have to ex- 
pect, I think Newport fhould be fortified in the 
beft manner it can be, doubtlefs the enemy will 
make an attempt to get the ftock off the ifhnd ; 
provifion fhould be made to defeat them ; death 
and defolaticn leems to mark their foot fteps, fieht 
or be flaves is the American motto, the firft is by 
far the mofl eligible. In hade I am with eftecm, 
your moft obedient humble fervant. 

NATHANIEL GREEN. 

To the Hon. Nicholas Gokt, Efq; in Provider.ce, 
(per Exprefs.) 



BROADSIDE NOTIFICATION TO PROVIDENCE BY GEN'L. WASHING- 
TON OP AN INTENDED ATTACK BY THE BRITISH WAR FLEET UNDER 
CAPT. MOWAT, OCT. 24, 1775. 



[23] 



A Glimpse of the Fashions in 1800 

We now come to a period when the new country 
may be said to have been fairly started and our grand- 
mothers were setting their own fashions. From the clever 
descriptions herewith given there will be but little diffi- 
culty in forming an adequate idea of how our grand- 
mothers looked in the fetching costumes of that day. 
Times have changed, however, and the athletic girl of 
today is much more popular than the frail, fainting sis- 
ter of those times ; and the present popularity of leather 
boots includes "genteel" society as well as the "com- 
moner" classes. 

Bird-of-Paradise yellow is a favorite color for satin gowns 
a TEmpire. 

The colors most in estimation are ponceau rose, cachou-nut 
brown, American green, willow-green, and ethereal blue. 

Now that 1800 is an accomplished fact, the mania for classic 
attire has completely metamorphosed feminine costume. The 
waist is now a lost quantity, for the gown is drawn in but 
slightly under the arms, like an infant's robe, and thence the 
skirt falls quite straight, trailing on the floor at the back from 
a double pleat that falls from a low, open neck, the edges occa- 
sionally draped with a silk kerchief, or finished with a high- 
standing lace ruff. 

Long plumes, or short full feathers in evening dress are 
oftener seen on the hair than either cornettes or turbans, and 
so much is this style of headdress favored that several dis- 
tinguished ladies wear it at the opera in preference to the opera- 
hat, though that handsome becoming adjunct for the hair is 
by no means moribund. The few turbans that are worn are 
rather devoid of plumage, but instead they are richly embellished 
with lace and gold or silver ornaments. 

The Kutusoff mantle and bonnet are, of course, named after 
the great Russian general of whom we are now hearing so 
much. 

Parasols are made on the same principle as the "surprise 
fans" lately invented — i. e., with a joint which makes them ap- 
pear to be broken. A sliding cylinder-like fixture holds the 
joint firmly in place when the parasol is raised. 

Except in morning dress, ladies invariably carry their reti- 
cules (vulgarly called "ridicules") with them. A reticule con- 
tains the handkerchief, fan, card, money and essence-bottle. 

[24] 



They are made of figured sarcenet, plain satin, velvet, or silver 
tissue with strings and tassels to match. It is necessary that 
they be of the same color as the wrap or pelisse. 

Notwithstanding the severity of the winter season, morn- 
ing dresses continue to be made in white muslin, which is 
more fashionable than anything else. The dress of women 
should differ in every regard from that of men. This differ- 
ence ought to extend to the selection of stuffs ; for a woman 
habited in cloth is far less feminine than when attired in soft 
delicate muslin or light lustrous silk. 

By way of new ornament, dressmakers are frequently mak- 
ing use of very small pieces of gold, silver, or steel, cut ex- 
ceedingly thin, and with a tiny hole in the middle. They are 
generally of circular shape, and they often deck an entire even- 
ing gown. They are called "spangles." 

Double soles, though introduced, are quite the exception, 
and as for leather footwear, no lady of condition would dream 
of putting on anything so coarse. They are quite Gothic, and 
appropriate to none but the lower orders. 

The conversation bonnet is a nicely modified coal-scuttle 
shape that is greatly favored. The most fashionable styles in 
straw are the conversation cottage models, which are dis- 
tinguished for their negligent neatness. At the back the hair 
is closely cropped or tightly braided, and has somewhat dis- 
hevelled curls in front. Necklaces and earrings are of Mocha- 
stones linked with burnished gold. 

Muslin dresses are worn unlined, and skirts are short 
enough to display the ankle through them. Flowers and loops 
of ribbon are worn over the left side of the coiffure and 
face, so placed as to almost conceal the left eye. Fugitive 
coats made of exile cloth are worn this season, and their 
name is a tribute paid by fashion to the sufferings of the exiled 
house of Braganza. 

York and Limerick gloves are both less expensive and 
much more easy to procure in these times than fine French 
kid, but they are not so pretty. English kid gloves are rough, 
undressed-looking things, with no particular fit about them 
— something like coarse peau de Suede, and many a time those 
who perforce wear them, must sigh for the peau glace, which 
can only be had from abroad. 

The fashion of tight lacing has revived with a degree of 
fury — prevailing universally to an extent of which people of 
former days could form no conception, and which posterity 
will not credit. Stays are now composed, not of pliable whale- 
bone or leather, but of bands of steel and iron from two to 
four inches broad, and many of them not less than eighteen 
inches in length. 

A very fashionable article of jewelry is a gold neckchain 
and heart with a patent spring, which, when pressed, opens 
and reveals the eye of friend, relative, or lover, beautifully 
executed on ivory, and finished with an enamelled border. 

[25] 



Bonnets are of a becoming shape and size — many of black 
or violet velvet, though those of white or tinted satin are 
rather more in favor with the higher classes. A drapery of 
black net is often added to the edge of these bonnets. Bon- 
nets are worn rather more forward than they have been for 
some time past. Hats of black satin are ornamented with 
large rosettes of pink or yellow velvet or sarcenet. We see 
in carriages hats of dark-green velvet, with white plumes and 
veil of white net. 

Since the "Hundred Days" succeeding the return of Na- 
poleon from Elba, violets have become the rage. They are 
regarded as a political emblem. No imperialist lady appears 
in public without a large bunch of violets on her breast. 
Morning-caps are trimmed with violets and immortelles, set 
side by side, and many lapidaries manufacture ornaments of 
the same design. 

On the other hand, royalist ladies wear muslin or Jaconet 
gowns, with eighteen tucks on the skirt, in honor of Louis 
XVIIL, and bonnets of white silk striped with lacy straw, 
a square cashmere shawl with a vermilion border, and dark- 
blue kid shoes. 

The art of dressing woman's hair is nearly allied to 
genius, and, in order to exercise it nobly, one should be a 
poet, a painter, or a sculptor. It is necessary to understand 
shades of color, chiaroscuro, and the proper distribution of 
shadows, so as to confer animation on the complexion and 
render other native charms more expressive. The fine art 
of dressing a prude, and of letting pretensions be apparent, 
yet without frankly thrusting them forward; that, also, of 
pointing out a coquette, and of making a mother look like 
her child's eldest sister; of adapting the style of coiffure to 
the taste and disposition of the individual — in fine, the art 
of asserting caprices, or of occasionally controlling them, re- 
quires a more than common share of intellect, and a tact with 
which one must be born. 

Girard's masterpiece of Psyche has brought pallor into 
fashion. It is so much the rage to look ethereal and delicate 
that a pot of rouge can now be purchased for half a crown, 
and lotions, instead, are used to promote the interesting shade 
of the lily, which has of late subdued the rose. Poudre de 
riz is universally selected, and all fashionable women in these 
days of the Empire endeavor to render themselves still more 
interesting by making up their lovely faces a la Psyche. 

A wreath of roses or ribband rosettes are worn by young 
girls in half dress, while satin or silk mousseline hats are 
favored for the evening toilet. These are placed very back- 
ward, and the brims are round and made to discover the 
face. Spanish berets embroidered in gold or silver, with gold 
cordons and acorn tassels depending, are much admired, though 
becoming to but few faces. The genuine beret or cardinal's 
cap is like a plate turned upside down, and such a flat, skim- 
ming-dish style requires to be placed much on one side, to 

[26] 




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have beautiful luxuriant hair showing on the other, and a very 
pretty face underneath. 

Physicians and doctors of divinity have declared that the 
scanty clothing prescribed by fashion is indelicate as well as 
unhealthful, but do they not speak to deaf ears? What doc- 
tor, be he D. D. or M. D., could outweigh a fashion-book? 
The arbiters of taste never seem to care to invent anything 
to protect women from cold and damp, and even when com- 
mon sense forces one to put on heavy, warm clothing, its 
wearer is deemed either insane or a hopeless invalid. 

The general mildness of March has banished from the 
promenade those weighty, gross, furry decorations which so re- 
cently were noticed, and which for some reason were con- 
tinued through one of the mildest winters ever experienced 
in our atmosphere — as though our fashionable beauties were 
shivering under the chilling influences of Siberian skies. 

At a party at the Hotel Thelusson great admiration was 
excited by a lady whose tresses were dressed in Greek style 
—a band of exquisite cameos, representing Roman emperors, 
encircling her beautiful head. Her gown, with waist seven 
inches long, and short sleeves, was made of palest pink tulle, 
embroidered with cut-steel beads. 

Not only did Mme. Tallien create a furore of admira- 
tion at the fancy ball in an Athenian gown, wearing two 
circlets of gold as garters, which glimmered through the filmy 
folds of her white and gold crepe frock, and with jewelled 
strappings on her bare and sandalled feet, but there were 
other heroines of La Mode — if I may so express myself — 
who were attired a la Sauvage, or who threw sang de boeuf 
scarves over their shoulders, squeezed their waists into steel 
stays a la humanite, and wore on their heads either a hat 
d la Justice or a cap a la folic 



[27] 



What was Going On in New York Ten Years 
After the Declaration of Independence 

Perhaps the best remembered event, if not the most 
momentous that happened in our city in the year of our 
Lord seventeen eighty-six, was the publication of our 
first Directory. Elsewhere we have described this inter- 
esting event at length. 

It is from the daily press of that year that we have 
selected such items of current events as follows. By this 
means we get a very clear idea of every-day life in those 
times and are able to trace a gradual outline of the city 
and its people as they were a century and a half ago. 

In the columns devoted to the prosecution of busi- 
ness, we find the origin of the vigorous advertising of 
the present day, and the methods of our busy little mer- 
chants of long ago clearly indicate that the enterprise and 
energy of the present day is nothing more than an ex- 
tension and development of the spirit that has always 
characterized the merchant of New York. The fact that 
many of these early names are easily recognizable as the 
same as those borne by well known families of today 
is convincing evidence that the ability of the forefathers 
has descended even unto the third and fourth generation. 
Space permits only the reproduction of a few names, but 
they are representatives of the many. 

Isaac Roosevelt having repaired as piano fortes, spinnets, piano 

his Sugar House, is now carry- forte guittars, guittars, hautboys, 

ing on his business of refining as fifes, the best Roman violin 

formerly, and has for sale (by strings, and all other kind of 

himself and Son) at his house 159 strings, music books and papers, 

Queen St., opposite the Bank, Loaf, and every other article in the 

Lump, and strained Muscovado musical line, which he will dis- 

Sugars and Sugar House Treacle. pose of on very low terms for 

The New Emission Money will be cash, 
received in full value as payment. 

Archibald Gracie has removed 

Jacob Astor, No. 81, Queen his Counting-Room from his dwell- 

Street, two doors from the Friends ing-house, No. 110 Broadway, to 

Meeting House, has just imported his new Fire Proof Store, No. 52 

from London, An elegant assort- Pine-street, where he has for sale, 

ment of Musical Instruments, such a few chests very fine Hyson and 

[28] 




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half chests Souchong TEA ; a con- 
signment of 8 packages of MUS- 
LINS, which will be sold at a low 
advance ; one box assorted white 
THREADS — GLASS WARE as- 
sorted in casks and boxes. Nov. 
16. 

Robert Lenox has for sale, re- 
maining from the cargo of the 
ship Sansom, from Calcutta, an 
assortment of WHITE PIECE 
GOODS : — 
Also, 

50 tierces Rice, 
15 bales Sea-Island Cotton, 
29 tierces and 34 bis. Jamaica 
Coffee, 

60 hhds. Jamaica Rum, 
10,000 Pieces White Nankeens, 
A quantity of Large Bottles in 
cases, 

And as usual, Old Madeira Wine, 
fit for immediate use. 
Nov. 16. 

Peter Goelet, at the Golden 
Key, No. 48 Hanover Square, has 
imported in the last vessels from 
London, A very large and general 
assortment of Ironmongery, Cut- 
lery, Sadlery and Hardware ; all 
kinds of tools and materials for 
clock and watch makers ; gold and 
silver smiths ; joiners, carpenters, 
black and gun smiths ; sadlers, 
shoemakers, &c. Also, refined 
bar iron, crowley and blistered 
steel, cart iron, griddles, pots, 
kettles, cart and waggon boxes, 
andirons, &c. anvils, vises, shovels, 
spades, frying pans, sad irons, 
crucibles, black lead pots, nails, 
saws, tongs and shovels, brass 
ware, candlesticks, branches, &c. a 
great variety of brass furniture 
for cabinet makers ; also, station- 
ery, japaned and copper ware, 
violin and guitar strings, harpsi- 
cord wire, pewter spoons, coat, 
vest and sleeve buttons, leather 
and hair trunks, boot legs and 
vamps, bend leather soles, &c &c. 
And a consignment of playing 
cards. 

Gtjion, Carthy & Co. have for 
sale at their store 33 Little Dock 
St. Claret Wines, Arrack, Brandy, 
Gin, Linseed Oil and Naval Stores. 
Flax-seed or any kind of public 
paper received in payment. 

P. A. Mesd3R, No. 107 Pearl- 
street, at the Sign of the Ledger, 
has always on hand a complete 
assortment of Merchants Account- 
books, patent ruled and blank, 
manufactured by himself, war- 



ranted equal to any imported, and 
English Paper of the best quality 
to make books to any pattern, 
which will be done at the shortest 
notice. 

Hugh Gaine has imported from 
London, a large selection of books 
and stationery, to be sold at his 
book store and printing office, in 
Hanover Square. 

Abraham Brevoort, No. 26 Queen 
Street, has received from London 
and Bristol, a general assortment 
of ironmongery and cutlery. 

James W. Depeyster & Co. No. 
174 Queen Street have imported 
an assortment of dry goods, Hol- 
land sheeting and Holland Geneva 
in cases, and a quantity of best 
Holland Powder in quarter casks. 

Nicholas Hoffman & Son 12 Lit- 
tle Dock St. Have for sale Bolt- 
ing Cloths, iron-mongery, ginseng, 
gin, white pine boards and plank, 
also an assortment of Dry Goods. 

Leonard Kip has an assortment 
of Dry Goods for sale at his store 
No. 21 Great Dock St. near the 
corner of the Old Slip. 

A person lately from London, now 
stopping at 27 Little Dock Street 
has a composition for sale that 
will destroy the very troublesome 
vermin commonly called Bugs. 

A variety of Muffs, Tippets, and 
Fur trimmings, among which are 
a few black Fox Muffs for gentle- 
men, may be had on Reasonable 
terms at No. 89. in William St. 

JUST PUBLISHED, AND FOR 

SALE, 
At the Book-stores of T. & J. 
Swords, Nos. 99, and 160 
Pearl-street, 
LECTURES, on DIET and REGI- 
MEN : Being a systematic in- 
quiry into the most rational 
means of preserving health and 
prolonging life, together with 
physiological and chemical ex- 
planations, calculated chiefly for 
the use of families, in order to 
banish the prevailing abuses and 
prejudices in Medicine. By A. F. 
M. Willich, M. D. 

DRUGS, MEDICINES, & GLASS. 
Jacob Schieffelin, Druggist, no. 
195 Pearl-street, late Lawrence & 
Schieffelin, in addition to the ex- 
tensive stock of Medicines in 



[29] 



store, has just received from Leg- 
horn, London, Amsterdam, and 
Bristol, the following articles, 
which he will sell low for cash 
or credit: 
10 lbs. oil of cloves, 

6 lbs. anisi, 

2 lbs. rhodium, 
100 lbs. amber, 
150 dozen choice castor oil, 
200 lbs. ess. bergamot 
200 lbs. — lemon. 

Frederick Jay, sales at auction, 
of dry goods at No. 11 Queen 
Street. 

Robert Bowne 39 Queen Street 
has for sale Bolting cloths, pow- 
der, nails, glass and dry goods, 
pickled herrings, pitch pine 
boards, turpentine and a few 
casks of low priced cutlery. 

Nicholas Low at 116 Wall Street 
has to sell, Looking-glasses from 
London, Carolina Indigo, Glass 



Ware, French Brandy, • Rum and 
best James River Tobacco. 

Jacob Le Roy & Sons, No. 31 
Maiden Lane have Linseed Oil in 
casks, Russia Duck, Teas, Iron- 
mongery etc for sale. 

For Savannah, the brigantine 
Rock-ahock, Cornelius Schermer- 
horn, master, for freight apply to 
Peter Schermerhorn No. 73 Water 
Street opposite the Crane Wharf. 

William Backhouse & Co. No. 
163 Water Street, have for sale 
Northern Beaver, Timber, Salt, 
Coals, Pine and Needles, Boots and 
Shoes, Madeira, Malaga and 
Sherry Wines. 

John Delafield, No. 28 Water 
Street deals in all sorts of Con- 
tinental Certificates, every kind of 
Security belonging to different 
States in the Union, particularly 
those of the State of New York. 



Many of the names, then prominent in trade, are bet- 
ter known today as large holders of real estate. And as 
that business today is one of the most important in the 
island, it will no doubt prove of much interest to read 
some of the early transactions in this field and not a lit- 
tle interest will attach to the prominent and valuable 
sites of today which were then described in terms we 
would now use only in describing property far from the 
madding crowd. 



To be sold a house and lot No. 3 
situated in the Great Square, on 
the south side thereof, and ad- 
joining on the south side of Mr. 
Scott's, the State Secretary, and 
on the north side by Mr. Philip 
Livingston's, the house is two 
stories high, lot 25 x 100. The 
situation is on one of the most 
elegant streets in the city, and 
promises to be, for a short time, 
the centre of the residence of the 
fashionable world, the large green 
in front pleases the eye. 
[This describes the present site of 
the Washington Building, No. 1 
B r o ad way . — E d . ] 

A fine lot of ground on the west 
side of Broadway, near the old 
Lutheran Church, is for sale. En- 
quire of Alexander Hamilton, in 
Wall Street, No 58. 

Pour or five stables in Wall Street 



to let, opposite Col. William Liv- 
ingston's, with stalls for from 
two to four horses, rooms for 
carriages, and large lofts for hay. 

The house No 2 Wall Street, ad- 
joining the City Hall, to be let, 
suitable for a lawyers office. 

To be let, the large and com- 
modious store, No 10 Hanover 
Square, formerly occupied by Mr. 
Geradus W. Beekman, deceased, 
and now in the tenant of Messrs. 
Randall, Son and Stewarts, with 
a large Brick store, fronting 
Slote Lane. For particulars en- 
quire of Mrs. Mary Beekman, at 
the said place. 

To be sold a dwelling house 234 
Queen street between King street 
and the Fly-market directly op- 
posite to his Excellency the Gov- 
ernor. Situation unequalled for 



[30] 





■fSifHUJjiTsjjssSsss 

!. iK.lt II -«.«...... v^, n u ii mi H 

"inn;; .; .! 3...n M|I||.m 




Nassau Street looking north from Wall. The Bankers Trust 
Building stands on site of John Simmon's Tavern where the first 
Common Council met in 1 784, under James Duane our first Mayor. 



an extensive trade. Apply to 
White Matlack, No 11 William 
Street. 

Henry Kennedy opens a genteel 
Boarding & Lodging house at the 
noted No. 317 Great George Street, 
near the Bridewell, formerly kept 
by the Widow De La Montagne. 
The gentlemen, members of the 
Senate and Assembly will find this 
house suitable for them as any 
in the city. 

Samuel and Josiah Blackwell, 
offer for sale, the well known farm 
of Jacob Blackwell, deceased, 
about six miles from New York, 
on the East river, it contains 160 
acres and 25 acres of salt 
meadow. [Blackwell's Island. — 
Ed.] 

To be sold, that large house and 
lot of ground, occupied by John 
Barney, at the sign of the Plough 
and Harrow, at the head of Bow- 
ery Lane, the stand for a public 
house is equal to any in the city. 
Enquire of Comfort and Joshua 
Sands, No 50 Queen St. 

For sale, a farm on the Bloom- 
ingdale road, near the Glass 
House, for particulars enquire of 
Henry Shute near the Tea Water 
Pump, or William Hopper on the 
premises. 

To be let, the "Dog and Duck" 
tavern, in the Bowery Lane, at 
the two mile stone ; the house has 
eight rooms, with a large garden, 
and the best bed of asparagus 
on this island. Enquire at No 
44 Gold Street, opposite the Bap- 
tist Meeting-house. 

To be sold, the commodious house 
No. 13 Nassau Street, the corner 
of Crown Street, together with a 
coach house stables and adjoining 
lot, belonging to Misses Sarah and 
Catharine Van Dam. These lots 
are upwards of 50 feet in front 
on Nassau Stand 110 in depth on 
Crown Street. 

To be sold, Mount Pitt, the place 
where the subscriber now lives, 
situated near Corlear's Hook, one 
mile from the City Hall, contain- 
ing a handsome dwelling house, 
out kitchen containing several 
rooms, a large stable, a new car- 
riage house, a complete ice house, 
There are about eleven acres of 
land, between three and four hun- 
dred bearing fruit trees, and a 
handsome garden. The place be- 



ing so well known needs no fur- 
ther description. Also a farm 
of ninety acres of Brooklyn, L. I. 
For terms enquire of Morgan 
Lewis, at 59 Maiden Lane. 

TO BE SOLD 
At Public Vendue, on Tuesday the 
7th day of April at 2 o'clock in 
the Afternoon, on the Premisses — 
To be put in Possession the first 
of May. 

Four Lots and Houses of Lease. 
Church Ground, belonging to the 
late David Ross, of the City of 
New York, Carpenter, deceased ; 
two Lots joining on the North 
River, each having a good Dwell- 
ing House, the one being a double 
House, having two Cellar Kitch- 
ens, two Rooms, and two Bed 
Rooms, containing six Fire 
Places : The other joining to it, 
is two Story high having three 
Fire Places, a large Room ; En- 
try, Shop, and Bed Room, and 
three Rooms above : The said 
House has a large Kitchen, with 
a good Oven and Cellar. Both 
these Houses have a fine Pros- 
pect of the Bay and North River. 
The third House and Lot is front- 
ing to the North River, a little 
to the South East of Kings Col- 
lege, it being two Story high, hav- 
ing a good Room, Shop and En- 
try, and a large Kitchen and good 
Oven upon the first Floor ; two 
Rooms above with Fire Places, and 
a good Stone Cellar under the 
House. 

Any Person inclining to purchase 
any of them before the Day of 
Sale, may apply to John Stymets, 
and Rachel Ross, Administrators, 
near the College, who will give a 
good Title for the same. 
The Conditions to be known at the 
Day of Sale. 
New York March 16, 1767. 

Cornelius J. Bogart of 42 Beek- 
man street offers to sell or ex- 
change for a house in town, that 
pleasant Villa at Haerlem, late 
the property of John Bogart de- 
ceased, about 8 miles from the 
city, containing 80 acres of land, 
a young orchard of several hun- 
dred apple trees, 10 acres of fresh 
and salt meadows, a garden with 
good fruit, a good dwelling house 
and a large barn. The premises 
extend along the East river, on 
the banks of which the house 
stands commanding an agreeable 
prospect of the Sound and Long 
Island. Enough sea weed and 
sedge is thrown upon the shore to 
manure the land ; it abounds with 



[31] 



Ncv-Yorlc, Nov. 24, 17B3. 

The Committee appointed to conduft the Order of re- 
ceiving their Excellencies Governor Clinton and 
General Washington, 

BEG Leave to inform their Fellow-Citizens, that the 
Troops, under the Command of Major-Gener?! 
Knox, will take PofTeflion of the City at the Hour agreed 
on, Tuefday next $ as foon as this may be performed, 
he will requeft the Citizens who may be affembled on 
Horfeback, at the Bowling-Green, the lower End of the 
Broad- Way, to accompany him to meet their Excellencies 
GovernorCLiNTON and General Washington^ the Bull's 
Head, in the Bowery— the Citizens on Foot to affemble 
at or near the Tea- water- Pump at Frefh -water. 

ORDER of PROCESSION. 

A Party of Horfe will precede their Excellencies and 
be on their flanks— after the General and Governor, will 
follow the Lieutenant-Governor and Members of the 
Council for the temporary Government of the Southern 
Parts of the State — The Gentlemen on Horfe-back, eight 
in Front— thofe on Foot, in the Rear of the Horfe, in like 
Manner. Their Excellencies, after pafling down Queen- 
Street, and the Line of Troops up the Broadway, will 
a-light at Cape's Tavern. 

The Committee hope to fee their Fellow-Citizens, con- 
duct themfelves with Decercy and Decorum on this joy- 
ful Occafion. 

CITIZENS TAKE CAREI11 

TH E Inhabitants are hereby informed, that PermilTion has been 
obtained from the Commandant, to form themfelves in pat roles 
this night, and that every order requifitewill be given to the guard*, 
as well to aid and aflift, as to give protection to the patroles : And 
that the counterfign will be given to Thomas Tucker, No, 51, 
Water Street > rVom whom It can he obtained, if neceiTary. 

BROADSIDE RETURN OF THE CONTINENTAL, ARMY HEADED BY 

WASHINGTON AND HIS GENERALS THE DAY AFTER NEW YORK 
WAS EVACUATED BY THE BRITISH. 

[32] 



a great variety of fish and wild 
fowl in their seasons. 

Aaron Burr, corner of Nassau 
and Little Queen Streets offers for 
sale the farm on Harlem Heights 
belonging to the estate of the late 
John Watkins containing about 
300 acres of land, bounded by the 
East and North Rivers, where are 
plenty of fish, oysters &c. and is 
remarkably well watered by living 
springs, a healthy location with a 
beautiful prospect and large quan- 
tity of hay ground. 

To be sold, that valuable planta- 
tion, three and a half miles from 
New York, whereon Matthew Hop- 
per now lives, containing about 
fifty acres, situated on the banks 
of the North River, adjoining the 



land of John Leake, Esq. There 
are on the premises a good stone 
dwelling house, a good orchard. 
The place in point of situation is 
exceeded by none on the island. 

The sale of the remaining unsold 
lots on the estate of the late 
James De Lancey, Esq. will be on 
Monday the 10th inst. at the Cof- 
fee House, by the Commissioners 
of Forfeitures. 

Peter Stuyvesant offers for rent 
that pleasant seat two miles from 
New York called Petersfield, lately 
occupied by Baron de Pollnitz, 
and now in the possession of Mr. 
Robert B. Winthrop. Also a small 
house and garden, near the house 
where he lives, on the Bowery 
road. 



But perhaps the most curious features of life in Old 
New York, as it will appear to the modern reader, are 
these glimpses of slavery days which are afforded by the 
occasional notices in the press of runaway servants, etc. 
It requires quite a stretch of imagination to conjure up 
a Roosevelt advertising a pitiable reward of $2.00 for the 
return of a slave, or to read other equally well known 
names in the same connection. But in spite of the fact 
that our newly framed Constitution declared all men 
"free and equal," it remains a fact that slavery in New 
York did not cease legally till 1826 — nearly half a century 
later. It is only fair to state, however, that societies for 
the manumission of slaves were in existence soon after 
the Revolution, and that efforts both public and private 
were active in combating this evil, and that the system 
had practically ceased long before it was officially de- 
clared dead. 



Ten Dollars Reward. Run away 
from the subscriber, on Tuesday 
last, a Mulatto Fellow named Jim, 
about five feet nine inches high, 
of a downcast look, thick lips and 
broad shouldered, much addicted 
to liquor, and whether drunk or 
sober very silent ; had on when he 
went away, a tow cloth trows ers 
and shirt, and a blue cloth coat. 
Bowery, July 1, 1786. 

Petrus Stuyvesant. 

For Private Sale, a Negro Wench, 
aged 30 years, a compleat Cook, 



understands all house work ; with 
her daughter, aged 14 years, used 
to house work, and particularly 
handy in the care of children ; 
likewise her two sons, one aged 5, 
the other 3 years. The above 
slaves are sold for no fault. Ap- 
ply to James Barclay, No 14 Han- 
over Square. 

Isaac Brinckerhoff No. 8 Coen- 
ties Slip, has for sale, a likely 
Negro wench aged 33 years, with 
her female child, about two years 
old, also a smart Negro boy, 
twelve years of age. 



[33] 



To be sold at the auction room 
of James Barclay, No 14 Hanover 
Square, the property of the de- 
ceased person. A Negro Wench 
aged 32 years and her child 2 
years old. 

Run away, two indented German 
servant men, who came here last 
year, named Peter Sweine and 
Jacob Ronk, neither of them speak 
English, they were seen near 
King's Bridge, and it is supposed 
intend for Albany. Eight dollars 
reward for each will be paid by 
Isaac Roosevelt or Thomas Pear- 
sail. 

A Negro Boy named Harry, about 
14 years of age ran away from 
William Cammeyer of No 50 
Broad street. 

Run-away from Joseph Pierson 
No 195 Water street a Negro Man 
named James Hollan, about 5 feet 
6 inches high, and 40 years of 
age, very bald. Took with him 
two suits of clothes, his common 



one was deep blue, double breasted 
jacket and overalls of the same, 
black buttons with a white streak 
round the edges ; his other suit a 
light colored broad cloth coat, blue 
collar and cuffs, and plain metal 
buttons, a green shag vest, green 
and yellow buttons, black satinet 
breeches, brown home spun stock- 
ings, and a small round beaver 
hat. Five Dollars reward will be 
paid for his recovery. 

Ran-away from her place at No 
55 William Street a mulatto 
wench named Diana, she is good 
looking about 20 years old, mid- 
dle sized, had on a blue stuff short 
gown, a yellow calico peticoat, 
spriged, a new pair of leather 
shoes, and solid silver buckles, a 
black silk bonnet, and mixed col- 
our'd cloth great coat. She took 
with her a variety of articles and 
may appear in a chintz bedgown 
and a quilted stuff peticoat. Who- 
ever apprehends the said Wench 
shall have Two Dollars Reward. 



Once a place for slaves was set apart in many 
churches in this city. Now, only one of the old slave 
galleries remains. It is in the Church of All Saints, at 
the corner of Henry and Scammel streets in this city, 
the third oldest Protestant Episcopal Church building in 
New York. 



Augustus Van Home, of No 58 
Smith Street, offers a Half Joe 
reward for the capture of his 
Negro slave. He is a very talk- 
ative, saucy, impertinent fellow. 

To be sold on the 12th inst. agree- 
able to the will of Lewis Morris, 
deceased, at Morrisania all the 



Family slaves, most of them are 
old, but they have been bred and 
raised in the family, and few, if 
any of them, have failed from 
their services and attachments, to 
gain the esteem of those they have 
served. Conditions of sale will be 
made known by Richard Morris, 
executor. 



The usual amount of domestic infelicity seemed to 
prevail in those days also, with this difference perhaps, 
that there is a touch of personal intimacy in their recital, 
which is lacking in our present methods of procedure. 
Nevertheless, in point of salacious detail, our present 
performances do not suffer much by comparison. 

Benjamin Jacobs notifies the public that his wife Elizabeth 
has eloped from his bed and board, and that he will pay no 
debts of her contracting. 

[34] 



Elizabeth, however, has something to say — 

Elizabeth Jacobs, who was advertised by her husband on 
the 5th inst., informs the public that she was compelled by his 
cruel treatment to leave him, that no person that knows him 
would trust him with a shilling, and is happy that the law 
protects her from paying his debts. 

The anti-race track people were also in existence as 
we read a characteristic opinion regarding this "sport 
of Kings" from one of their pens. 

O Yes ! O Yes ! — This is to give notice to all lovers of cruelty 
and promoters of misery, that yesterday was begun on the Maiden Head 
race ground, in the Bowery, which will continue for several days to 
come, the high blood sport of Horse Racing. This cannot but give 
delight to every breast thoroughly divested of humanity — music, curses, 
and imprecations, will resound from tent to tent, by both male and 
female, so that this pastime must be greatly approved of by such as 
have no reverence for the Deity, nor feeling for his creatures. 

The members of Congress, foreign ministers, and others drawn 
here by this city's being the seat of empire, create an extraordinary 
expenditure. It is said of not less than One Thousand Spanish Milled 
Dollars Per Day — equal to about the same as the present day dollars. 

The Spanish Minister we are glad to note even at 
a fire, is able to recognize the sheep from the goats 
socially, and it is pleasant to read that none of his 
neighbors pinched anything on that exciting occa- 
sion. 

Don Diego de Gardoqui, the Spanish Minister, returns thanks 
to the citizens for their alacrity, in extinguishing the fire that hap- 
pened at his house. He observed many persons of the first dis- 
tinction, actively employed, and although his doors were open to all, 
and the house filled with people, none of his effects were missing, every- 
thing carried out of the house having been restored. 

The beginnings of "Kultur" in New York are shown 
in the advertisement of some German Redemptioners 
just landed and the people who have goats are warned 
to keep them out of the Fort garden. 

A Few German Redemptioners are landed from the Ship Union, 
Capt. Hazard from Hamburgh, and are for sale on reasonable terms, 
one mill-wright, one weaver, one baker, several women suitable for 
house servants and maids, with some few boys and girls. The terms 
of sale and time of servitude may be known by applying to Murray, 
Mumford & Brown. 

Those persons who have Goats, that keep about the Fort Garden, 
are desired to take notice, that unless they are taken care of, and 
prevented from destroying the fruit trees, disagreeable consequences 
will attend them. 

[35] 



Evidently the Society of the Cincinnati had just been 
organized as we find their advertisement informing the 
members that their diplomas "are now ready." 

Members of the Society of the Cincinnati, of the State of N. 
Y., are informed that their Diplomas are ready for delivery at No. 27 
Water Street. 

Our heart goes out in special sympathy to Col. Wil- 
liam Smith, who has just moved to town from Red 
Mill, Dutchess Co. He finds so many other Bill Smiths 
here even at that early date that he has added the let- 
ter M. between his first and last name to distinguish 
him presumably, from the common herd of Bills. He 
ought to look at the telephone book to-day. 

Col. William Smith, late of Red Mill, Dutchess Co., informs his 
friends and the public that having moved into New York, and finding 
so many of his name, to distinguish himself from them, has added 
between his name the letter M. 



The Gentleman who took by mistake, a new light colour'd drab 
great coat with pinchbeck buttons, large cape of the same Cloth 
and flash pockets, from the Assembly room, is desired to return it 
to the Printer — as the owner finds himself much incommoded by the 
severity of the weather. 



The Post Office, etc., 1816 

The Post-Office at this date was at the corner of Garden 
(Exchange Place) and William streets, on the first floor of 
a three-story house, in a single room forty feet in length, above 
which resided the Postmaster, Theodorus Bailey. The entire 
Southern Mail, enclosed in two bags, was transported from 
Paulus Hook (Jersey City) in a row-boat. One of the base- 
ment rooms of the City Hall, a house in Eldridge Street, and 
one in Christopher Street, were occupied by the city watch- 
men, a small band of Argus-eyed guardians of the peace, who 
were mustered at 6.30 p. m. in the winter and 9 in summer, 
and left for their homes soon after daylight. For day service 
there were a High Constable (Jacob Hays) and but twelve 
police officers. — Haswell. 



[36] 




A view on Broadway, showing- the massive skv-scrapers that now 

surround Trinity Church. The steeple of Trinity is faintly shown 

in foreground. 



Reopening of Columbia College 

The year 1786 is also notable for another and most 
important occurrence — the reopening and rechristening 
of "the College. " There had been only one institution of 
higher education in New York up to the time of the 
Revolution, and while it was known officially as King's 
College, it was affectionately known to the people simply 
as "the College. ,, After a lapse of nearly ten years 
this venerable institution of learning was again to open 
its doors and resume its interrupted scholastic career un- 
der a new name — Columbia — and the event was properly 
regarded as a most auspicious one in the annals of New 
York. An impressive and distinguished audience from 
all parts of the country assembled in the sacred pre- 
cincts of St. Paul's Chapel to greet the new faculty and 
the numerous students, among whom were several des- 
tined to play important parts in the future history of 
the new Republic. But let us continue the narrative in 
the exact language of an actual eye witness whose ac- 
count was published the next day, and is, therefore, of 
the utmost historical value. 

After a long night of darkness and confusion, America, 
like another Phoenix, rising out of the flames, begins to emerge 
from the anarchy attending a tedious war. The seats of learn- 
ing are again renewed, genius seeks her favorite retreats, sci- 
ence and industry prompt to improvement, and our sons and 
daughters, from the schools come accomplished into society, 
useful to themselves and beneficial to their fellow citizens. 

These reflections were suggested, and considerably height- 
ened, by seeing the first commencement of Columbia College, 
which was held in St. Paul's Church yesterday. The most 
respectable and numerous assemblage of ladies and gentlemen 
that we recollect for a long time were present on this occa- 
sion. About 12 o'clock, a grand procession set out from the 
College, and went to St. Paul's Church, where the Rev. Mr. 
Provost opened the business of the day by a prayer suited to 
the occasion. 

The Hon. the Congress and both Houses of the Legisla- 
ture suspended the public business, to support the interests of 

[37] 



Education by their countenance, and graced the ceremony by 
their august presence. The procession moved from the Col- 
lege hall about half an hour after eleven in the forenoon in 
the following order: 

The Scholars of the College Grammar School, according to 

their Classes. 

The Students of the College, according to their Classes. 

The Professors of the University. 

His Excellency the Governor. 

The Hon. the Assembly. 

The Regents of the University. 

********** 

Mr. De Witt Clinton then spoke a salutatory oration in 
Latin — De utilitate et necessitate studiorum Artium liberalium. 

Mr. Philip H. Livingston, on the Usefulness and Necessity 
of the Knowledge of the Laws of our Country. 

Mr. Abraham Hun, on the question, Whether a Nation 
bent upon Conquest, is acting on the principle of Natural Jus- 
tice and Prudence. 

Mr. John Basset, on the Descent, Depredations and Inde- 
pendency of the Algerines. 

Mr. Peter Steddiford, on National Prejudices. 

Mr. Samuel Smity, on Patriotism. 

Mr. Clinton finished his Latin oration with a polite and 
well-adapted salutation in the same language, to the members 
of Congress, the Legislature, the Regents and Professors, and 
to the Public at Large, 

When the above gentlemen, together with Mr. Francis 
Sylvester, who spoke the valedictory oration, with a dissertation 
on the Passions, concluded, the graduates received the degree 
of Batchelor of Arts from the hands of the Rev. Mr. Gross, 
Professor of Geography, who was appointed to deliver them. 



Safe and Sane Fourth in 1786 

Another event of 1786 which takes on an added in- 
terest in view of what has since occurred, is the action 
taken by the Common Council of the City of New York, 
in regard to a proper celebration of the new National 
holiday — the Fourth of July. In this connection, and for 
such aid as it may be to those who are now engaged in 
promoting a safe and sane celebration, it is important to 
note that the use of fireworks was prohibited ; what was 
deemed proper at the beginning should certainly be 
proper now, and if this will assist in further diminishing 

[38] 




PQ 



E 



•5 o 



the use of dangerous explosives on that day, the old 
Council minutes may not be without influence even at this 
late hour. 

In Common Council the 28th of June, 1786, the following 
order was agreed upon for celebrating the Fourth day of July 
next, being the Anniversary of the Independence of the United 
States. 

At sunrise, the day to be announced by a display of colors, 
a discharge of thirteen cannon in front of the Almshouse and 
the ringing of the public bells in the city for one hour. 

At 12 o'clock there will be a procession from the City- 
hall down Broad-street, and thence through Queen-street to 
the residence of his Excellency the Governor, who, accompanied 
by the Lieutenant Governor, the Chancellor, Judges of the 
Supreme Court, and the other State Officers, will join in the 
procession : Which will then proceed to the residence of his 
Excellency the President of the United States Congress, where 
the President, by his Excellency the Governor, accompanied 
by the Lieutenant-Governor, Chancellor, Judges and other State 
officers, and afterwards by the Mayor, in the name of the citi- 
zens — The procession will then proceed by way of Beekman- 
street and the Broad-way, to the city tavern, where a collation 
will be provided. 

At the commencement of the procession from the City- 
hall, all the bells will ring and continue for two hours ; on 
the arrival of the procession at the city tavern, there will be 
a discharge of 13 cannon, and at sun-set, another discharge of 
13 cannon to close the day. 

Order of the Procession. 1st City Watchmen, 2d Marshals 
of the city, 3d Constables, 4th Engineers, and the several com- 
panies of firemen, 5th Sheriff, Coroner and Sheriff's Deputies, 
6th City Clerk and Chamberlain, 7th Assistants, 8th Aldermen, 
9th Mayor and Recorder, 10th Officers of the Chauncery, Su- 
preme, Exchequer and Admiralty Courts, 11th Counsellors and 
Attorneys at law, 12th Secretary of the State, Treasurer, Attor- 
ney-General, Surveyor-General, Auditor and Collector, 13th 
Judges of the Admiralty and Probate Courts, 14th Judges of 
the Supreme Court, 15th Chancellor, 16th Governor and Lieu- 
tenant-Governor, 17th Clergy, 18th Officers of the late Army, 
19th Citizens. 

_ On account of the danger of fire, there will be no illumi- 
nations, bonfires or fire works of any kind in the evening. 

The auspicious morn again is come, 

The glorious day of freedom's birth, 
Sound, sound the trumpet, beat the drum, 
Let joy abound and social mirth. 
Now, huzza each free-born son, 
Huzza for peace and Washington. 



[39] 
















&6LtZs&- £krzs l ^ ' _ 



S^ ^&^2sjCZ- ?&l-3 /%ZL 



^L 













WASHINGTON'S LETTER IN WHICH THE DESIGNATION OF NEW YORK AS 
"THE EMPIRE CITY" ORIGINATES 



[40] 










6^ <ZS ^/C<£uX^£i?yZ> <X*cf OTUSI- 




'&sG-n_J2r- £&^S>&G^? &4*y& --£**&—£ <0H~<*^7^ <2&7L*'<2'^L± 
St&a* 4*4**' &^&Z-<L&^X 4>Z&^£>?y0S fy^C*c^l 



. &s^Les£ 



'a^i_ 










-2^-3 



&*A-t 









"&<^C^y ^d^ ^Z^^tOaJD. 



^&~4?L- &rs-y CX^~^ <L^2.J2^<r 



^^^^2^3- <^T*~ 



-OL^1~-y 



**, 



r&z 



^^^/^^y 



(The reference occurs in the 9th line from the bottom.) 
[41] 



A Golden Age in New York 

When Washington Irving Haunted its Opera and Fashion 
Flocked to the Battery 

BY 
POULTNEY BIGELOW 

Author of " History of the German Struggle for Liberty, 1806-48" — " Prussian 
Memories, 1864-1914." &c. 

The new Manual pays me a very high compliment 
by requesting from my pen a tribute to one whose name 
alone symbolizes the apogee of American culture in the 
field of Letters. Washington Irving received the bless- 
ing of George Washington when a babe, and I am cred- 
ibly informed that my little midget self was honored by 
a similar quasi-Apostolic benediction at Sunnyside, an 
event of immense satisfaction to myself, who have ever 
loved his personality as much as I admired the skill with 
which he lived in his pages. 

Few men of letters enjoyed so many friendships or 
made so few enemies. He travelled the world exten- 
sively and before the days of steam, yet seems chroni- 
cally incapable of seeing anything but kindliness in fel- 
low-travellers and civility amongst the people whose ter- 
ritories he invaded as a tourist. Whether in France or 
Italy, England or Spain, on the Hudson or on the Rhine, 
he lived and died without learning that men were selfish 
or women lower than the angels. Indeed, his tribute 
to womankind in the abstract, and his long and tender 
intimacy with the best women of his time place him in 
a class infinitely above his German contemporary, Goethe, 
to whom woman was a divinity in verse but a drudge 
or plaything in real life. Germany is perhaps the one 
exception to what I have said regarding Irving's chronic 
kindliness as critic of foreign countries, for in one of 
his letters home he wrote that he was surprised to see 
very coarse-looking people on the fashionable promenade 

[42] 




00 



be 



o 



of Aix-la-Chapelle who to his amazement proved to be 
German counts and barons. 

Irving was an American of the Americans, and from 
his inimitable history of New York to the last chapter 
in his monumental "Life of Washington" the inspiration 
under which he wrote came from American themes, and 
these were treated from an American point of view. 
When he went to England in the midst of the war of 
1812 he was at once cordially welcomed by Sir Walter 
Scott and his friends ; as not merely a fellow-craftsman 
of distinction, but as an American who was after all of 
the same family, whatever cabinets might determine 
regarding peace or war. 

It is not my purpose to retail what every school-child 
can gather from any Carnegie Library, but to remind my 
fellow-New Yorkers of today that when Washington Irv- 
ing returned to take up his permanent residence in or 
near the city of his birth he did so because New York 
then offered to a man of literary tastes and wide acquain- 
tance with the world advantages of no common order. 

He was a man devoted to music no less than to agree- 
able conversation and domestic life. He never failed to 
take advantage of a good dramatic or operatic season 
and indeed, to judge by his letters, New York had then 
a musical life equal to the best that we boast of today — 
yet the population then was not a tithe of what it now 
is. In those days our author comments glowingly on 
the social relaxation between the acts, the universal cus- 
tom of visiting in different parts of the house, and also 
on the fact that the Opera then was the gathering place 
of all New York in the sense that he was able to meet 
there of an evening pretty much everybody worth talking 
to. Today we have thousands of professional workers 
in New York — writers, painters, sculptors, inventors, 
biologists, vivisectionists, professors, doctors, lawyers, 
pacifists and humanitarians without number. But can 
you see Washington Irving like a lonesome Rip Van 
Winkle mousing about the diamond-studded row of the 
Metropolitan or making his way through the fumes of 
cigarette-smoke and cocktails of the so-called Opera Club 

[43] 



yearning for real civilized New Yorkers such as existed 
in the days before the War? 

There were giants in those days; there were fewer 
hyphenates and no high buildings nor high protective 
tariffs ; no subways and no automobiles ; but men had 
time to read and to think and to stroll about the shore- 
front of the beautiful Battery Park and discuss the state 
of the nation. There was an Andrew Jackson in the 
Presidential chair and Americans were American first 
and left the word '"neutral" for those who were "too 
proud to fight." 

Washington Irving lived until 1859 — just long enough 
to finish the "Life of Washington" and to escape 
the spectacle of a great English-speaking nation 
divided in a furious struggle that was to impoverish 
and embitter the one half and give pleasure only to those 
abroad who dreaded nothing so much as a successful 
government by the people. 

The days of Washington Irving I venture to call the 
Golden Age of America, not because Americans then 
appreciated what was going on about them, but because 
now after an interval of nearly a century the verdict of 
the great world would, in my humble opinion, maintain 
that the men who have done more to spread the fame 
of American genius than any others lived in those years. 
We know the exceptions and can enumerate them with 
ease, nor need we be reminded that we have today more 
colleges and libraries and research laboratories and se- 
rums guaranteed to cure every disease, and new religions 
and uplift movements — we have more universities, so 
called, for our negro population alone than all the uni- 
versities in Germany — however, I am not talking of sta- 
tistics, but of real things. 

Were I to interrogate a wise man from another world 
and ask him his opinion regarding the services of Amer- 
ica, he would, I am sure, speak of our historians : Pres- 
cott, the blind author of "Ferdinand and Isabella" ; Mot- 
ley and his "Dutch Republic"; Bancroft and his inter- 
minable though indispensable "History of the United 
States." In the field of poetry he would select probably 
William Cullen Bryant, Longfellow and the unfortunate 

[44] 




It 

11 

4 8 



<fl 5/3 



I! 

si 



5 « 

3 

J* 

* ° 

J* 

8 

& 









Edgar Allan Poe. In the world of romance, have we sur- 
passed Fenimore Cooper or Hawthorne; or as wor- 
shippers of nature, has any modern eclipsed Thoreau 
and Audubon? That was the day of Emerson, Walt 
Whitman, Edward Everett, and the author of "Home, 
Sweet Home/' John Howard Payne. Donald G. Mitchell 
was of the same spirit as Irving and keenly relished by 
him and the world was already enjoying Joe Jefferson 
as an actor and Oliver Wendell Holmes as the "Auto- 
crat of the Breakfast Table." In our Halls of Congress 
we had few demagogues and still fewer millionaires — it 
was the day of Henry Clay and Daniel Webster, when 
the machinery of politics was very crude and human 
passions counted for much. The two brothers Perry had 
added fresh laurels to the American Navy, the one by 
the victory of Lake Erie, and the other by opening 
Japan to world intercourse — a work of infinite patience, 
tact and courage, yet done without a shot fired in anger. 
America has done whatever was possible to throw away 
the advantages gained for her by that gallant New York 
Commodore, but history continues to bear her testimony 
to the glorious fact that when this country was only on a 
level with a third-class European Power in matters mili- 
tary she took the lead in opening the Far East no less 
than in suppressing the piracy of the then independent 
North African Sultans. 

We are travelling today on the momentum given to 
us by the Americans of that generation. They were con- 
structive, patriotic and hopeful men who believed that 
America had a mission in the world and that money 
was but one and not the most important factor in worldly 
success. 

Perhaps you object that I have laid too much stress 
upon one side only of American greatness — let us turn 
to the world of trolleys, telephones, and other abomina- 
tions we euphemistically term progress. The day of 
Washington Irving was that in which America astonished 
the world by the first reaping machines, sewing machines, 
the cotton gin of Eli Whitney, the telegraphic inventions 
of Morse, the first of practical steam navigation by 

[45] 



Fulton — indeed, even more than now, America was then 
the land of inventiveness if not of scientific research. 

But I am diverging and dilating, and I must close 
here lest you think me one of those who can find no 
pleasure in the Present and glory only in the Past. Let 
my apology be the love I bear my native city and the 
glory I claim for her in a day when, compared with 
the present, she was from a purely statistical point of 
view of small importance. Nevertheless the great days 
of a nation are those in which her people unite for great 
purposes, and Washington Irving was the product of a 
time when America had suffered and conquered in strug- 
gles that touched the national life to its depths and pro- 
duced a social atmosphere in which he and his many illus- 
trious contemporaries had a right to feel that they were 
of the best and were helping to build in the Western 
World a monument worthy of their English-speaking 
forbears. 

Of Interest to the Yale Club 

Extract from a private letter written in 1781 to a 
friend in England by Lieutenant Lantry, an English pris- 
oner of war: 

New Haven is remarkable for having given the epithet 
of pumpkin-heads to the New Englanders, which arose from 
a severe and religious code of laws, made at the first settle- 
ment of Connecticut; which enjoin every male to have his hair 
cut round by a cap, and when caps were not readily at hand, 
they substituted the hard shell of a pumpkin, which being put 
on their head every Saturday, the hair was cut by it all round 
the head. 



[46] 




The Merchants' Exchange in Wall Street, father of all our ex- 
changes, on present site of the National City Bank, 1831. This 
famous building was destroyed in the great fire of 1835, the 
greatest conflagration the country had yet experienced. 



The Street Cries of New York Fifty 
Years Ago 

The street cries in the early days of New York 
were so unique and numerous as to be a marked feature 
of every-day life. Their discordant yells have survived 
to-day in the yap of the milkman as he leaves his bot- 
tles on the stoop, or the plaintive cry of the fresh vege- 
table man in the suburbs, where the vegetables grow 
but are never allowed to be sold until they are sent 
to the city and returned for distribution. 

The junk man with his string of cow bells, tin cans 
and other nerve racking instruments, is still with us 
but in a more chastened spirit due to the activities of 
Mrs. Rice and her friends. The tooting of whistles, 
pounding of flat car wheels, the roar of the elevated 
and the shriek of the auto horn — still engage the fond 
affections of the anti-noise people and from present in- 
dications the Society is not likely to die of ennui. But 
to return to our criers. 

The milkmen then usually wore a yoke, from each side 
of which was suspended by a chain, a large tin kettle filled 
with milk. With these they then went daily from door to 
door and delivered to their customers the daily allowance 
of the article they consumed. Their cry was originally "Milk. 
ho I" but it degenerated into various peculiar sounds, ^ which 
their customers alone understood. At present the variety is 
very curious ; some make a strange whistle, and these whistles 
are numerous in their peculiarities ; some a falsetto, some a 
bass, some a treble, some difficult to describe ; some employ 
a bell. The yoke has passed away, and carts of various forms 
are substituted. 

The bakers used tall round baskets for bread which some 
carried bodily round on one shoulder by a handle; others 
had them in an oblong wagon, containing about half a dozen 
baskets. Their cry was "Bread," when family bread alone was 
used; but for cakes they had various cries, including tea rusk, 
and hot cross buns, and ginger bread. The baskets, the wag- 
ons, and the cries, have disappeared. 

The bellman, as he was called, the street scavenger, in 

[47] 



his rounds, was a noisy, and often entertaining, as well as 
useful member of the city government. In cadence with his 
bell, would he give forth songs of various burdens, slow, fast, 
and with and without chorus. He was regarded as the best 
and vagrant comedian of the district assigned to him, ever 
merry, ever ready with a good joke or a good word. The 
women and young girls ever received him with a laugh, and 
with a tendency to mischief. This personage is no more. 

The chimney sweepers of those days were young negro 
boys, who, dark as they were, were made blacker by the quan- 
tity of soot which covered them and the old clothes they wore. 
With the break of day did the streets ring with their cries 
of "Sweep, ho ! sweep, ho ! from the bottom to the top, with- 
out a ladder or a rope, sweep, ho !," to which a chorus or 
cry, in which often were added dulcet sounds of real har- 
mony. 

Many others were the various cries of the city which 
summoned the maids and housekeepers to the door; they 
formed a daily round of household attention, as well as amuse- 
ment, and lightened the drudgery or tedium of the passing 
hours. They, as well as most of those who then were interested 
in, or observers of, them, have disappeared. 

Nathan Hale 

On the next page we show the only known official 
record of the capture and execution of Nathan Hale, 
from the original orderly book of a British Guard on 
duty at the time. Now owned by The New York His- 
torical Society. 

The Nathan Hale reference is the third paragraph 
reading: "A Spy for the Enemy (by his own full Con- 
fession) Apprehended Last night, was this day Executed 
at 11 o'Clock in front of the Artilery Park." 



[48] 




© H C BROWN. 



In olden days the Dutch burgher held Market-day and danced on 

what is now Bowling Green. This is from a tapestry in the 

McAlpin Hotel and the next picture shows the same site as it 

looks to-day. 



£?7*0jjPl. V t/jC^ y<nr/&/£*->c) tj^f^Z? /77g 



^/&/fa^A-/ -. 

ONLY OFFICIAL EECORD OF THE CAPTURE AND EXECUTION OF NATHAN 

HALE 

[49] 



Old Time Money 

In all books relating to the early History of New 
York, there is frequent reference to money in terms 
which are now obsolete. For instance, there is the fa- 
mous "pieces of eight." This is a particularly interest- 
ing bit of coinage as the design on it showed two pil- 
lars of Hercules and a scroll forming a letter S. This 
combination has now become the written sign for our 
dollar mark — $. "Pieces of eight" were originally 
coined by order of King Charles V. of Spain, about 1725, 
who desired a standard of value which would readily pass 
in all his widespread dominions. For many years this 
coin circulated throughout the entire world and it ap- 
pears not only in our own literature but particularly 
in piratical romances. This coin was also known as 
the "Spanish milled dollar." It was equivalent in value 
to our regular greenback. 

Another curious thing is that we continued the use 
of sterling money — pounds, shillings, and pence, — long 
after the Revolution, although in 1776 the Provincial 
Congress ordered 35,000 dollar bills from half to ten 
dollar denominations. In 1787, however, the dollar was 
formally introduced as the "unit" in the United States, 
and from that time the change, though gradual, finally 
became complete. It is also noted in old theater prices 
"admission 12%c" and a reward for runaway slaves is 
designated as being a "half Jo." The former was 
paper money and the latter was a Portuguese and Bra- 
zilian gold coin worth about eight or nine dollars. 

Lack of Heat in Olden Days 

The present genial warmth of offices is in agreeable 
contrast with attempts to heat such apartments about fifty 
years ago. The employment of steam heat was uncommon. 
In fact, steam and water pipes had not been made in the 
United States before 1857, and the importation of such 
from England under a war tariff and the cost of the in- 

[SO] 




IS 



stallation of a pressure plant was next to prohibitory. A 
very few buildings had hot air furnaces in the cellars, but 
the main dependence was on grate fires or stoves. 

On the north side of Wall Street, extending from the 
United States Assay Office down to Pearl Street, were 
many old residences of three stories with dormer windowed 
attics, with also basement dining rooms, and the conven- 
tional high stoops. The parlors were mainly occupied by 
the infantile insurance and banking offices of the day. In 
the dining rooms and parlors grate fires of hickory or 
cannel coal were burned. In the large bedrooms were sheet 
iron or cast iron "scorchers," while in the hall rooms, being 
without chimney flues, tenants kept circulation active by 
curses, prayer or shivering. 

The buildings erected for office purposes in the sec- 
tion were scarcely better provided. None were above five 
stories in height, and each office maintained its own stove. 
The halls were dark, because at each end was a small 
office, and for the convenience of tenants coal bins stood 
against the wall. Space being contracted, these bins were 
of but one-half ton capacity, with the result that a cease- 
less procession of Irishmen carrying bushel baskets of coal 
into buildings was a common sight. So that spillage of 
coal dust should be obviated, these bins had no hinged or 
sliding doors at the bottom, and it was necessary to re- 
move the coal over the edge, about four feet above the 
floor. This required not a little engineering for a boy of 
say six inches greater height. 

When the supply of fuel was low in the bin, it be- 
came necessary to suspend himself on his abdomen and 
reach low with his shovel, a posture leading to a calloused 
condition in the locality of his indigestion storage. 

Many an oldster to-day during relaxation from coupon 
cutting, rent or mortgage interest collection, can return with 
serio-comic reminiscences to his early attempts to get the 
highest value out of fuel combustion. None of us knew 
any more about draughts, dampers and their control than 
did our "bosses," who alternately stewed or congealed and 
used language uncontained in dictionaries, while we with 
youthful circulation of blood were totally indifferent, at 
least, to a low temperature. 



Apropos of the fact that most New Yorkers come from 
somewhere else a loyal editor in a Florida paper says : 

Every man should love his native land, whether he was born 
there or not. 



[51] 



The Old Ship-Builders of New York 

On a bright morning eighty years or more ago, Chris- 
tian Bergh, father of Henry Bergh, was sitting in his 
office at the northeast corner of Scammel and Water 
streets, not far from what is now the Grand Street 
Ferry, watching some workmen in his ship-yard. He 
was in a region of ship-yards. Below him, at the foot of 
Montgomery Street, was the ship-yard of Thorn and Wil- 
liams — Stephen Thorn and "honest old Jabez Williams," 
as they used to call him — and lower still, near the foot 
of Clinton Street, the ship-yard of Carpenter and Bishop. 
Ficket and Thoms's yard (afterward at the foot of 
Houston Street) adjoined it, and, farther south, James 
Morgan and Son had built a bark at the foot of Rutgers 
Street, and Joseph Martin the brig Mary Jane at the 
foot of Jefferson Street, and the ship General Page at the 
foot of Pike Street. Above Mr. Bergh was a series of 
yards extending along the East River as high up as Thir- 
teenth Street; Sneden and Lawrence's yard, near the 
foot of Corlears Street; Samuel Harnard's yard, near 
the foot of Grand Street; Brown and Bell's yard, from 
Stanton to Houston streets, which was formerly occu- 
pied partly by Henry Eckford, and partly by Adam and 
Noah Brown ; Smith and Dimon's yard, from Fourth to 
Fifth streets ; Webb and Allen's yard (afterward Wil- 
liam H. Webb's), from Fifth to Seventh streets; Bishop 
and Simonson's yard (afterward Westervelt and Mack- 
ay's), from Seventh to Eighth streets; James R. and 
George Steers's yard, William H. Brown's yard, and 
Thomas Collyer's yard, higher still. Many other build- 
ers or repairers of ships occupied the same interesting 
shore of the East River at about the same time or later ; 
Mr. George Thorburn, a well-known spar-maker, who 
used a part of the old yard of Sneden and Lawrence, 
counted not less than thirty-three of them, whose yards 

[52] 



resounded with the axes and hammers of busy Ameri- 
can ship-carpenters, calkers, blacksmiths, and joiners. 

At the immense fire place (it was so large that a 
man could easily sit in the chimney) in the Bergh house 
Henry Eckford was a frequent visitor. Indeed, Bergh's 
principal amusement was in going to see Eckford, and 
Eckford's principal amusement in going to see Bergh. 
Henry Eckford was a Scotchman, who came to this coun- 
try in 1796, when twenty-one years old, and, like his 
friend Christian Bergh, rose into prominence during the 
war of 1812, having obtained contracts for building gov- 
ernment vessels on the lakes. 

Christian Bergh was born April 30, 1763, and bap- 
tized, May 12, in Wettenburgh Church, in Rhinebeck 
Precinct— he died June 24, 1843. Aged 80. The exist- 
ing records of the Bergh family in this country go back 
to the year 1700, and there were still earlier records, 
destroyed during the Revolutionary war; Mr. Henry 
Bergh, the founder of the Society for the Prevention 
of Cruelty to Animals, was a son of Christian Bergh 
and is well remembered by the present generation. 

The Bergh homestead on the northeast corner of 
Scammel and Water streets, was in an excellent neigh- 
borhood, old Colonel Rutgers, the Crosbys, and Henry 
Eckford living near by. The property extended north 
to Grand Street, and among the trees in its orchard 
was an ox-heart cherry-tree the like of which the Bergh 
children never saw elsewhere. Henry, the son, built 
ten five-story tenement-houses on the site of the home- 
stead, the first in New York city to give each family a 
floor to itself. Fire-escapes and other philanthropic con- 
veniences were not wanting. 

It was John Thomas and Henry Steers who built, at 
the foot of Tenth Street, on the East River, the first 
ship-railway ever seen in the United States ; it consisted 
of rails laid on an inclined plane, upon which a cradle 
was run for the purpose of drawing vessels up out of 
the water in order to repair them; and in consideration 
of their enterprise the Legislature granted to the rail- 
way company a charter for a bank, to last "as long as 
grass grows and water runs." Thus was founded the 

[53] 



Dry-dock Bank, now the Eleventh Ward Bank. The 
only other institution that ever received such a charter 
was the Manhattan Company. 

James R. and George Steers built for John C. Stev- 
ens and others the famous yacht "America," which cap- 
tured in 1851 the Queens Cup at Cowes and which the 
English yachtsmen have ever since vainly attempted to 
recover. 

William H. Webb's distinction as an American ship- 
builder consists partly in having launched a larger aggre- 
gate tonnage than any other member of his profession, 
and partly in his successful construction of powerful war 
vessels. At the age of fifteen years, and contrary to the 
wishes and plans of his father, Isaac Webb, who desired 
for him an easier berth on the voyage of life, he entered 
his father's ship-yard, and swung the axe, shoved the 
plane, and performed all the other functions of an 
apprentice. 

The list of famous ships turned out by the old 
Eleventh Ward is a long one and includes the Rainbow, 
Dauntless, America, Superior, Dreadnaught, Fulton the 
First (an iron frigate), and the forerunner of armor- 
clad ships. 

The fame of these wonderful flyers still lingers in 
the memory of the older generation. A hundred days 
to San Francisco by way of the Horn was a regular oc- 
currence while 88, 92 and 95 days from New York to 
Calcutta were expected. The run to Liverpool was made 
as low as eleven and a half days while fourteen was a 
good average. Nothing like the American Clipper was 
ever equalled in the ship-building line, and not a few 
New Yorkers, in view of the present attractive profits, 
think the old days will return. 

The skippers of these old time flyers were recruited 
from the flower of the country's youth and manhood. 
Not a few were college men; the majority graduates of 
home-town academies corresponding to our present-day 
high schools. They were sons of builders, masters, own- 
ers, merchants and professional men. They began their 
careers not in forecastles but at the counting-room desks 

[54] 




jfl 



m 



©BROWS, BROS. 



The famous Washington Arch, erected at the beginning of Fifth 

Avenue and said to be one of the most beautiful structures in the 

world. 



and in the warehouses of the firms or individuals for 
whom they were destined to command vessels. 

Before they ever put foot on deck to start their lives 
at sea they possessed a grounding in the arts and craft 
of commerce and at least a working familiarity with 
another language — usually French; often both French 
and Spanish. They went to sea to become commanders 
and ultimately owners and merchants. When they at- 
tained the quarter-deck of their first command, a good 
many before they were twenty-one years old and most 
of them before they were twenty-five, they either bought 
a share of the vessel or a share was given to them. It 
was to their own advantage that their ships should do 
well by their owners. 

Some of the more famous of these Clipper ships are 
shown in our pages. 



Domestic Items, 1816 

Milk was borne in tin cans suspended from the 
carriers' shoulders, — frequently women, — and was sup- 
plied from cows within the city limits or contiguous 
shores of Long Island and New Jersey. 

There were many cows which roamed the streets 
in the day and were stabled at night. The slaughtering 
of animals for the markets was wholly done by indi- 
vidual butchers on their premises in different parts of 
the city. 

Gentlemen went to market, and in default of ex- 
press companies, messengers, etc., often carried home 
a turkey, chicken, or a leg of lamb. The public author- 
ities gave annually a prize to the farmer who sub- 
mitted to them the best sample of butter of his produc- 
tion. 

Canned vegetables and fruits were also unknown; 
hence, when their season passed they passed, and as 
railways and interstate steamboat lines did not exist, 
we did not receive the early fruits of the South or the 
game of the North and West. 

[55] 



The Washington Arch 

New York's most imposing tribute to the memory of 
Washington is undoubtedly the Washington Arch at 
the beginning of Fifth Avenue in the famous square 
named also in his honor. This arch was erected to 
commemorate the one hundredth anniversary of the 
inauguration of George Washington as first President 
of the United States. Aside from being a magnificent 
work of art, it also enjoys the distinction of being 
erected without any expense whatever to the City. For 
this notable addition to our municipal attractions the 
City of New York is mainly indebted to Mr. William 
R. Stewart and his neighbors in Washington Square 
and lower Fifth Avenue. 

While the location is now conceded to be the best 
possible for this structure, its selection was due to a 
happy inspiration of Mr. Stewart at whose suggestion 
the original line of march was altered so as to bring the 
procession down Waverly Place and up Fifth Avenue 
instead of along Broadway and Fourteenth Street and 
up. As an inducement for this change Mr. Stewart 
and his friends offered to erect a temporary arch at 
the foot of the avenue which they pledged would be an 
ornament and credit to the city. This temporary arch 
was at once so beautiful and impressive that a general 
public desire became manifest, looking toward its preser- 
vation in permanent form. Mr. Stewart was approached 
and gladly headed the movement that afterwards secured 
such a wonderful result. 

As a slight souvenir of his strenuous labors on be- 
half of this public work, the City presented Mr. Stewart 
with a silver key to the interior of the Arch enclosed in 
an ebony box and inscribed with the thanks of the mu- 
nicipality. A sketch of this is shown on opposite page. 

This is probably the most famous arch in the whole 
country and in beauty of design is second to none in 

f 56 ] 



the world. It is an ornament to the City and chief of 
the long list of memorials that have been erected to 
the memory of General Washington. There are still 
several groups of statuary remaining to complete the 
design and they are rapidly being finished. They will 
enhance the present artistic appearance quite ma- 
terially. 




Other Tributes to Washington in New York 

The monument that stands next to the arch in importance is the 
statue on the steps of the Sub-Treasury in Wall Street, erected to 
mark the place where Washington took the oath of Office as first 
President of the United States on the balcony of the Old Federal Hall, 
April 30, 1789. This Statue is of heroic size and is a conspicuous 
object in the famous thoroughfare. The statue is the work of J. Q. 
A. Ward. The tablet on the east wall of the steps represents Wash- 
ington kneeling in prayer at Valley Forge. 

The finest equestrian statue of Washington in the City or perhaps 
anywhere, is the one given to the City by Mr. James R. Howe, of 
Brooklyn, and stands at the Brooklyn end of the Williamsburg Bridge. 
It represents Washington during the darkest days of the Revolution. 
The statue is the work of Henry M. Shrady. 

The bronze equestrian statue in Union Square was erected by 
popular subscription and dedicated July 4, 1856. It stands on the 
spot where Washington was received by the citizens on Evacuation 
Day, Nov. 25, 1783. It represents Washington at the period of his 
greatest triumph. The work is by Henry K. Brown. 

A group by Bartholdi in Morningside Park represents Lafayette 
offering his services to Washington. They are shown clasping hands 
and the standards of the two countries are draped behind them. The 
monument was presented to this city by the late Charles Broadway 
Rouss in 1890. 

In the New York Public Library there are two portraits of Wash- 
ington by Gilbert Stuart, one of the famous half length painted in 1797 
and which was originally owned by Alexander Hamilton, the other 
the equally famous full length portrait which is considered by many 
the most interesting portrait of the Father of his Country that has 
come down to us. There are also in this collection a portrait of 
Washington in half length by James Peale and one by his brother, 

[57] 



Rembrandt Peale. The latter is a copy of one of Stuart's portraits, 
but the original of the James Peale portrait is unknown. 

In the main loggia of the Metropolitan Museum stands a copy of 
the Houdon statue of Washington. This statue has a peculiar inter- 
est from the fact that the idea originated with the school children 
and was paid for by subscriptions raised by them. There are also 
two portraits by Gilbert Stuart and one by Charles Wilson Peale. Here 
also may be seen the painting by Leutze, "Washington Crossing the 
Delaware" and "Washington and Lafayette at Mr. Vernon" by Thomas 
P. Rosseter and Louis Mignon. 

The New York Historical Society has a fine marble bust of Wash- 
ington by Houdon and three original portraits by Gilbert Stuart, 
Charles Wilson Peale and Ashur Durand. Besides these the Society 
has many rare books and manuscripts pertaining to Washington, and a 
portrait of Martha Washington. 

Hanging in the Governor's Room in the City Hall is the Trum- 
bull portrait of Washington, painted from life in 1790. The city paid 
the artist for this portrait nine hundred dollars. 

A portrait of Washington woven in silk stands in the rooms of 
the Municipal Art Commission in the City Hall. This portrait is a 
product of the French loom and took two years to complete. It was 
presented to New York in 1855 by C. S. Goodrich, then American 
Consul at Lyons, France. In the Borough Hall, Brooklyn, may be seen 
a copy of the full length portrait by Gilbert Stuart, the original of 
which is in the New York Public Library ; also a copy of the original 
Stuart portrait in the Boston Academy of Fine Arts. 

The Long Island Historical Society in Brooklyn has a beautiful 
miniature of Washington, which was given to Col. Ramsay by Wash- 
ington himself and has come down through several Long Island families 
until finally presented to the Society by Robert Benson. A half length 
portrait of Washington is also to be seen here. It is a copy of one 
of Gilbert Stuart's portraits. The Society has also a collection of 
original Washington letters, and a bust in white marble by Green ough. 



Curios of Life Still Within the City Limits 

Leo Anderson has about 100 little chickens and several hens 
setting at this writing. 

A recent addition to N. Hoffman's bovine family are a fine pair 
of twins. 

Mr. Walter Schumacher spent Sunday with his motor in Hicksville. 

Conrad Pfeiffer sawed wood for Dem Eischen last Thursday, also 
shelled corn for N. Hoffman. 

Miss Eizabeth Muller, was married to Mr. Frank Haligan Monday 
morning at 9 o'clock at St. Helen's Church, by Rev. Father Healey, 
after which breakfast was served at the bride's parents, Mr. and Mrs. 
Joseph Muller, living in the east part of town. 

Wm. Olexa went to Harvard, Neb. Where he takes the second 
trick operator for the Burlington. 

Has anybody got a typewriter to exchange for a monument or 
headstone, or have work done in the cemetery? 



With Apologies to Commissioner Fetherston 

Noah regarded the Deluge. 

"Hooray," he cried, "this will remove the snow." 



[58] 




fe H. C. BROWN. 5h| 



Remarkably interesting view of 42nd Street, known hs the "Lost 

Opportunities'* view, looking down Fifth Avenue across the 

Reservoir in 1855, when corner lots might have been bought for 

a song and you were in good voice, too. 




By his EXCELLENCY 

WILLIAM TRYON, Efq ; 

Cantaiii General and Governor in Chief, in and over the Province 
oi" Neiv-Torky and the Ten itorics depending thereon in America x 
Chancellor and Vice Admiral of the fame. 

A PROCLAMATION. 

WHEREAS the General Afllmbly of th« Province ftancJs 
prorogued to the rirft Day of February, now next 
uifiung: I have thought fit for his Majefty s Service, 
and I do, with the Advice of his Majefty 's Council, 
and by Virtue of the Power and Authority unto me granted by his 
^'aj-fly, dillblve the fajd General AfTembly, and the faid General 
«\ficmbly are hereby dnTolved accordingly 

GIVEN under my Hand and Sca! y at Arms, in the City of 
New-Yopk, the fecond Day of January, One Thou/and Seven 
Hu?idred and Seventy-fix, m the Jixteenth Tear of the Reign of 
our Sovereign Lord George the Thirds by the Grace of God, of 
Great-Britain-, France end Ireland, King, Defender of the Faith, 
[and fo forth. 

Wm. TRYON. 

By his Excellency's Command, 
Sam* Bayahp, jug, D. Secry. 

GOD favethe KING. 



BROADSIDE ROYAL PROCLAMATION DISSOLVING THE GENERAL ASSEMBLY 

[59] 



The Worth Monument in Madison Square 

While the City of . New York preserves, in at least 
three public parks, graves which were on the property 
before the City acquired it, it has been the policy of the 
City not to permit interments within grounds actually 
taken for pleasure purposes. In two instances, how- 
ever, it has permitted the burial of illustrious dead ad- 
jacent to public highways on public land not strictly 
pleasure grounds although within the jurisdiction of the 
Park Department. One of these instances is that of 
Grant's Tomb on Riverside Drive, and the other is that 
of General Worth in Madison Square. General Worth's 
grave is in the triangle bounded by Broadway, Fifth Ave- 
nue and Twenty-fifth Street, which forms a part of Madi- 
son Square. This triangle is about 170 feet long and 90 
feet wide at its base, between curb lines. Major-General 
William J. Worth, a hero of the Mexican War, died 
in Texas in 1849, and was first buried in Brooklyn. In 
1857 his body was transferred to its present resting place 
and re-interred with public honors. Above his grave, 
which is at the northern and broader end of the triangle, 
is a monument of Quincy granite, fifty-one feet high, 
resting on a base about fifteen feet square. The monu- 
ment stands on a slightly elevated terrace, thirty-two 
feet square, surrounded by a stone curb. On the south 
face of the monument is an equestrian figure of Gen- 
eral Worth in high relief. The monument bears the 
following inscription : 

Maj. Gen. Worth 
Ducit Amor Patriae 



By the Corporation 

of the 

City of New York 

1857 



Honor the Brave 
[60] 




■ 'irjfcff^aBBB 



One of our Oldest Societies — New York 
Historical 

By reference to the minutes of a meeting dated 
March 20th, 1804, we learn that the following persons 
agreed to form themselves into a Society, the principal 
design of which should be "to collect and preserve what- 
ever may relate to the natural, civil or ecclesiastical his- 
tory of the United States in general and of this city in 
particular/' and appointed Mr. Benson, Doctor Miller 
and Mr. Pintard a committee to prepare and report a 
draft of a Constitution. 

The meeting then adjourned until Monday evening, 
December 10th following. 

At this meeting the following gentlemen were pres- 
ent: 

Egbert Benson, Chairman. 

De Witt Clinton, John Murray, Jr., 

Rev. John M. Mason, Rev. John H. Hobart, 

Rev. William Harris, Dr. David Hosack, 

Rev. John Bowden, Dr. Archibald Bruce, 

Dr. John Kemp, Rev. John C. Kunze, 

Daniel D. Tompkins, Rev. Samuel Miller, 

Rufus King, Dr. Peter Wilson, 

Rev. John N. Abeel, Peter G. Stuyvesant, 
John Pintard. 

A constitution was adopted, and the institution was 
named "The New York Historical Society." 

The first meetings were held in the old City Hall, 
which then stood on the corner of Wall and Nassau 
Streets and was occupied by the Society almost until 
the building was demolished. After 1809 it occupied 
successively rooms in the Government House, Bowling 
Green (1809-1816), New York Institution, City Hall 
Park (1816-1832), Remsen's Building, Broadway and 
Chambers Street, S. W. Corner (1832-1837), Stuy- 
vesant Institute, Broadway, opposite Bond Street, New 
York University, Washington Square (1841-1857). 
The first building erected by the Society for its own 
use was at Second Avenue and Eleventh Street (1857) 

[61] 



and the next one on Central Park West from Seventy- 
sixth to Seventy-seventh Street. 

The growth of this Society since its removal up- 
town has been notable. The officers for the present year 
are as follows: 

President, John Abeel Weekes. 

First Vice-President, William Milligan Sloane. 

Second Vice-President, Walter Lispenard Suydam. 

Third Vice-President, Gerard Beekman. 

Fourth Vice-President, Francis Robert Schell. 

Foreign Corresponding Secretary, Archer Milton Huntington. 

Domestic Corresponding Secretary, James Benedict. 

Recording Secretary, Fancher Nicoll. 

Treasurer, Frederick Delano Weekes. 

Librarian, Robert Hendre Kelby. 

American Scenic and Historic Preservation 

Society 

It is a matter of regret that the annual reports of 
this admirable Society are not more available to the 
general public. In our opinion the contents of these re- 
ports are so readable, so instructive and so patriotic 
that many New Yorkers would only have to know that 
they could be obtained to become regular readers. There 
is not space enough at our command to do justice to the 
work which this Society performs and which is set forth 
in detail in these reports. 

In compiling this Manual we have repeatedly found 
many items of great interest in these Reports and if 
they are not elsewhere credited we do it here and with 
great pleasure. 

It is not at all unlikely that sooner or later the mat- 
ter of printing the Common Council Minutes from 1784 
to 1831 will become an accomplished fact. When this 
time arrives let us hope that Mr. Edward H. Hall, the 
energetic secretary of the American Scenic and Preserva- 
tion Society, will receive due praise. His efforts in this 
direction while unrecognized up to the present, will 
sooner or later succeed. 

The objects of this Society are so worthy that we 
recommend the readers of this paragraph to write Mr. 
Hall who will send them such information as we think 
will interest them. 

[62] 



Origin of the "Four Hundred' ' 

Quite a few among our readers of the present gen- 
eration have no doubt become familiar with the term 
"four hundred" as applied to Society, but may not know 
the origin of the phrase. It goes back about twenty-five 
years to a time when Mrs. Astor gave a great ball which 
was managed by Mr. Ward McAllister, at that time so- 
cial dictator in New York. There was some criticism 
of the small number of guests invited to the ball, when 
Mr. McAllister remarked off-hand that there were only 
"about four hundred persons in Society" in New York. 

The press immediately seized upon this remark and 
for weeks the papers were filled with more or less serio- 
comic allusions to the "Four Hundred." Interest in 
the discussion was greatly stimulated by the publication 
of a list, prepared by Mr. McAllister, supposed to con- 
tain the names of those who were indisputably entitled 
to this distinction. 

Below we give a copy of this list. It was a very 
amusing incident while it lasted, and all New York 
roared at Mr. McAllister's presumptuousness. Never- 
theless the phrase remains with us and it will doubtless 
be many years ere we discontinue its use. 

Mr. and Mrs. F. R. Appleton, Miss Barbey, 

Fred H. Allen, Harold Brown, 

Mr. and Mrs. Astor, Edward Bulkley, 

Mr. and Mrs. J. J. Astor, Mr. and Mrs. James L. Barclay, 

Mr. and Mrs. George H. Bend, C. C. Baldwin, 

Miss Amy Bend, Miss Baldwin, 

Miss Beatrice Bend, C. C. Baldwin, Jr., 

Mr. and Mrs. Lloyd Bryce, Gen. and Mrs. Henry L. Burnett, 

Mrs. Cavendish Bentinck, Mr. Thomas Cushing, 

Mr. and Mrs. F. Bronson, Miss Edith Cushing, 

Heber Bishop, Mr. F. Bayard Cutting, 

Miss Bishop, Miss Coster, 

William Harold Brown, Mr. Harry Coster, 

Mr. and Mrs. Edmund N. Baylies, Mr. and Mrs. Charles Carroll, 

Mr. Temple Bowdoin, Mr. and Mrs. Clarence Cary, 

Mr. and Mrs. J. Townsend Burden, Mr. and Mrs. Winthrop Chandler, 

Miss Burden, Mrs. Brockholst Cutting, 

Mrs. Barbey, Mr. and Mrs. Harry Cannon, 

[63] 



Robert. L. Cutting, Jr., 

Col. J. Schuyler Crosby, 

Miss Crosby, 

Mr. and Mrs. W. Bayard Cutting, 

Mr. and Mrs. S. V. R. Cruger, 

Rawlings Cottenet, 

F. Brockholst Cutting, 

W. Cutting, Jr., 

Sir Roderick Cameron, 

Duncan Cameron, 

The Misses Cameron, 

Mr. and Mrs. James Cross, 

Mr. and Mrs. Edward Cooper, 

The Misses Chanler, 

William R. Coster, 

Mr. and Mrs. Elisha Dyer, Jr., 

Mr. and Mrs. Duncan Elliott, 

Mr. and Mrs. George B. De Forest 

Mr. and Mrs. Chauncey M. Depew, 

Mr. and Mrs. Frederic de Peyster, 

Dr. and Mrs. Francis Delafield, 

Miss Delafield, 

Mr. and Mrs. Paul Dana, 

H. De Courcy Forbes, 

Mr. and Mrs. Stuyvesant Fish, 

Mr. and Mrs. C. G. Francklyn, 

J. O. Furman, 

Mr. and Mrs. Hamilton Fish, Jr., 

Theodore Frelinghuysen, 

Augustus C. Gurnee, 

Mr. and Mrs. Ogden Goelet, 

Mr. Frank G. Griswold, 

Miss Greene, 

McAllister Greene, 

Miss Grant, 

Robert F. Hawkes, 

Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Howard, 

Mr. and Mrs. Carly Havemeyer, 

Meredith Howland, 

Mr. and Mrs. Valentine G. Hall, 

Miss Hall, 

John A. Hadden, Jr., 

Mr. and Mrs. Columbus Iselin, 

Isaac Iselin, 

Mrs. William Jaffray, 

Miss Jaffray, 

Mrs. F. R. Jones, 

Miss Beatrice Jones, 

Shipley Jones, 

Mr. and Mrs. De Lancey Kane, 

Nicholson Kane, 

Miss Knowlton, 

Miss Sybel Kane, 

Mr. and Mrs. J. P. Kernochan, 

Col. and Mrs. Kip, 

Miss Kipp, 

Mr. and Mrs. Frederick Kernochan, 

Clement March, 

Mr. and Mrs. O. Mills, 

Mr. and Mrs. B. Martin, 

F. T. Martin, 

Peter Marie, 

Mr. and Mrs. H. W. McVickar, 

Mr. and Mrs. A. N. Morris, 

Miss Morris, 

Mr. and Mrs. B. Mortimer, 



Miss Morgan, 

Mr. and Mrs. T. Newbold, 

Mrs. Frederick Nelson, 

S. H. Olin, 

Mr. and Mrs. C. Oelrichs, 

James Otis, 

Miss Otis, 

Edward Post, 

Richard Peters, 

Mr. and Mrs. B. C. Porter, 

Mr. and Mrs. Frank Pendleton, 

Julian Potter, 

I. V. Packer, 

Mr. and Mrs. H. N. Potter, 

Gen. and Mrs. Pierson, 

Miss Pierson, 

Mr. and Mrs. George B. Post, 

Mrs. William H. Perry, 

Miss Perry, 

Gould H. Redmond, 

Mrs. Rogers, 

Miss Rogers, 

J. Ritchie, 

T. J. Oakley Rhinelander, 

Miss Cora Randolph, 

Mrs. Burke Roche, 

Mr. and Mrs. S. O. Ripley, 

D. T. L. Robinson, 
R. K. Richards, 

Mr. and Mrs. Douglas Robinson, 

Jr., 
Mr. and Mrs. H. Robins, 
Miss Sands, 

Mr. and Mrs. William D. Sloane, 
Mr. and Mrs. Philip Schuyler, 
Mr. and Mrs. Byam K. Stevens, 
Lispenard Stewart, 
Mr. and Mrs. W. W. Sherman, 
Miss Adele Sloane, 
Mr. and Mrs. Anson Phelps Stokes, 
Miss Stokes, 

Mr. and Mrs. Walter L. Suydam, 
Mr. and Mrs. F. K. Sturgis, 
Miss Elizabeth Stevens, 
G. Mead Tooker, 
Miss Tooker, 

E. N. Tailer, 

Mr. and Mrs. H. McKay Twombly, 

Miss Tailer, 

Marquise de Talleyrand, 

Miss Mable Van Rensselaer, 

Miss Alice Van Rensselaer, 

Mr. and Mrs. Cornelius Vanderbilt, 

George W. Vanderbilt, 

Mrs. A. Van Rensselaer, 

James Varnum, 

Mr. Worthington Whitehouse, 

Mr. and Mrs. W. Seward Webb, 

Barton Willing, 

Miss Willing, 

Gov. and Mrs. Wetmore, 

Miss Wetmore, 

Egerton Winthrop, 

Thomas C. Winthrop, 

E. B. Winthrop, 

Mr. and Mrs. Buchanan Winthrop, 



[64] 




H. C. BROWN, 1916 A.S 



Bowling Green in 1915. 



Miss Winthrop, Miss Lusk, 

Mr. and Mrs. Ben. Wells, Arthur Leary, 

Mr. and Mrs. W. C. Whitney, Mrs. Maturin Livingston, 

Miss Georgiana L. Wilmerding. Mr. and Mrs. James Lanier, 

Mrs. C. A. Whittier, Mr. and Mrs. Henry B. Livingston, 

Mr. and Mrs. Wysong, Edward Livingston, 

M. A. Wilkes, Miss Clarissa Livingston, 

Mr. and Mrs. W. Storrs Wells, Edward De Peyster Livingston, 

Gen. and Mrs. Alexander S. Webb, Mr. and Mrs. Clement C. Moore, 

Miss Carrie Webb, Ward McAllister, 

Alexander S. Webb, Mr. and Mrs. Charles N. Marshall. 



William Loring Andrews 

New York owes a great debt to Mr. Andrews and 
his associates of the Iconophiles for the number of rare 
and unusual books about the city which they have pub- 
lished from time to time during the past twenty-five 
years. 

It is a matter of regret that Mr. Andrews' books 
were printed in such limited numbers that they are now 
scarcely available to the general public, and when they 
come into the market the price prohibits their acquisition 
by the ordinary purchaser. 

Mr. Andrews, however, has rendered distinguished 
service to local history by his various publications. His 
work is noted for its exquisite engravings on steel by 
Sydney L. Smith; of rare old prints from originals 
owned by Mr. Andrews and of course a thorough knowl- 
edge of his subject. 

To mention just one item among the many treasures 
owned by Mr. Andrews, there is the original copy of the 
first map ever printed of New York by Bradford. Mr. 
Andrews is justly regarded as the Dean of all the Col- 
lectors of Old New York prints. 



A slight reference to that rare artist, Peter Maver- 
ick suggests the wish that he had spent less time engrav- 
ing tea sets and more time making delightful pictures 
of the city like his "North side of Wall Street" shown 
elsewhere in these pages. 

Peter Maverick, No. 3 Crown Street, carries on the seal-sinking, 
engraving and copper plate printing, ladies may have their tea plate 
engraved in the most elegant manner, resembling the glass chasing, 
as neat as in Europe. 

[65] 



The_ following are recommended as PROPER P E R- 
SONS to reprefent the City, and County tiT New- 
York, in Provincial Congress. The Ele&ion will 
commence on Tuefilay next, being the xdth of April, 
1776. 



JOHN JAY, ^ Ifaac Stoutenburgh, 

'Philip Iivbgfton,;§ William Denning, 
John Alfop*, x Jofeph Hallett, 

Francis Lewis, $ Abraham Braflier, 

James Duane, ?> John Van Cortlandt* 

Jacobus Van ZanHt,- X John Morin Scott£ 
Comfort Sands, £ James Beeknian, 



$ Capt. Anth. Rutgers, 

X Evert Bancker, 

X Thomas Randall, 

O Jfaac Roofevel^ 

O John Broome, 

X Samuel Prince, 

§ Peter. P. Van Zandt 



Hie Mowing are recommended as PROPER PER- 
SONS: to reprefent the City and County of New- 
York, in Provincial Congress, The Ele&ion wiU 
commence on Tuefday next, being the 16th of Aprik 
1776. 



COL. M<Doogafl> 
Robert Ray, 
John Van Cortlanclt, 
Comfort Sands, 
Thomas Randall, 
Jacobus Van Zandt, 
John Mprin Seett, 



g Anthony Rogers, 
>< Abraham P. Lott, 
j£ Evert Bancke*, 
<< Ifaac Roofevelt, 
% John Ray, 
^; Willkm Dennifig, 
^; James, Beekman, 



* Samuel*T > rince, 
5| Ifaac Stoutenburgh, 
X Thomas Mariton, 
<£ Abraham Brailier, 
X Adrian Rutgers, 
X Jofeph Hallett, 
&vHenrv Remfen, 



BROADSIDE RIVAL NOMINATIONS FOR CONGRESS IN 1776 



[66] 



A 




View of the Woolworth Building — by permission of Stewart & Company. 



Broadway; Picturesque and Historic 

Long before the white man came, Broadway was al- 
ready in existence. It seems to have been one of those 
thoroughfares that Nature herself makes. As an In- 
dian trail, it led up from the pebbly shore where is now 
the Battery, climbed the steep hill that faced the Bay 
and wound its way to the northward. Sometimes it 
deviated a little, but always it retraced its course and 
continued in the same general direction — northward. 
For a time it threatened permanently to follow the east- 
ward course, up the present Park Row, but that was only 
to avoid the high hills just beyond Vesey Street and 
further North, the Collect Pond. This obstruction com- 
pelled a long detour through the Bowery to the farm of 
Petrus Stuyvesant at 3rd Avenue and 12th Street. 
From that point it skirted Westward through 4th Ave- 
nue which begins here, crossed what is now Union 
Square to 17th Street, joined the Bloomingdale Road at 
that point and resumed its interrupted northerly course. 

With the exception of Broadway all the Dutch streets 
below Wall Street are narrow, tortuous paths surveyed 
and laid out originally by bovine instinct. Broadway, 
however, was destined to be great from the first. The 
Dutch called it "De Heere Straat"— The Great Common 
Road, or the Broad Wagon Way. And the English 
called it "The Broad Way." From the beginning it held 
a peculiar prominence arising from no other cause than 
its own dignity and impressiveness. Pearl Street, Wall 
Street, Pine Street, Greenwich Street and many other 
streets seemed destined at one time or another to become 
New York's most famous thoroughfare, but Broadway 
heeded not. The shores along the East River front 
were populous and busy. The commerce of the grow- 
ing City clustered thick around the water fronts, East 
and West, and Broadway seemed far away. It was in 

[67] 



the middle of the town, too remote from either shore to 
give a hint of its future greatness. 

But right here, let us review the beginning of Broad- 
way. Fort Amsterdam is at the very foot. The 
water came right up to the fort in those days. The pres- 
ent Custom House is now on the same spot. The streets 
that today lie beyond the Custom House all the way down 
to the Staten Island Ferry, and the whole of Battery 
Park, have been added since that time. So Broadway, 
leading from the Fort naturally became our first main 
traveled road, going North. Even before the Fort was 
built some traders occasionally stopped here for a few 
weeks at a time and they built a few huts on the same 
place. When Adrian Block was here in 1613, his vessel, 
the Tiger, burned to the water's edge. He spent the 
winter in New York and he, too, selected Broadway for 
his company's quarters. There is a tablet on the build- 
ing, No. 39, telling of his visit and of the fact that he 
contrived to build a new ship while here which he called 
the Restless. Broadway was therefore the scene of the 
first shipyard ever erected in the city, and that was more 
than a dozen years before the Dutch finally decided to 
settle here permanently. 

For nearly two centuries a fort of some kind always 
stood here. Under the Dutch it was called Fort Am- 
sterdam. When the English took it in 1664, they 
changed the name to Fort James, after the Duke of York. 
When it again came into the hands of the Dutch in 
1673, they in turn called it Fort William Hendrik and 
the City they named New Orange, after the Prince of 
Nassau. When it finally passed into the hands of the 
English to be retained by them till the Revolution, it was 
called successively, Fort William, Fort Ann and finally 
Fort George. During the Revolution, the British added 
a redoubt to the Fort and erected thereon a battery of 
guns for defense against an attack by sea. And this 
gave the name "Battery" to the site, which strangely has 
endured long after the Fort has been forgotten. When 
the Revolution was over, the Fort was finally razed to the 
ground and on its site was erected an imposing structure 
designed to house the President of the United States and 

[68] 




o 






SI 
.2 ^ 






■=0 



the Congress, for New York was the Federal Capital. 
Washington never occupied the building, however, as the 
Capital was changed the next year to Philadelphia. This 
building, which was known as Government House, was 
taken down in 1815 and the land sold to private persons 
who erected thereon a row of brick houses, very impos- 
ing and costly for those days, and the block was called 
Battery Place. It became a very fashionable street. 
Many New Yorkers can recall these houses in the days 
of their adversity as "Steamship Row." They were re- 
moved not many years ago to make room for the present 
Custom House. And so this historic spot of ground 
which was Government property at the beginning has 
once again come into the possession of the Government 
and is used for Government purposes. 

The region of the Fort in Dutch days and its im- 
mediate vicinity was evidently the center of such social 
and political life as then existed. We find there the resi- 
dences of the Provincial Secretary, Dominie Megapol- 
ensis, the first Dutch minister to settle permanently here, 
and two of the leading Taverns of the day — Peter 
Koch's, which stood on No. 1 and later that of Martin 
Krieger. The open sphere or plain in front of the Fort 
was used as a parade ground and witnessed the return 
of Peter Stuyvesant's army so humorously portrayed by 
Washington Irving in Diedrich Knickerbocker. 

The old parsonage of Dominie Megapolensis, later be- 
came the property and residence of Balthazar Bayard, a 
relative of Governor Stuyvesant. He erected a brewery 
on the premises near the river shore, access to which was 
by a lane from the present line of Morris Street. Mr. 
Bayard died in 1699. His representatives and heirs in 
1726 sold the property to Augustus Jay, ancestor of the 
distinguished family of that name. It later became the 
site of the Stevens House, and where Delmonico opened 
the first of his famous restaurants. 

On the site near the corner of the present Morris 
Street, was the first public burying ground established by 
the city and at the termination of Dutch rule was quite 
full of the graves of early settlers whose bones were 
ruthlessly thrown out by later excavations. 

[69] 



For many years, a public market occupied the site 
and in 1651, a great annual Cattle Fair was established, 
to be held between October 25th and the last week in 
November. During this period, no one could be ar- 
rested for debt, and this no doubt had much to do with 
its popularity, as it continued for nearly thirty years. 
Another market was subsequently built on Broadway — 
the Oswego — in 1738, near Liberty Street. It had a 
tendency to lower values in the neighborhood by reason 
of unsightly and cheap buildings, which grew up around 
it and the Common Council finally decreed its removal 
to the foot of Dey Street. From this location, it moved 
slightly North and eventually became Washington Mar- 
ket, of the present day. 

Under the English, the Fort was greatly improved and 
enlarged. The "Ellipse" or oval space in front was en- 
closed by a fence and paths laid out, and in 1732 the 
whole turned over to the use of the public as a park. 

A little later, in 1745, the Weekly Post Boy con- 
tains the following announcement : 

"The Bowling Green, near the Fort, 
being to be new laid with the Turff, 
and rendered fit for Bowling, this 
summer. Whoever inclines to do 
that service, may leave their Pro- 
posals with the Printer hereof." 

Bowling Green is therefore the oldest Park, and the 
City Hall, the second. The land on which the City Hall 
now stands was always City property, or "Common 
Lands." They were first used for pasture lands, then for 
general public meetings, and were known as the "Fields" 
or "Commons." 

Broadway lay on a ridge and the land sloped to 
either side. For nearly a century it was effectually ended 
at Trinity Church by the stockade erected at Wall Street. 
By and by the town grew and the cattle needed more 
room ; they were then driven out to pastures through the 
land gate to the "Common Land," now the City Hall 
Park, and no one saw any significance in the fact that 
Broadway was the route selected. It was the line of 
least resistance and thus early showed its utility. 

By and by the stockade was removed. After the 

[70] 







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II IK Si II! I II II 1| | 

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The great Municipal Building, housing more than 7,000 city 
employees. 



removal of the stockade, an association of shoemakers 
purchased about 16 acres of land on Broadway, extend- 
ing from about Maiden Lane to Ann Street. They had a 
tannery at the junction of Maiden Lane and William 
Street. This tract was long known as the "shoemakers' 
pasture." One of its principal figures was John Harber- 
ding, after whom John Street was named. He lived on 
the corner of Broadway and Maiden Lane. He ac- 
quired considerable property, a goodly portion of which 
he left to the Dutch Reformed Church on Nassau Street, 
which it still enjoys. 

North of the shoemakers' pasture was a sort of coun- 
try resort known as the Spring Garden. A small Tavern 
stood on the site of the present St. Paul building which 
afterwards became Hampden Hall, headquarters of the 
Sons of Liberty. In a later day, the site was occupied 
first by Barnum's Museum in 1840, the Herald Office in 
1869, and finally the present St. Paul Building. 

Wells and pumps existed in the middle of Broadway 
as late as 1806. 

During the intervals which ensued in the extension 
of Broadway to the north, several of the side streets 
were opened. Cortlandt Street was opened from Broad- 
way to the River in 1736. The first sale of a lot in this 
street, size 25 x 126, brought $130.00. A plot of 5 
acres adjoining Cortlandt Street was owned by Tunis 
Dey which fronted on Broadway and on which stood the 
first suburban Tavern, the Blue Boar in 1670. This 
type of roadhouse afterward became very popular in the 
outskirts of the town and in fact all through the country. 
At the time of the Blue Boar establishment, it was the 
first of its kind, and was distinctly outside the "city 
limits" which were then defined by the stockade at Wall 
Street. 

Several other Taverns in Broadway achieved such 
fame as to warrant their preservation in history. Chief 
of them all was undoubtedly Burns' Coffee House, which 
looms large in the history of Broadway during the stir- 
ring times that preceded the Revolution. It was erected 
on the site of Etienne De Lancey's house, at what is 
now 115 Broadway. The Holland Society has erected a 

[71] 



bronze tablet on the building to commemorate the site. 
This Tavern had its chief distinction as the headquarters 
of the Sons of Liberty, one of the numerous organiza- 
tions formed throughout the Colonies to combat the 
growing abuses of the English Government. The meet- 
ing to express opposition to the Stamp Act was held here 
in 1765 and the correspondence with the disaffected sec- 
tion of the Colonies was conducted from this place. 
Members of the Sons of Liberty included most of our 
influential citizens, many of whom were later to become 
prominent as leaders in the actual Revolution, and two 
as signers of the Declaration of Independence. The 
Sons were in frequent conflict with the English author- 
ities, and one of the encounters gave rise to a small 
scrimmage which has since been referred to as the 
"Battle of Golden Hill" where the first blood was shed 
for the Revolution. This encounter took place at about 
the corner of John and William Streets, then known as 
Golden's Hill. 

Meanwhile, the Common Lands or "The Fields" was 
the scene of much excitement on its own account. In ad- 
dition to the frequent altercations between the soldiers 
and the Sons of Liberty which were many between the 
years 1766 and 1776, the Commons was the scene of 
many public indignation meetings of one kind or an- 
other. In 1770, the citizens met to denounce the Mutiny 
Act. In the same year no less than three thousand per- 
sons assembled to erect an unusually strong Liberty pole 
on which was inscribed at the top in huge letters the 
word "Liberty." A contest ensued but no fatali- 
ties occurred. A little later a meeting in opposition to 
the importation of British goods was held and a month 
later a quantity of British goods was seized as a result 
of this protest and was burned on the Commons. Four 
years later, a great meeting was held to protest against 
the Boston Post Act. Then came news of the Battle 
of Concord and Lexington, which convinced the people 
that war was inevitable and caused them to make prepar- 
ations. 

Finally, and this may be said to have ended one phase 
of the "Fields" existence, the Declaration of Independ- 

[72] 



ence was read. Troops paraded to the Commons at 6 
o'clock in the evening under the command of Washing- 
ton. A hollow square was formed at the lower end 
of the "Fields," with Washington on horseback in the 
centre. One of his aides read the precious document 
and at its conclusion, three hearty cheers were given and 
the crowd dispersed to their homes. This ended for the 
time being the function of the "Fields" as a rallying place 
for the people. When peace was declared, this land, as 
we shall see, while still preserved to the people, lost 
something of its original character but gained in another 
and more dignified direction. 

The Liberty Boys had erected a pole on the Com- 
mons (The City Hall Park), around which they were 
wont to gather and this pole was an object of consid- 
erable contention. It was originally raised to express 
their satisfaction and gratitude for the repeal of the 
Stamp Act. The authorities would remove it one day, 
only to see it erected the next on some other part of 
the Commons. It served as a rallying place for the 
Sons, and in a measure was the outward and visible sign 
of an organized opposition to the principle of no taxation 
without representation. The frequent encounters with 
the Militia led the Sons of Liberty to erect a pole of their 
own on private ground just outside the limits of the 
Corporation's land. This Pole stood on the North side 
about opposite to where the City Court now is. In addi- 
tion to the pole, the Sons also acquired a house on the 
corner where the St. Paul Building now stands which 
they named Hampden Hall after the English patriot. 
Broadway was thus the scene of many stirring events 
from Bowling Green to the Commons the entire length 
of its then existence. At Bowling Green, a statue of 
George III had been erected by a loyal people, but 
during the war the statue which was made of lead was 
torn down, shipped to Litchfield, Conn., and then run 
into bullets for the use of the American army. Years 
afterwards, the base on which the statue rested was 
found doing duty as a headstone for a grave in New 
Jersey. It was identified by the marks left for the 

[73] 



hoofs of the horse, and removed to the custody of the 
New York Historical Society. 

Before the Revolution, Broadway had given signs of 
its manifest destiny by attracting not a few of the then 
prominent citizens as residents. Among those may be 
mentioned John Watts, Judge Chambers, Mayor Min- 
vielle, Mrs. Alexander, mother of the Earl of Stirling, 
William Peartree Smith, Samuel Verplanck, the Van 
Cortlandt and Livingston families. The block on the 
West side to Morris Street, escaped the devastating fire 
of 1776 and preserved its Colonial identity for many 
years after the Revolution. There are still among 
us men who can recall the demolition of the old Ken- 
nedy, Watts and Livingston buildings to make room for 
the present Washington Building. 

The fire of 1776 was one of the most destructive that 
ever visited the city. The only block on Broadway that 
was spared was the one mentioned above. North of 
Morris Street, practically nothing is now known of the 
appearance of the street as every vestige of its charac- 
ter was destroyed. The fire was stayed by the open 
fields at St. Paul's Church and the College grounds just 
beyond. 

Following this fire a number of shanties were erected 
temporarily in lower Broadway on the East Side and 
gave the noble thoroughfare a decidedly poverty stricken 
appearance. Their characters may be imagined from the 
following descriptions of those still standing in 1785. 



No. 


37 


Mrs. Ross 


Grocery Store 


No. 


39 


S. Buskirk 


Tinman 


No. 


41 


Mrs. Lasley 


Shopkeeper 


No. 


51 


Peter Ritter 


Jeweler 


No. 


53 


Ben Haight 


Saddler 


No. 


55 


John Girdere 


Chandler 


No. 


57 


Henry Rome 


Store 


No. 


59 


Wm. Bayley 


Tinman 


No. 


65 


James Anderson 


Shoemaker 


No. 


67 


John B. Dash 


Tin Store 


No. 


69 


J. Richardson 


Jeweler 


No. 


71 


Mrs. Hoffman 


Grocery Store 


No. 


77 


Mrs. Forbes 


Shop Keeper. 



[74] 




o 
o 



cu « 






^5 



O 



O 



As an illustration of the difference socially between 
the residents of Broadway in 1793 and the squatters who 
occupied the same site with miserable wooden shacks 
only a few years earlier, I quote a few of the names as 
recorded in the Tax List of 1793. 

John Watson Henry King 

John Delafield John Ricket 

George Scriba James Watson 

Dominick Lynch John Ramsey 

Brockholst Livingston Charles Wilkes 

John Lawrence Col. Harry Livingston 

William Edgar Philip Henry Livingston 

Alexander McComb Richard Varick 
Archibald Gracie 

As we have the Tax book for 1793 before us, it is 
interesting to note that all the houses and lands then ex- 
isting on Broadway were assessed at only $85,690, and 
the total tax collected amounted to less than $900.00. 
As the numbers have changed since then, it is not pos- 
sible to give exact comparisons except in a few instances 
where the locations are indicated by something else than 
numbers. The corner of Rector Street and Broadway 
belonged to the Lutheran Church and that plot is the 
same one today occupied by the Empire Building. It 
is assessed at $600, and the tax amounts to $4.66. 

The corner of Pine Street and Broadway belonging 
to Richard Varick is assessed at $9,000, and the corner 
of Thames Street and Broadway $10,000. Broadway 
and Cedar Street is quoted at $6,500. Three vacant lots 
below Wall Street and presumably about 25 feet wide 
are assessed at $3,200. These figures moreover repre- 
sent a substantial increase over pre-revolutionary days 
and maintain the experience of constantly increasing 
values which have ever been the characteristics of Lower 
Broadway. 

In addition to the destruction of 490 buildings by the 
fire of 1776, the whole of the city was in a highly de- 
pressed condition at the close of the Revolutionary war. 
For almost eight years, it had been constantly in the 
hands of the enemy. Its commerce was well nigh de- 

[75] 



stroyed; its population had dwindled from 60,000 to 
about 25,000. A large part of the town was still in melan- 
choly ruins, and Broadway was the chief sufferer. No re- 
building had been attempted. Gaunt and blackened walls 
lined all of the downtown section and all that remained 
of Trinity Church stood at the head of a once bustling 
thoroughfare now silent and deserted. 

The Presbyterian Church, a few steps from Broadway 
on Wall Street, was in a scarcely more presentable con- 
dition. Its protecting rail destroyed, its neatly kept 
garden a mass of refuse and debris, its interior showing 
the effects of its use as a store house for soldiers, all 
made it a fit companion for Trinity. Small reason was 
it therefore that the lower end of Broadway should be 
tenanted by nondescripts and hucksters, or that property 
should go begging at a thousand dollars a lot. 

But with the evacuation of New York by the Brit- 
ish, and the return of its exiled citizens, Broadway be- 
gan to experience a change in spirit. Some years elapsed 
however after peace was declared, ere Broadway got 
its real start as our leading thoroughfare. Some little 
time was required to clear up the dumps and squat- 
ters that had acquired locations, but when the way 
was clear for regeneration the work actively commenced. 
In a short while society flocked to lower Broadway 
and it became the leading fashionable quarter of the 
new-born city. 

Within the next few years the improvement was 
continued and many first class residences added. Among 
the new comers we find Gen. Alexander Hamilton at 
26, Nicholas Low at 24, John Delafield at 30, Peter 
Jay Morris at 36, Daniel Ludlow at 54, Judge Law- 
rence at 52, Herman Le Roy at 66, Josiah Ogden Hoff- 
man at 68, Cadwallader D. Colden at 70, and Gov- 
ernor Jay whose large stone house was considered the 
handsomest building on the street and added much to 
its growing social importance further up the street. 
Just beyond Trinity was opened the first real hotel New 
York had yet seen. It was the City Hotel. For 
half a century this hotel was the resort of fashion- 
able society. In it the Assembly originated and all the 

[76] 




BROWN, 1916 



Grace Church, at Broadway and 10th Street, when it was sup- 
posed Broadway would never extend farther. The church stood 
at the head of the street and made an admirable ending. When 
the street continued, it branched off a little to the left leaving 
Grace still "at the head." 



important political dinners were held there. Leading 
Societies, like the Cincinnati, the New York Historical, 
the Chamber of Commerce, etc., all had their meet- 
ings here. Soon after the New York Hospital, occupy- 
ing the blocks from Duane to Worth Streets, opened its 
doors. 

In 1793 the street was paved as far north as Mur- 
ray Street and sidewalks laid. The erection of hand- 
some private residences on the block now occupied by 
the Woolworth Building was commenced, owned by 
leading private citizens, among whom were Walter 
Rutherford, Rufus King, Cornelius Roosevelt, Richard 
Harrison and Abijah Hammond. The house (221) next 
to the corner of Vesey Street was owned by the State 
of New York in 1802, and was occupied by Aaron 
Burr as the official residence of the Vice President of 
the United States. Edward Livingston, then Mayor 
of the City, occupied the adjoining premises (223), which 
were owned by John Jacob Astor. 

After the Revolution, the improvement of the 
"Fields" or Common Lands by its enclosure in 1785 
with a post or rail fence was the first step to- 
ward the more exclusive condition of a Park. This 
was in keeping with the general and rapid improve- 
ment of this part of Broadway and the custom of 
allowing cattle and other animals to roam at will upon 
the green was out of all keeping with the changed 
condition of things. In due time, the post and rail 
fence was superseded by one of wooden palings which 
finally in 1816 gave way to a substantial railing which 
was erected with due ceremony and public recognition 
of the event. In this connection I might mention that 
a portion of the present enclosure was part of the negro 
burying ground which extended north across Chambers 
to Reade Street in its early days. 

From this time on the progress of Broadway has 
been continuous and rapid. Up to the time of the Revo- 
lution it could not be said to have ranked in importance 
with Pearl, Wall, Pine, Broad or Beaver Street, all 
of which were populous and thriving thoroughfares. 
For many years, its opening, as we have said, was 

[77] 



halted at Vesey Street, and as late as 1789 there were 
no houses on it north of this street, though it had 
been opened as far as Duane Street and received a 
new name — Great George's Street, a name which it re- 
tained for over thirty years. After passing Canal Street, 
its development was rapid; it followed the course 
mapped out by the Commissioners in 1807 and soon 
reached the "Tulip Tree" on Union Square. Houses 
sprang up on both sides as if by magic and retail shops 
soon deserted the waning fashionable section of Pearl 
Street and Chatham Square for the more pretentious 
establishments on the now fast growing and more metro- 
politan Broadway. On all the Island, there was no 
street so generously wide, so handsomely adorned with 
magnificent shade trees as Broadway. Pearl Street, 
which for years had been the leading retail thorough- 
fare, was originally a shore road skirting the river, and 
when the streets were extended beyond that point, the 
width was made in conformity to the regularly accepted 
measurements of the day, which were soon seen to be 
wholly disproportionate to the needs of the growing 
community. The great fire of 1835 had also much to 
do with the decline of Pearl Street, and the rise of its 
rival. Overlooking the possibilities of the new street, 
and relying upon its past reputation, owners of prop- 
erty in Pearl Street demanded exorbitant rents and as 
the lower part of town had been practically denuded 
of houses and stores, the landlords expected to reap 
a rich harvest. Profiting by this condition and aided 
by its natural superiority, Broadway soon wrested 
supremacy from Pearl Street, Chatham Square and 
Catherine Street, as the retail shopping centres and has 
retained it ever since. Curiously enough some of the 
old time leaders in this erstwhile fashionable section 
who moved to Broadway at that time, remained 
there till quite recently. At the present time of writ- 
ing, Broadway as a retail centre has been compelled 
to divide honors with Fifth Avenue, although still re- 
taining a very large and important section of retail busi- 
ness. In its endless array of other costly enterprises, 
wholesale houses, office buildings, hotels, theatres, etc., 

[78] 




Forty-second Street and Madison Avenue. Dr. Tyng's Church — 

popularly known as the "Church of the Holy Oilcloth." From 

the collection of F. W. Schoonmaker. 



it has more than made up what it has lost to Fifth 
Avenue. 

Unhappily pictures of Broadway in its early stages 
are exceedingly rare. Attached to an old deed of sale 
of lots near Morris Street in Dutch days, there is an 
authentic picture of the character of house in existence 
at that time. Next to that comes some excellent draw- 
ings by Bennett, Megary and Maverick, and still later 
a series of advertising views by Jones and Newman, 
now of exceeding value. Another series of similar 
character by Tallis, engraved on steel but rather small 
are also interesting, and last, but by no means least, 
are the lithographed show cards published by W. T. 
Stephenson & Co. in the fifties. These are of generous 
size and although primarily designed as commercial 
works, they nevertheless delineate the buildings, cos- 
tumes, vehicular traffic and other street accessories cor- 
rectly and clearly. In this connection, it is not 
without interest to record the fact that these old 
prints of Broadway are now so eagerly sought for 
by collectors that their price has soared far be- 
yond the reach of the ordinary pocketbook. A 
Stephenson, for instance, readily brings from $1,200 
to $1,800 according to its condition, while the 
view of lower Broadway owned by Mr. Percy Pyne 2nd 
is the only one known to exist and is therefore unavail- 
able at any price. Mr. Robert Goelet, Mr. Herbert Lee 
Pratt, Mr. I. N. Phelps Stokes, are also known to rejoice 
in the possession of prints of which no other copies are 
known to exist. Other collections of old New York 
prints are owned by Mr. Simeon Ford. Mr. E. W. C. 
Arnold, Mr. J. Clarence Davies, Mr. J. N. Golding, Mr. 
Robert E. Dowling and others. 

The Broadway views by Jones & Newman, were 
originally published at 25c each in four parts. A com- 
plete set is easily worth $500 today. They are the 
most interesting views of Broadway in the fifties ex- 
tant. Each block on both sides is shown from the Bat- 
tery to Duane Street and from them it is easy to trace 
the gradual encroachment of business into this street. 
First came the retail stores, soon to be followed by the 

[79] 



wholesale. In our own time we have seen the purely 
commercial supplanted by the purely financial in the 
same section covered by Jones & Newman and again 
we are reminded of the competition of the Fifth Ave- 
nue of today with the Broadway of yesterday by the 
recurrence of old familiar firms, all leading concerns in 
lower Broadway in the fifties. 

Late in the fifties, photography began its commer- 
cial career and the pictures of Broadway from that 
date on are more numerous and the record of the 
street development from that period on is more com- 
plete. There are still quite a number of old residences 
transformed into business buildings standing on Broad- 
way, most of them unaltered as to fronts and only 
slightly changed inside. Between the City Hall Park 
and 14th Street they are quite numerous and with trifling 
alterations could easily be made into their original ap- 
pearance. But the shade trees are gone, the stages 
have disappeared and the gas lamp posts have been re- 
placed by electric light. The awnings which formerly 
lined the road from its beginning to its end, have like- 
wise disappeared, as have also the hideous telegraph 
poles with their ever increasing strings of wire. 

Before the street cars came Broadway was the one 
street in town favored for parades. For almost a cen- 
tury it was unrivalled in this direction. The first im- 
portant exhibition of this kind occurred upon the arrival 
of Lafayette to pay his last visit to America. The 
demonstrations that have followed since that are too 
numerous to mention. It is quite safe to say that no 
important public event, from the protest against the 
Stamp Act in 1765 down to within a few years ago, 
was ever allowed to pass without a celebration on Broad- 
way in the shape of a parade. The tremendous ex- 
pansion of the city northward has however robbed Broad- 
way of this monopoly and other streets, notably Fifth 
Avenue, have succeeded to this honor. As the parade era 
began with a patriotic demonstration, so it may be said 
to have practically ended with another — the funeral pro- 
cession of General Grant. Other imposing and impres- 
sive parades have since occurred from time to time but 

[80] 




< 



z-tf 

o £ 



the old time political parade, the complete monopolizing 
of the street from the Battery to the Square, long ago 
ceased. 

And such parades as they were! Countless thou- 
sands still recall the famous political parades in the 
eighties which have probably never been exceeded in 
numbers and enthusiasm in any city in the world. The 
rival political leaders reviewed the marchers either from 
the balcony of the Fifth Avenue Hotel or from a stand 
on Madison Square, and the length and number of the 
paraders were supposed to presage victory or defeat and 
the effect on the silent vote was supposed to be decisive. 

In the early fifties, Broadway, by the erection of 
the iron front building for Benedict Brothers on the 
corner of Broadway and Cortlandt Street, set the style 
for business architecture for many years. This was the 
first of the so-called fireproof ( ?) buildings ever at- 
tempted and was a distinct improvement over the brown 
stone and brick buildings hitherto prevailing. At about 
the same time, there was erected in a building so far 
uptown on Broadway as to be almost in the country one 
of the most daring innovations yet planned in architec- 
ture — a passenger elevator in the new hotel at the corner 
of Broadway and 23rd Street. This latter invention 
proved a success and its use became general. In the 
erection of the first skyscraper at S3 Broadway in the 
late eighties, Broadway gave the first practical demon- 
stration of the success of this new school of architecture 
and its effect on the value of surrounding property was 
immediate. In conjunction with the elevator, the sky- 
scraper completed the change in the appearance of lower 
Manhattan. Late in the nineties, strangers desiring to 
obtain a view of New York from the highest available 
point were wont to climb the steeple of Trinity Church, 
then and for almost a hundred years, the most con- 
spicuous landmark on the Island. Today this steeple is 
completely lost in the architectural Matterhorns that 
surround it and the original skyscraper has already been 
demolished to make room for a loftier and more impos- 
ing edifice, its modest ten stories being completely over- 
shadowed by its thirty and forty story neighbors adjoin- 

[81] 



ing. It is doubtful if Broadway in all its varied career 
ever contributed quite so much to the wealth of the 
whole city as when it devoted part of its valuable space 
to the erection of an unsolved problem such as the sky- 
scraper was at that time. 

Other changes were at work about the same time. 
The experiment of horse cars had been accepted as an 
improvement over stages. That was now to be succeeded 
by cable cars and they in turn by underground trolleys — 
each a step in advance of the other. They were now 
to be reinforced by another method of transit — the sub- 
way. As far back as 1860, a small section of a subway 
had been constructed in Broadway between Warren and 
Murray Street, and in 1873 a more pretentious under- 
ground system was projected by a company who issued 
a huge lithograph depicting their proposed plan. Not 
until the present electrically driven and electrically 
lighted system was introduced did the public take kindly 
to underground travel, but now the entire length of 
Broadway will soon be traversed by this means of trans- 
portation. 

With these three remarkable advances, all of which 
contributed to the welfare of Broadway, the street be- 
gan to change accordingly. Every part now became 
readily accessible but the development beyond 34th 
Street became most marked. The large number of ho- 
tels, theatres and restaurants which quickly gathered 
along its length imparted an atmosphere of cheerfulness 
and gaiety that speedily bestowed upon that section of 
the street the sobriquet of "The Great White Way." 
To a large section of out of town people that part of 
Broadway is the most fascinating of all. Beyond the 
theatrical district however are immense offices devoted 
exclusively to a business that a few years ago was wholly 
unknown — the automobile. The same colossal skyscrap- 
ers mark this part of Broadway as elsewhere. This 
region formerly ended at the beginning of Central Park 
but has already streamed far beyond it where we will 
leave Broadway for the present. 

[82] 



«i AMERICAN SI I.Dlu 



Broad Street Looking from present Curb Market to Wall Street. 



New- York, April 27, 1775. 

To the PUBLIC 

AS many Publications have appeared from my Prefs which 
have-given great Offence to the Colonies, and particularly 
to many of my Fellow Citizens $ Lain therefore led, by a moft fin- 
cere Regard for their favourable Opinion, to declare to the Public, 
that Nothing which I have ever done, has proceeded from any 
Sentiments in the leaft unfriendly to the Liberties of this Conti- 
nent, but altogether from the Ideas I entertained of the Liberty 
of the Prefs, and of my duty as a Printer. I am led to make this 
free and public Declaration to my Fellow Citizens, which I hope 
they, will confider as a fufficient Pledge of my Refolution, for the 
future, to conduct my Prefs upon fuch Principles as (hall not give 
Offence to the Inhabitants of the Colonies in general, and of this 
City in particular, to which I am connected by the tendered of all 
human Ties, and in the Welfare of which I (hall confider my own 
as infeparably involved. 

James Rivington. 

The above will be infer ted in the next Week's New-York Gazetteer, 
and continued four Weeks. 

BROADSIDE. MR. RIVINGTON WAS THE LOYALIST PRINTER IN NEW 
YORK DURING THE REVOLUTION, A POSITION NOT ALWAYS CONDUCIVE TO 
PERSONAL COMFORT AS THE ABOVE APOLOGY INDICATES. 1775. 



[83] 



Beginnings of Free Public Education 

The magnificence of New York's Public School Sys- 
tem is the admiration not only of its own citizens but of 
the outside world as well. A brief account of its modest 
beginnings will be of interest. A comparison of the 
first old Henry Street School with the present Erasmus, 
De Witt Clinton, Washington Irving, or Wadleigh High 
School is something of which we all have a right to be 
proud. 

In 1637 the first school was established by the Dutch 
at New Amsterdam. Adam Roelantsen was appointed 
Schoolmaster. In 1642 he built a house in which he 
taught school, and a tablet on the Produce Exchange on 
Stone Street, placed by the Schoolmasters' Club of New 
York in 1910, marks the site of this school house. 

Our present school system is the outgrowth of the 
formation of the Free School Society established in 
1805, when the city had a population of 75,770. Private 
and church schools up to this time were the only means 
of education. De Witt Clinton was the leader of the 
Free School Society and its first president. 

The first school building erected by this society was 
built in 1809 in Henry Street. The ground was given 
by Col. Rutgers for the purpose. The development since 
then has been rapid and continuous, and our present 
Public School system is the result. It is doubtful if any 
organization ever started a project with such marvel- 
lous final results as did the Free School Society. 

A yellow time-stained book containing the autograph 
signatures of those public spirited citizens who con- 
tributed to the establishment of the first Free School is 
still preserved in the rooms of the New York Histori- 
cal Society. The page is headed — 

"We the Subscribers promise to pay on demand to the 
Treasurer of the New York Free School Society the sums 
affixed by us opposite to our respective names." 

[84] 




© H. C. BROWN, 1916 



Dn "Sarsaparilla" Townsend's house, Fifth Avenue and Thirty- 
fourth Street, removed in 1867 to'make way for A. T. Stewart's 
marble palace— now the Columbia Trust Company. 



As this is a Roll of Honor of the first importance it af- 
fords us pleasure to reproduce herewith the list of names 
in full: 



De Witt Clinton 
W. Edgar 
M. Clarkson 
Nath. G, Ingraham 
David Hosack 
James Thompson 
James Slidell 
Samuel Barrowe 
John Morris 
Cornelius De Bois 
Samuel Campbell 
Daniel McCormick 
Wm. Bayard 
James M. Evers 
Herman Le Roy- 
Isaac L. Kip 
Peter Jay Munro 
J. Waddington 
Cornelius Bayley 
Archibald Gracie 
John J. Glover 
Stephen B. Munn 
Alexr Dunlap 
Wm. W. Rodman 
Wm. T. Robinson 
John Titus 
Wm. Franklin 
John Kane 
Benj. Pell 
John D. Lawrence 
Jacob Scheffelin 
Wm. K. Smedes 
Benj. Page 
Walter Bowne 
Samuel Parsons 
Wm. L. Burling 
Jacob Barker 
Abm. Barker 
Thomas Eddy 
John Murray Jr. 
Henry Ten Brook 
Matthew Franklin 
Adiron Hegeman 
Leonard Bleecker 
R. D. Perkins 
Thos. Franklin 
Gerritt H. Van Wagenen 
Samuel Prime 
Nichs B. B rower 
Wm. Ash 
Henry Fanning 
Washington Morton 
Benj. Bakewill 
Isaac Lawrence 
Samuel Doughty 
Nicholas Van Antwerp 
H. E. Haight 
Geo. Newbold 
Wm. Rhoades 
J. E. R. Birch 
Nath. G. Minturn 
Samuel Leggett 
Robert G. Cornell 



John Mason 
A. H. Lawrence 
Abraham Bell 
O. H. Hicks 
Jos. Buckley 
James Bogert Jr. 

A. H. Cash 
George Warner 
John H. Livingston 
Ephin Hart 
James Cooper 
Allen Sheperd 
John Craig 

Thos. Buckley 
Wm. Tilton 
Jesse R. Smith 
Harriot Murray 
Wm. Ogden 

B. D. Perkins 
Sam Stuart 
Richard Varick 
John A. Graham 
Samuel Mott 
Jeremiah Thompson 
Benj. Marshall 
Benj. Clark 

John Greene 
Wm. Lovitt 
Edward Wickham Jr. 
Samuel Davis 
Wm. Waring 
David L. Dodge 
Thos. Slidell 
Cornelius Grinnell 
John Vanderbilt Jr. 
Thos. Freeborn 
John McComb 
Abraham Labagh 
Richard Chalk 
John Leonard 
John Craig 
John R. Murray 
James Anderson 
Thos. Collins 
John McLean 
Sarah M. Romeyr 
Archibald Bruce 
John Pintard 
Jacob L. Sebring 
Gamaliel Smith 
Cornelius Cadle 
David L. Haight 
Wm. Smith 
Elias Haines 
James Conklin 
Wm. King 
Thos. Collins 
Wm. Collins 
Robt. Pearsall 
F. Thompson 
Isaac Wright 
Thos. Pearsall 



Arthur Marx 
R. B. Forbes 
Coral. J. Bogert 
W. Pew ? 
John R. Murray 
B. B. Cruger 
Olive H. Hicks 
Benj. Bailey 
S. Jones Jr. 
John Day 
John Grant 
J. Whitten 
Edwd. Moorwood 
J. Ogden 
Jos. Thebaud 
Henry Remsen 
J. C. Van Wyck 
Benj. Ferris 
Silvanus Miller 
Ludlow 

Richard R. Lawrence 
John Murray 
Thos. W. Lent 
Valentine? 
Elias Kane 
Benj. S. Collins 
M. & V. G. Fish 
Robert Abbott Jr. 
Wm. Rhinelander 
Ph. Rhinelander 
John Jacob Astor 
J. C. Vanderheuvel ? 
W. Rhinelander Jr. 
E. S. Weeks 
Abm. Brinckerhoff 
Michael Hogan 
Nathan Pendleton 
John McLean 
J. A. Woods 
Saml. Burling 
R. Seaman 
Israel Corse 
John Craig 
James Quackenbush 
Fred, de Peyster 
Wm. T. Slocum 
Robert H. Bowne 
John T. Glover 
Thomas Kinder 
Samuel Gedney 
Isaac H. Jackson 
Noah Talcott 
Silvanus T, Jenkins 
Lawrence Whitney 
Wm. Clapp 
John Toni 
Goolet Hoyt 
Thos. Burling 
John McKesson 
Benjamin Gillinturn 
Wm. M. Phigmert 
John W. Russel 



[85] 



Samuel Hicks 
Valentine Hicks 
Wm. & S. Robinson 
Thos. Walden 

F. M. Walden 
John F. Champion 
Thos. Buckley 
Jonas C. Minturn 
Alex S. Glass 
Benj. Ogden 

Van Gieson 
Van Blarcom 

G. Denton 
William Cairns 
James Lent 
Wm. Minturn 
Edmd Kirby 



Nehemiah Allen 
N. L. & Geo. Griswold 
John Franklin 
John T\ Lawrence 
Henry Post Jr. 
James Gourlay 
John Stoutenburgh 
Wm. Moore 
John Aspinwall 
Gilbert Aspinwall 
Saml. Stansbury 
D. Lynch 
James Manning 
Coral Heyer 
Peter Elting 
Geo. Bement 
James Roosevelt 



Wm. Walton 
John Gardner 
Wm. Prall 
John L. Bowne 
J. G. Bogert 
Geo. Newbold 
Charles Marsh 
Elizah Ferris 
Richard Cumingham 
John Wheeler 
Wm. Rogers 
John Suydam 
David Underhill 
Isaac Collins. 
James Gillespie 
Robert Cheseborough 
W. & G. Post 



The following quaint memorandum also appears in 
the book : 



8 Dollars entitles subscriber to be a member 
25 
40 



and to send one scholar. 
" " " two scholars. 



De Witt Clinton Pres. 
John Murray Jr. Vice Pres. 
Leonard' Bleecker Treas. 
Benj. D. Perkins Secy. 

New York May 18th 1805. 



Statement of Property Owned by the City of New York for the 

Year 1915 

Bath houses $ 3,000,750 

Recreation piers 2,532,500 

Board of Education 123,521,000 

Fire Department ._ 9,607,725 

Street Cleaning Department 1,060,775 

Department of Water Supply, Gas and Electricity, Aque- 
duct Commission 58,686,970 

Department of Docks and Ferries (piers, bulkheads and 

land under water) 171,483,790 

Department of Bridges 99,458,100 

Department of Correction 24,459,300 

Department of Public Charities 30,012,350 

Department of Parks 673,556,380 

Armories 15,332,500 

Department of Health 1,730,950 

Libraries (public) 25,053,800 

Police Department 7,814,800 

Sewerage System 70,775,700 

Fire and Police Electric System 1,485,000 

Corporation Yards 576,900 

Markets 6,598,100 

Rapid Transit (subway) 129,247,450 

Public Buildings and Places, etc 46,483,500 

Easements for street purposes (Grand Central Station) . . 226,000 

Total $1,502,704,340 



[86] 




I 



Is, 

"5 
5 



Old Fifth Avenue 

The present plan of streets and avenues in our city 
was the result of the labors of a Commission appointed 
in 1807 who finished their work in 1811. Accompanying 
their report the Commission remarked : 

"To some it may be a matter of surprise, that the 
whole island has not been laid out as a City; to others 
it may be a subject of merriment, that the Commissioners 
have provided space for a greater population than is col- 
lected at any spot on this side of China. They have in 
this respect been governed by the shape of the ground. 
It is not improbable that considerable numbers may be 
collected at Haerlem, before the high hills to the south- 
ward of it shall be built upon as a city; and it is improb- 
able that (for centuries to come) the grounds north of Haer- 
lem Flat will be covered with houses." 

To justify their adoption of straight lines instead of 
embellishing the plan with circles, ovals and stars, the 
commissioners said : 

"They could not but bear in mind that a city is to 
be composed principally of the habitations of men, and that 
strait sided, and right angled houses are the most cheap 
to build and the most convenient to live in. The effect 
of these plain and simple reflections was decisive." 

No better idea of the enormous growth of New York 
can be had than by this reference to the original plan 
and its quaint remark about the huge population thus 
provided for "centuries in advance" of its probable re- 
quirements. In accordance with this plan Fifth Avenue 
was opened in 1837, and the park called Madison was 
declared a Public Square. 

The pauper burying ground which marked its be- 
ginning on the south, had some years previously been 
purchased by the city and had been transformed into 
beautiful Washington Square. Along its four sides 
handsome residences had recently been built and on the 
east a scholarly air had been imparted to the neighbor- 
hood by the erection of that Gothic pile, the University 

[87] 



of the City of New York. Society had already set its 
seal of approval on Washington Square and on the 
north side there still stands a row of brick houses built 
at this time (1833) which might be said to mark the last 
stand of the old Knickerbockers against the up-town 
movement. 

The farms that still stretched from about where the 
Bowery now is across to Sixth Avenue, gave a rural 
aspect to everything north of the Square ; and when you 
went as far as the lowlands from 16th to 23rd Street 
on the West Side, there was still plenty of good shooting 
— woodcock, English snipe and rabbits. In fact for many 
years the "suburbs" continued to afford splendid results 
for the amateur sportsman. 

To make way for the coming aristocrat of streets, 
the historic farms of Brevoort, Spingler, Van Buren, 
Burling and Varian were first brought under the sway 
of the city and later the farms further north were in- 
cluded as was also the famous Elgin Botanical Garden. 
The Brevoort House at the corner of Eighth Street pre- 
serves the name of the family which settled here early in 
the eighteenth century and the house at No. 24 was occu- 
pied by a descendant of the family until 1850. It was 
considered at the time of which we write a most palatial 
residence. 

Apparently the new street was not long in achieving 
popularity for within a few years we find it quite thickly 
settled and the character of houses from the first partook 
of that regal quality which has ever remained its lead- 
ing characteristic. The Church of the Ascension (Epis- 
copal), corner of 10th Street, of which the Rev. Percy 
Stickney Grant is now rector, was built in 1840; and 
the First Presbyterian Church, 11th and 12th Streets, 
Rev. Howard Duffield now pastor, in 1845. 

The following list taken from the city directory of 
1851 gives a complete register of the houses built up to 
that time and also shows the unoccupied lots left here 
and there to be tenanted not long after. 

1 Lucy Green's School. 6 Vacant lot 11 D M Barnes 

2 Vacant lot. 7 Mary Vandervoort 12 Augustus Zerega 

3 Samuel Jaudin 8 Vacant lot 13 I R Livingston 

4 Vacant lot 9 N M Beckwith 14 A Le Babier 

5 Wm Van Hook 10 Thos Egleston 15 S Wood 

[ 88 ] 



16 G R Green 

17 Henry Bergh 

18 Vacant lot 

19 P S Forbes 

20 Vacant 

21 Unoccupied 

23 C D Marsh 

24 H C De Rahm 

25 G W Morris 

27 Rev. Geo W. Potts 
29 Abby Irving 

31 James Marsh 

32 Vacant lot 

33 T T Woodruff 
35 Vacant lot 

37 Francis Cottonet 

38 Ascension Church 
40 R B Fosdick 

J A Parks & Co 
Luther Wilcox 

43 Unoccupied 

44 H R Remsen 

45 D S Kennedy 
49 Jas Donaldson 

Vacant lots 

57 J S Rodgers M. D. 

58 St. Bartholomews 

Church. 

59 Unoccupied 
Jas Lenox 
Eliza S Maitland 
R B Minturn 

65 Vacant lot 

66 C N Talbot 

67 Vacant lot 

68 Bradish Johnson 



69 Vacant lot 

70 G S Bedford 

71 Vacant lot 

72 N H Wolfe 

73 Vacant lot 

74 Jas McBride 

75 J W Cook 

76 Isabella Banks 

77 Now building 

78 L. M. Hoffman 

79 Now building 

80 M B Trimble 

81 now building 

82 August Belmont 

83 now building 

84 Benjamin Aymar 

85 now building 

86 Myndert Van Schaick 
88 J K Myers 

90 Abr. Van Buren 

Gustavus Berquist 
94 Mary a Pell 
96 Edward Hoyt 

98 C M Parker 

99 D B Fearing 

100 Aaron Vail 

101 vacant lot 

102 Frederick Gebhard 

103 vacant lot 

104 now building 

105 vacant lot 

106 now building 

107 vacant lot 

108 now building 

109 vacant lot 

110 now building 



111 vacant lot 

112 now building 

113 vacant lot 

114 now building 

115 vacant lot 

116 now building 

117 now building 
vacant lot 
vacant lot 

R M Gibbs 

Geo Griswold 

T S Gibbes 

A C Kingsland 
129 now building 

Geo Lewis 

Effingham Townsend 

Moses Taylor 

Samuel Riggs 

Sames Litton 
92 Jas Brooks 
94 Henry Stebbins 

134 R C Townsend 

135 Vacant lot 

136 Sidney Mason 
vacant lot 
now building 
Jos Sanford 
J. R. Murray 
vacant lot 
Thos Chambers 
unoccupied 

B F Cook — land office 
now building 
Thos Murray 
Christopher Mildeberger 
Thompson's Cottage. 



By this record we see that the avenue terminated at 
Corporal Thompson's Madison Cottage which stood at 
what is now the corner of Fifth avenue at 23rd street 
and Broadway. 

Thompson's Cottage was originally the house of John 
Horn and was the starting point of the Bloomingdale 
Road. It was located between 22d and 23d streets in 
the present center of Fifth Avenue on the exact spot 
where the "Isle of Safety" lias been placed, and immedi- 
ately southeast of 23rd Street. It became later the resi- 
dence of Christopher Mildeberger, a merchant in the 
swamp who had married Margaret Horn in 1808 and 
removed to this dwelling in 1820 from Vandewater 
Street. Venerable and stately sycamore trees lined the 
then country road, and also divided the farm from the 
house plot. In 1839 Mildeberger petitioned that his 
house should be allowed to remain on its site until ac- 
tual necessity arose for its removal and by resolution of 

[89] 



the Common Council it was permitted to stay until No- 
vember 1st. The homestead was removed to the north- 
west corner of the Avenue at 23rd Street, and was used 
as a tavern known as Madison Cottage under lease to 
Corporal Thompson. 

This marked the extreme northerly limit of the ave- 
nue and so remained for several years to come. Thomp- 
son's cottage was the popular road-house of the day 
and was much frequented by the driving element who 
later transferred their affections to McGowan's Pass 
Tavern, Cato's and other popular resorts. It was also 
the starting place for several stage lines that ran to the 
lower part of the city and notwithstanding its diminutive 
size from present day proportions it was a very im- 
portant and well known establishment. It was succeeded 
by Franconi's Hippodrome a few years later, and in 
1856 the Fifth Avenue Hotel was started, completed in 
1858 and opened under the management of the celebrated 
Paran Stevens. 

Beyond 23rd street in 1850 the avenue while cut 
through was as yet unpaved and the sides fell off per- 
ceptibly from the street level. The new Reservoir re- 
cently built to supply running water to the city for the 
first time, was by all means its most imposing structure 
and was regarded by citizens and strangers alike as but 
little short of the eighth wonder of the world. It was 
decidedly the most talked of "sight" in New York. The 
promenade which encompassed it on all four sides, was a 
famous and popular rendezvous for the fashionable after- 
noon and evening stroll. It commanded a beautiful view 
of all the surrounding country including the palisades, 
the Sound and the hills of Westchester. The bright 
toilettes, the sparkling water and the singular novelty 
of the whole place combined to afford at once a unique 
and unusually pleasant experience. The water was first 
let into it on the 4th of July, 1842, and on the 14th of 
October following was distributed by means of iron 
pipes throughout the city. It was on the block between 
40th and 42d Streets now occupied by the Public Library. 

Opposite the Reservoir was a ragged precipice covered 
with shanties east of the Avenue. In full view were the 

[90] 







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tracks of the Harlem Road. Where the Hotel Belmont 
is, was a blacksmith shop. The Colored Orphans' Home 
was located between 43rd and 44th Streets, while the 
blocks from 44th to 46th Streets were covered by cattle 
yards. Processions of cattle driven up and down the 
Avenue were not uncommon. Delmonico's, at 44th Street, 
is on the site of an old abattoir. From 51st north was 
a dreary waste of rocks used only for goat farms. These 
bad lands later became Central Park. 

At the corner of 47th Street extending to 51st Street 
on the north and extending almost to 6th Avenue on the 
west was the Elgin Botanical Gardens composing about 
20 acres. In 1814 this tract was deeded by the state to 
Columbia College to replace a Vermont township granted 
long before but lost when the claim of New York to the 
territory was denied. This incident forms one of the 
most striking and romantic events in all the history of 
our famous Avenue. While the loss of the land origi- 
nally given to Columbia seemed, at the time, an irrepar- 
able misfortune, it turned out to be, without question, the 
greatest instance of a blessing in disguise ever recorded. 

The Vermont land is today worth no more than it 
was then and perhaps not so much, while the Botanical 
Gardens plot occupying as it does one of the choicest 
sections of the most valuable street in the world has 
made Columbia College one of the richest seats of learn- 
ing in America. 

For many years before the transfer to Columbia, the 
Elgin Botanical Gardens had borne a graceful part in the 
intellectual and social life of the city. They were laid 
out in 1801 by the celebrated Dr. David Hosack, profes- 
sor of Botany at Columbia, for use of students in the 
work, and men eminent in science were often to be seen 
there. When the social center of New York was still 
around St. Mark's Place, St. John's Park, Gramercy 
Park, Washington Square, old Bond Street and Stuy- 
vesant Square, the gardens lay at a convenient distance 
for an afternoon drive. At the time of the transfer, 
though the legislature estimated the land to be worth 
$75,000, it was admitted that at a forced sale "they would 
not bring more than $6,000 or $7,000." 

[91] 



In the same neighborhood another romance of fortu- 
nate purchase concerns the block on which the Windsor 
Arcade now stands. This land appears on an old map as 
part of the farm of Thomas Buchanan, a prominent mer- 
chant, who married the daughter of Jacob Townsend of 
Oyster Bay. Tradition says that the young wife was 
unwilling to give up the country life to which she was 
accustomed and specially desired a home where she could 
keep a family cow. To humor this wish Mr. Buchanan 
bought his farm which has since become one of the most 
valuable blocks on the Avenue. The two daughters of 
the Buchanans married the Goelet brothers. 



Julia Ward Howe in Her Girlhood 

It is only six years since Julia Ward Howe died, but al- 
ready the story of her girlhood in New York City seems as 
far off and as different from the life of to-day as if she had 
been born centuries ago, instead of in 1819. Her father, Samuel 
Ward, was prominent in the financial life of the city. ^ He was 
a member of Prime, Ward & King, an important banking com- 
pany, and the founder and first President of the Bank of Com- 
merce. He was also one of the founders of the New York 
University, the Stuyvesant Institute, and other important 
public institutions. He had a large house at the corner of 
Broadway and Bond Street, then far out of town, from which 
it was separated by woods and fields. Among the glories 
of the house was a private picture gallery, the first in 
America. 

When Miss Julia and her two sisters grew up, so lovely 
and charming were they that they were known as "The 
Three Graces of Bond Street." In the biography of Mrs. 
Julia Ward Howe by her daughters the following interest- 
ing quotation from a "private journal" of a visitor to the 
family is given: 

Walked down Broadway with all the fashion and met the pretty 
blue-stocking, Miss Julia Ward, and her admirer, Dr. Howe, just home 
from Europe. She had on a blue satin cloak and a white muslin dress. 
I looked to see if she had on blue stockings, but I think not. I suspect 
that her stockings were pink, and she wore low slippers, as Grand- 
mamma does. They say she dreams in Italian and quotes French 
verses. She sang very prettily at a party last evening and accom- 
panied herself on the piano. I noticed how white her hands were. 



[92] 




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New York's Great Public Library 

Astor, Tilden and Lenox Foundations, at Fifth Ave. and 42d St. 

Historical Address by Hon. George L. Rives, LL.D., 
at its Dedication 

Our great Library is of such recent construction 
that even as we write the decorative statues on the front 
are still going up. It is such a wonderful institution 
and has such an interesting history that we take great 
pleasure in reprinting the scholarly address of Mr. 
George L. Rives, an old New Yorker himself, and an 
eminent member of the New York Bar, delivered at 
the time of its dedication in 1911. It gives an admirable 
sketch of the gradual growth of our Library and of the 
men who made it possible. We regard such a contribu- 
tion to our local history as of the utmost value and we 
are glad to be able to preserve it in this enduring form. 

Mr. President, Ladies and Gentlemen. — Somebody once 
asked Dr. Oliver Wendell Holmes at what time a child's educa- 
tion ought to begin, and he made the rather unexpected reply- 
that it ought to begin about two hundred years before the child 
was born. In the same way I find myself compelled in tracing 
the pre-natal influences in the historical development of this 
Library, to go back, — not quite two hundred years, but as far 
as the end of the American Revolution. 

We all remember, of course, that the British evacuated this 
City on the twenty-fifth of November, 1783, and in that same 
month there sailed from the port of London a young German 
immigrant, just twenty years old, whose name was John Jacob 
Astor. He came to the United States with a capital consisting 
of a very few pounds in English money and seven flutes — for 
he intended to embark in the business of selling musical instru- 
ments. He discovered, however, that selling musical instruments 
was a much less lucrative occupation in the United States of the 
eighteenth century than the buying and selling of furs ; and to 
the fur trade Astor devoted himself with an ability and a per- 
severance which very soon enabled him to acquire what was then 
regarded as a large fortune. 

I am afraid that if he had lived at the present time he 
would have merited the now discredited title of a captain of 
industry. He entered into contracts and combinations with 
other persons engaged in commerce between the United States 

[93] 



and with the Indian tribes, which were of a kind that I suspect, 
Mr. President, would attract nowadays the highly unfavorable 
attention of my friend the Attorney-General. He was certainly 
engaged in monopolizing or attempting to monopolize some part 
of that trade; for what he was really trying to do was to estab- 
lish in the United States a great corporation which should rival 
in its power and in the extent of its business the most powerful 
monopoly in the world — the Hudson Bay Company of Eng- 
land. His operations embraced not only the greater part of 
the territory then belonging to the United States, but extended 
over the whole world. His plan, which was fully developed in 
the year 1811, embraced as one of its principal features the 
establishment of a trading post at the mouth of the Columbia 
River in Oregon, where furs were to be collected and from 
which they were to be shipped by his own vessels to China; and 
there they were to be exchanged for tea, porcelains and silks, to 
be brought again to the port of New York. In those simple and 
distant days this was regarded as an enterprise worthy of the 
commendation of good citizens, and the history of Astoria, writ- 
ten by his friend and executor, Washington Irving, still possesses 
perennial charm. 

Astor's most ambitious project was to a great extent a fail- 
ure. But the fact that an American company had taken posses- 
sion for trading purposes of land upon the Columbia River was 
one of the principal features in the case which the American 
Government was able to present against England in the long 
controversy over the ownership of the Pacific Coast between 
California and Alaska; and it is largely to Astor that the United 
States owes its ownership to-day of the States of Oregon, 
Washington and Idaho. 

But Astor's great fortune, although founded in the fur 
trade, was acquired not so much in that business, as through his 
unwavering and well-founded belief in the future of the City 
of New York. His profits from other sources were regularly 
invested in the purchase of land upon this island, and he made 
by the improvement in values in City property ten times over 
what he made in trade. 

He was a man without much education except what he had 
acquired in the hard school of early poverty and constant con- 
tact with the world, but he was a man who thoroughly appre- 
ciated learning and the society of men of letters, and he seems 
to have conceived long before his death the idea of founding 
in the City of New York a public library which would do for 
the citizens of our metropolis what the public libraries of Europe 
had done for their people. By a codicil to his will, dated in 1839, 
nine years before his death, he declared that "desiring to render 
a public benefit to the City of New York and to contribute 
to the advancement of useful knowledge and the general good 
of society," he gave four hundred thousand dollars to be ex- 
pended in the erecting of a suitable building, in defraying the 
necessary expenses of the accommodation of persons consulting 
the library, and in supplying the same from time to time with 

[94] 




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books, maps and other things pertaining to a library for general 
use "upon the most ample scale and liberal character." 

Four hundred thousand dollars was an immense sum at the 
time and the place where it was given, and was indeed the largest 
gift of money for a public purpose that had been known in this 
State, qf perhaps in the United States, up to the year 1839. If 
it seems small at the present day it must be remembered that — 
as Mr. Evarts once said of an alleged feat of General Washing- 
ton's — a dollar went much farther in those days. 

For many years the Astor Library existed and prospered as 
one of the great institutions of the City of New York ; and as its 
means were trebled by the son and the grandsons of the founder, 
it was enabled, in spite of the growth of the libraries here and 
elsewhere, to maintain a high rank among the libraries of the 
world. 

The Lenox Foundation 

The second of the persons whom the Trustees and users of 
this library must always hold in grateful remembrance is James 
Lenox, a man who, in every possible relation in life, exhibited 
a strong contrast to John Jacob Astor. Mr. Lenox was a native 
of this City, of Scotch descent, born to a comfortable fortune, 
and having all the advantages which good schools and the Col- 
lege of New Jersey at Princeton could afford him. His father 
was a merchant in this City, and in his father's counting-house 
James Lenox acquired those habits of industry and precision 
which stood him in good stead when he came to embark in 
what proved to be the real business of his life. In one respect 
only did his career parallel that of Mr. Astor. His father had 
acquired a farm of some thirty acres, situated, as he described 
it in his will, near the five-mile stone — that is to say, in the 
neighborhood of Seventieth Street and Fifth Avenue, which, he 
went on to say in his will, he believed would in time become the 
site of a considerable village. I need not point out how the 
growth of the City has justified his expectations. 

After his father's death in 1840, James Lenox retired from 
business, and when he was a little more than forty years old 
devoted himself with an ardor, a persistence and an amount of 
personal labor which is almost incredible, to the acquisition of 
works of art and of rare books and manuscripts. His first col- 
lections of books were in the field of early printed works, many 
of them block books made before the invention of movable type. 
He also formed a great and probably quite unique library of 
Bibles in every language and of every age; but what was perhaps 
his most useful contribution to the cause of learning was his 
bringing together nearly every edition and translation of the 
original narratives of discovery, exploration, settlement and his- 
tory of North and South America, from the time of Columbus 
to the year 1700. Since his death, it has been possible to enlarge 
and supplement his collection until it stands to-day probably 
unrivaled in the world. 

[95] 



I cannot do better than to read some extracts from recol- 
lections of Mr. Lenox by one who was long associated with him. 
"Mr. Lenox," says Henry Stevens, "was a man of few words and 
few intimate friends, but of varied information, much studious 
reading, extensive correspondence and many books. He was a 
pattern of industry, method and good management. He was ever 
most generous and charitable, but he manifested a dislike of 
being^ indebted to strangers or neighbors for hints as to his public 
or private duties ; nor would he tolerate any interference in his 
own charitable impulses. He always ^ appeared diffident (almost 
bashful), simple-hearted, generous, kind, very pious, very retir- 
ing and very dojsernouthed to outsiders, but as communicative as 
a child to his intimates; and especially to those in sympathy 
with his projects and pursuits. Mr. Lenox shunned notoriety 
with the same ardor that others sought it ; but when it overtook 
him, as it frequently did, in spite of his reserve, he bore it with 
Christian fortitude and silence, even avoiding to read the news- 
papers that heralded his praises. He tolerated no interviewers 
or curiosity seekers, and his own door was seldom opened to 
visitors except by appointment." 

Mr. Lenox was never married, and as his life began to 
draw to a close he perceived the necessity of founding an institu- 
tion in which his accumulations of so many years should be 
preserved, and, if possible, added to. He, therefore, began the 
erection of a library building on the farm he had inherited from 
his father, and he procured the passage of an act of the Legis- 
lature constituting a corporation to be known as "The Trustees 
of the Lenox Library." The charter of the Astor Library was 
Chapter 1 of the Laws of 1849. The charter of the Lenox 
Library was Chapter 2 of the Laws of 1870; and the recording 
angel has doubtless long since placed to the credit of William 
M. Tweed, deceased, the fact that he introduced and procured 
the passage of the latter piece of legislation. 

For ten years after the incorporation of his library Mr. 
Lenox continued to share in its management assisted by his old 
friend, Mr. George H. Moore, for many years the Librarian of 
the Historical Society of New York, who did much towards the 
classification and arrangement of Mr. Lenox's treasures and the 
completion of his collections. But Mr. Moore — for no man is 
perfect — was possessed by the idea, which Mr. Lenox doubtless 
in a measure shared, that a public library was a sort of safe 
deposit vault, to which access was to be denied except for the 
few who possessed the most unimpeachable vouchers. I need 
hardly say that long before the Lenox Library ceased to exist as 
a separate institution, this policy, which was probably wise in the 
Library's earliest days, had been discarded. 

"Such," to quote again from Stevens's reminiscences, "was 
James Lenox of New York, who died on the seventeenth of 
February, 1880, at the age of eighty, the bibliographer, the collec- 
tor, the founder of one of the most valuable public libraries in 
the New World, the philanthropist, the builder of churches, the 

[96] 




} AMERICAN SI UDKJ 



The Stock Exchange and entrance to J. P. Morgan & Co\s new building 



establisher of a large public hospital, the giver to New York of 
a Home for Aged Women, the dispenser of untold silent charity 
and the benefactor of his native City and his honored country." 

The Tilden Foundation 

The third name which figures in the title of this Library 
corporation is that of Samuel J. Tilden, a native of Columbia 
County in this State, and for nearly the whole of his long and 
active life a resident of this city. Mr. Tilden's ancestry was 
English, and on his father's side he traced it back for many 
generations in the old country in the pleasant County of Kent. 
His people, however, had been among the earliest immigrants to 
the United States and had long been settled in New England. 

Mr. Tilden's life, at least in later years, was so closely 
connected with the public history of this State and this Nation 
that it is almost superfluous to attempt, in the present company, 
any account of his career. It is enough to say that he studied 
law — his studies being much delayed by ill-health; that he was 
admitted to the bar when he was twenty-seven years old ; and 
that for about thirty years he carried on in this City a practice 
which grew continually larger and more lucrative, and which in- 
volved his employment by the greatest corporations in the coun- 
try. "Since the year 1855," says his biographer, Mr. John Bige- 
low, "it is safe to say that more than half of the great railway 
corporations north of the Ohio and between the Hudson and 
Missouri Rivers were at some time his clients. ... It was 
here that his legal attainments, his marvellous skill as a financier, 
his capacity for concentrated labor, his constantly increasing 
weight of character and personal influence, found full activity, 
and resulted in the reorganization of the larger part of that great 
network of railways, upon conditions by which the rights of all 
parties were equitably protected, wasting litigation avoided, and 
a condition of great depression and despondency in railway 
property succeeded by an unexampled prosperity." 

During all these years Mr. Tilden's interest in public affairs 
had been keen and constant. When almost in his boyhood he 
formed an intimate friendship with Martin Van Buren, and he 
followed Van Buren's lead in organizing the Democratic party in 
the North in favor of the free-soil movement. During the Civil 
War he was one of the large party of war Democrats who stood 
steadfastly for the support of the Union. 

In 1846 and again in 1867 he was a delegate to the State 
Constitutional Conventions. He was for some years Chairman 
of the State Democratic Committee. But it was not until Mr. 
Tilden was approaching the age of sixty that he began to take 
that conspicuous part in public affairs which made him so strik- 
ing a figure in the State and Nation. 

The frauds of the Tweed Ring in 1870 were the occasion for 
the display of Tilden's slowly maturing powers. "I will lead," 
he exclaimed, "where any dare to follow. I will follow where 

[97] 



any dare to lead," and with some personal risk to himself, and 
with a vast expenditure of time and labor, energy and skill, he 
carried through the great movement which utterly wrecked the 
combination of criminals who had held the City of New York for 
years in their grasp. The distinguished part which he bore in 
the work of municipal reform in the City of New York made 
him the unquestioned leader of his party in the State, and in the 
autumn of 1874 he was elected Governor of the State. In that 
office he continued his useful efforts in support of honest and 
efficient administration, and, in the autumn of 1876, he was nomi- 
nated for the Presidency of the United States by an overwhelm- 
ing vote of the Democratic Convention. 

The results of the election of 1876 are too fresh in the 
recollection of us all to call for anything more than a passing 
allusion. Mr. Tilden was not inaugurated President; and after 
the early part of the year 1877 his more active connection with 
public affairs may be said to have ceased. 

Like Mr. Lenox, Mr. Tilden was never married, but, as 
Bacon puts it, "Memory, Merit and Noble Workes, are proper 
to Men : And surely a Man shall see, the Noblest Workes and 
Foundations have proceeded from Childlesse Men which have 
sought to expresse the Images of their Minds ; where those of 
their Bodies have failed : So the care of Posterity is most in 
them that have no Posterity." It was, therefore, in Mr. Tilden's 
mind to devote the residue of his large fortune to establish 
and maintain a free library and reading room in the City of 
New York, and by his will, he provided in some detail for a cor- 
poration to be created by his executors and trustees to be known 
as the Tilden Trust, which was to have power to carry out his 
wishes in this regard. 

Mr. Tilden died in 1886, about two years after the making 
of his will, and although the Legislature acted promptly in creat- 
ing the corporation which he had designed, the Courts ultimately, 
and after a long series of debates, declared the provisions of 
the will to be illegal and void for uncertainty. The residuary 
estate of Mr. Tilden would, therefore, have passed entirely into 
the hands of his relatives had it not been for a wise and fortu- 
nate compromise agreement with some of them, by which more 
than two million dollars was ultimately saved to the Tilden Trust. 

This was, indeed, a melancholy falling off from the noble 
benefaction which Mr. Tilden had intended, but looking back 
over the period of now nearly twenty years which separates us 
from the time when the compromise was made and the case 
finally determined by the Court of Appeals of the State of New 
York, it may well be asked whether the result has not proved a 
great advantage to the cause which Mr. Tilden had at heart; 
namely, the establishment of such a free library system "as would 
best serve the interests of science and education, and place the 
best literature of the world within easy reach of every class and 
condition of people in our commercial metropolis, without money 
and without price." 

[98] 




View on Broadway, showing Singer Building. 



When the Trustees of the Tilden Trust found that the 
greater part of the funds intended for them had passed out of 
their reach, it was their plain duty to look about and consider 
what could best be done to carry out, in some measure, the pur- 
poses which Mr. Tilden had so much at heart. They could count 
upon the property to the value of something over two million 
dollars, and they possessed a library of books numbering fifteen 
or twenty thousand volumes. It was perfectly obvious that with 
these resources no public library worthy of the name could be 
established in the metropolis. At the same time the Astor 
Library with its fine general collection of books was pursuing 
a useful but relatively modest task. The Lenox Library, three 
miles away, possessed a noble and almost priceless collection of 
books in certain lines, but it was by no means a general library 
and was very far indeed from being an institution for popular 
use. 

Both the Astor and Lenox Libraries, moreover, were 
hampered by the fact that they possessed very inadequate endow- 
ments. Their income literally permitted them to do little more 
than to heat and clean their buildings. They were unable to 
expend any substantial sums of money in the purchase of new 
books. Their catalogues were extremely imperfect, for they 
could not pay the services of cataloguers. Both libraries had to 
be closed at night, for neither the Astor nor the Lenox had 
money enough to pay the expenses of keeping open after dark. 

Under these circumstances the thoughts of Mr. Tilden's 
Trustees naturally turned toward the possibility of a consolida- 
tion of the three institutions, and, in 1892, the year after the de- 
cision of the Court of Appeals, they procured an act of the 
Legislature to be passed authorizing the consolidation of library 
corporations in the City of New York. There were, however, 
a number of difficulties to be overcome before their projects 
could assume a definite shape. There was some desultory dis- 
cussion from time to time, but it was not until the early spring 
of 1895 that the Trustees of the three institutions concerned 
really took up in earnest the question of uniting their resources, 
for the greater good of the people of this City and of the Union. 

In those discussions I had the good fortune to take part, 
and it is but just to record that there was no feeling upon the 
part of anyone, except that of desiring to do the very best that 
could be done in carrying out the objects for which all libraries 
must exist — the furtherance of science and art and the educa- 
tion and recreation of the people. Personal considerations, 
family considerations, the natural desire of preserving the ident- 
ity of the separate corporations, were all subordinated to the 
great end of furthering the public interest; and though many 
details had to be considered and worked out, the meetings of the 
representatives of the three corporations were so absolutely 
harmonious, and all were so devoted to the accomplishment of 
a definite purpose, that the business was transacted with great 

[99] 



ease and great rapidity. On the twenty-third of May, 1895, — 
sixteen years ago this day — the agreement of consolidation was 
duly executed and The New York Public Library, Astor, Lenox 
and Tilden Foundations, came into being. 

The new corporation, in addition to the Astor and Lenox 
Library buildings, possessed some vacant and unproductive land, 
some millions of dollars* worth of income-producing property, 
and three hundred and fifty thousand volumes of books. Thus 
far, the books were only available for purposes of reference or 
research. The task of making large additions to the Libraries, 
and of administrating them at the same time so as to be most 
readily available to the public, was something that evidently was 
quite beyond the means of the Trustees, if they were to rely 
solely on the funds then in their hands. Nearly half the annual 
income of the corporation had to be expended in heating, light- 
ing, cleaning and repairing the buildings, even if they were kept 
open only during the hours of daylight; and this left but a 
moderate sum with which to complete and maintain and add to 
the collections of books. What the latter task amounted to 
may be estimated from the fact that while The New York Public 
Library had three hundred and fifty thousand volumes, the 
British Museum had a million and three-quarters and the Na- 
tional Library of France nearly three millions. It was the far- 
reaching ambition of the Trustees to place The New York Public 
Library upon a par with the greatest libraries in the world — if 
not in the mere number of volumes, at least in the high quality 
and wide and general scope of those which it did possess, and in 
the liberality and efficiency with which they were placed at the 
service of the people. 

In order to accomplish their purposes the Trustees were 
therefore compelled to look either to private generosity, or to 
the liberality of the public; but all the precedents in the other 
States of the Union and in the other countries of the world 
suggested that the public ought to have at least a share in carry- 
ing forward the great and useful task which the consolidated 
library was prepared to undertake. 

There existed at that time upon this spot the abandoned 
Murray Hill reservoir, which more than fifty years before had 
been constructed as a part of the Croton water system, but 
whose usefulness had long been outlived. The site of the reser- 
voir appeared admirably suited for a central library; but there 
were serious difficulties in the way. The land on which the reser- 
voir stood, had originally been a part of the common lands of 
the City of New York which had been granted by the Crown 
to the Corporation, under the Dongan Charter of 1686. It had 
been held by the Courts that the State had no power to dispose 
of this land, and it was also the law that the Corporation of the 
City, without legislative authority, was unable to act in the mat- 
ter; so that it became necessary first to procure an enabling act 
of the Legislature, and then to persuade the Mayor, Aldermen 

[100] 





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and Commonalty of the City that it would be for the benefit 
of all the people to remove the old Croton reservoir and devote 
the ground upon which it stood to a reservoir of learning and 
art. The task was not altogether an easy one. The Board of 
Aldermen of the City could not quickly be convinced ; but ulti- 
mately — eighteen months or more after the Public Library had 
been formed — the City authorities did vote for the removal of 
the reservoir. 

The next step was to induce the City to undertake the con- 
struction of the building. Excellent precedents existed in the aid 
which the City had given the Metropolitan Museum of Art and 
the American Museum of Natural History. Again an act of the 
Legislature became necessary, and as soon as the City authorities 
were vested by law with the requisite authority, negotiations 
with the City for the construction of a building went forward 
with considerable rapidity. In the spring of 1897, two years after 
the consolidation of the three original libraries had been carried 
through, preparations were begun for an architectural compe- 
tition to decide upon the plans. On Election Day of 1897, — the 
day on which Judge Van Wyck was elected Mayor, — the jury 
for the selection of plans held their final meeting, and the de- 
signs, which are now at last embodied in stone and steel, in this 
building in which we are, were finally approved. One of the last 
acts of the administration over which Mayor William L. Strong 
presided was to sign the various papers by which the City en- 
tered into a contract to construct this building and to employ 
as its architects the firm of Carrere & Hastings. 

A few words as to the agreement are necessary. The City 
undertook thereby to build and equip this building. In return, 
the Library Corporation undertook that it would place and ar- 
range in the building, as soon as practical after completion, the 
whole of its library and collections. It was also agreed that 
the library should be accessible at all reasonable hours and times 
for general use, free of expense, to all persons resorting thereto ; 
that it should be open morning and evening on every day of 
every week, including holidays; and that, in addition to the 
reference libraries of the Astor and Lenox buildings, there 
should be a free circulating branch to be kept open on Sundays 
and all other evenings, up to at least ten o'clock at night. By 
this agreement the library gained a noble and spacious home 
situated in the very heart and most accessible centre of the 
metropolis ; but the City gained, for the mere cost of a build- 
ing, the inestimable advantage of having the private funds of 
the Library Corporation expended for the support and main- 
tenance and increase of a great public library, which was certain 
to become in time one of the very first libraries of the world, 
and which was to be maintained and added to from generation 
to generation and forever, without expense to the public. Both 
parties — the City and the Library — were to contribute money and 
property of very great value; both parties were united in carry- 

[101] 



ing forward a work of the utmost benefit to the citizens of the 
metropolis ; and I confess I do not know of any agreement 
more far-reaching in its benefits or more honorable and satis- 
factory to each of the parties, than this agreement between the 
City of New York and The New York Public Library. 

During the period which has elapsed since the Astor and 
Lenox Libraries united with the Tilden Trust, the consolidated 
library has by no means stood still. At the beginning of the 
present year, the total number of volumes in the Astor and 
Lenox libraries available for use amounted to over eight hun- 
dred thousand and the pamphlets to over three hundred thou- 
sand — so that the number of pieces in the collection has nearly 
tripled in sixteen years. It has also been made more available 
for general use by cataloguing, and the catalogues now contain 
nearly three million cards. Not only has the number of books 
been added to and their quality well kept up, but the periodicals 
in which all the latest inventions and discoveries of science and 
art are recorded, are kept in use in ever-increasing numbers. 
The library now receives over seven thousand current periodicals. 
It has also recently undertaken the collection of engravings and 
etchings, on the lines of the print collection of the British 
Museum. 

But by far the most striking growth in the work of the 
corporation, has been in the direction of popular use by the 
means of its great system of circulating branches. It is now 
and always was the unchanging purpose of the Trustees to make 
The New York Public Library available for the use of scholars, 
and also to make it, in the largest and most liberal sense, an 
institution for the use of all the people, of all ages and of all 
nationalities. That purpose they were enabled in some measure 
to carry out by taking over the work of the New York Free 
Circulating Library and other institutions which carried on simi- 
lar enterprises, but it was not until one of our own Trustees, 
Mr. Andrew Carnegie, made his great gift of five million dol- 
lars to the City, which induced the City authorities in their turn 
to embark upon a most far-reaching and generous policy, that 
we were able to establish the great system of branch libraries 
which now exist under the control of our corporation in what 
was the old City of New York and in Staten Island. 

Of the circulating work of this corporation and of the 
liberality of Mr. Carnegie this is not the time to speak at length. 
This building, which we are here to inaugurate to-day, is in- 
tended in part only for circulation purposes. Nor can I speak 
now of the many other splendid contributions to our means and 
collections which have helped to make this institution what it is. 
But I cannot forbear mentioning with profound gratitude the 
gift of another Trustee, the late Mr. John S. Kennedy, who left 
us a large share of his very ample fortune. 

With the means that we now possess, arising in part from 
the benefactions of the founders ; in part from the sale of the 

[102] 













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Lenox Library and the surrounding land; in part from the ex- 
pected sale of the Astor Library property; and in large part from 
the liberality and generosity of Mr. Carnegie, Mr. Kennedy and 
other benefactors, we shall be enabled to carry on the work of 
this institution upon at least an adequate scale. The vast collec- 
tions which are assembled under the roof of this noble building, 
are certain to grow in something like a geometric ratio, and, if 
properly administered, will be of increasing value as time goes 
on to all the people, not only of this City and State, not only 
of this Nation, but of all the World. 

How great their opportunities are, the Trustees fully 
realize; and I am sure that they feel profoundly the immense 
responsibility they have incurred in the discharge of this trust. 
It is given to few men to realize their dreams ; but we have been 
so fortunate as to have succeeded thus far beyond our most 
sanguine hopes. None of us, sixteen years ago, could have 
looked forward to this splendid result of our labors. Non nobis 
Domine, must be our Psalm. If we had not been generously 
supported by the enlightened intelligence of the people of this 
imperial City, we should have failed; and if we are some- 
times tempted to look with mistrust to the future we are en- 
couraged and sustained by the conviction that that same public 
sentiment, in all quarters of the community, will certainly enable 
us to go forward in the work that is now so auspiciously 
begun. 

Statistics of the Public Library 

The number of books borrowed from the New York Pub- 
lic Library and its branches in 1915 was 10,384,579, an in- 
crease of 868,097 over the previous year. 

There went into the central building in the course of 
the year 2,558,717 persons. How many books they used is 
not known, since thousands of books and periodicals can be 
reached without written application. There were, however, 
827,664 readers who were supplied with 2,289,436 volumes. 

The number of children going into the children's rooms 
of all the branches making use of the collections for refer- 
ence and reading was 1,608,753. In 1914 it was 1,502,185. 
The circulation of books from the children's rooms in forty- 
four branch libraries was 3,938,031. In 1914 it was 3,584,448. 
The total circulation of books to children including the fig- 
ures recorded by travelling libraries was 4,415,794, or 42 per 
cent, of the total circulation of the library. 



[103] 



Changing Historic Names 

The mania for discarding old and historic names for 
others of doubtful and often pernicious origin seems never 
to cease. The proposal to change the Bowery to Central 
Broadway or Hewitt Avenue is a recent case in point, and 
the suggestion that Varick Street be also thrown into the dis- 
card reveals again the ignorance of the average citizen 
regarding the significance of the early nomenclature. 

One of the most lamentable instances of this nature 
is the substitution of Marble Hill for Kings Bridge by the 
New York Central R. R. 

Kings Bridge is a name coexistent with almost the first 
mention of New York history. It was originally a toll 
bridge and the first connection for foot passengers made 
from Manhattan Island to the mainland. As it was a per- 
quisite granted by the King it became known as "the Kings 
Bridge" — hence its name. Numerous references in our local 
history are made of citizens fording the Harlem River at 
various shallow places further down to escape the toll 
charges, to the great disgust and indignation of the toll 
keeper who thus lost his fee. 

The following letter from the President tof the New York 
Central R. R. concerning this change is interesting because 
in it he plainly intimates that there is yet a possibility of 
dropping Marble Hill — the name of a local real estate com- 
pany, by the way — in favor of some other. 

We respectfully urge Mr. Smith to restore the old 
appellation. It was good enough for New York under the 
Georges, New York under Washington, and New York 
up to now. 

Give us back our ancient heritage, Mr. Smith! 

We regret the necessity for the change. When the Spuyten Duyvil 
Branch was relocated and built along the Harlem River, the plants 
were somewhat isolated, and in view of the fact that we have expected 
to, and have since established a separate freight station, it was thought 
advantageous, to avoid confusion in selling tickets, way-billing, etc., 
to have separate names for the different plants. As the location 
develops, it may be feasible to substitute a more appropriate name, 
such as "Broadway," to indicate the location of the subway. 

As requested, I take pleasure in sending you under separate cover 
a copy of the booklet describing the history and development of the 
New York Central Railroad. 

Thanking you for your courtesy in writing me, I am, 

Very truly yours, 

A. H. Smith. 

[104] 



The Bridges of New York— The Big Four 

There are in all forty-two bridges under the City Ad- 
ministration, but the four great bridges which span the East 
River carry the preponderating amount of traffic between the 
boroughs and are in fact links in the great highways of the 
City. These four bridges cost the City about $88,000,000. 

The first to be built was the Brooklyn Bridge running from 
Sands Street in Brooklyn to the City Hall Park in Manhattan, 
a distance of about a mile and an eighth. Looking down from 
the roadway of the bridge on the passing river craft below we 
have the novel experience of a bird's eye view of the entire 
deck of the vessels and the peculiar sensation of looking at a 
procession of boats that seem very picayune from this great 
height. The roadway is about 135 feet above the water at high 
tide. A splendid view of the river, harbor and City, and a 
comprehensive view of Brooklyn is to be had from the bridge; 
and the roadway is used by the Citizens in that neighborhood 
as an evening promenade where may be enjoyed the cooling 
and refreshing breezes of the bay in the sultry summer weather. 

The Manhattan Bridge, a little north of the Brooklyn 
Bridge, has only been opened for traffic a short time. The 
traffic already is very heavy and soon the subway trains will be 
operating on it. The height of the towers is 322 feet above 
high water mark and the entire length of the roadway 6,955. 
The center span over the river is 1490 feet. It leads right into 
the heart of the Bowery and already has had some effect in 
changing the character of that famous artery of the East Side. 
The Brooklyn approach is a fine extension of Flatbush Avenue, 
where the subways, elevateds and street cars intersect at Fulton 
Street. 

The Williamsburgh Bridge is the greatest suspension 
bridge in the world. The river span is 1600 feet and the 
total length is 7200 feet. The towers are 335 feet high and the 
roadway 135 feet. The width of the bridge is 118 feet and 
there are four trolley tracks, two roadways and two foot walks 
besides the tracks for the elevated trains. The approach to the 
bridge on the Brooklyn side is from the great new plaza which 
has entirely transformed that section of the borough. The 
plaza is connected with the famous thoroughfare of the Eastern 
district, Bedford Avenue, by the widening of what used to be 
Seventh Street, making another splendid driveway to the Eastern 
Boulevard and Prospect Park. The Manhattan approach ex- 
tends through Delancey Street to a point not far from the 
Bowery — another influence which has been at work in chang- 
ing that street. 

The Queensboro Bridge crosses the East River at Black- 

[105] 



weirs Island and is the second longest cantilever bridge in 
the world. It has a larger carrying capacity than the other 
bridges. The width between railings is 86 feet, the upper floor, 
however, being only 67 feet. The height of the roadway is 135 
feet above high water. The New York entrance to the bridge 
is at 59th Street and Second Avenue, and the Queensboro end 
rests on the splendid new plaza into which runs Jackson Avenue, 
a fine broad highway extending all the way to Flushing and 
already well built up with dwellings and business houses. 

The Brooklyn, Manhattan and Williamsburgh bridges are all 
suspension bridges and are the longest which have ever been 
built anywhere. They are likely to hold their supremacy in 
this particular for a long time as engineering skill about reached 
its limit at the time of their construction. 



Number of Telephone Stations in New York 

Jan. 1916 

Manhattan 409,332 

Brooklyn 128,695 

Bronx 42,497 

Queens 23,883 

Richmond 8,119 

612,526 
The total number of new stations for the year was 49,414. 



A Statistical Comparison of New York and London 

New York. London. 

Debt $757,000,000 $558,583,980 

Assessed valuation (estimated)... $8,460,000,000 $4,000,000,000 

Foreign population 1,250,000 153,000 

Weddings 61,107 40,201 

Deaths by accidents 5,750 1,846 

Paupers 5,000 140,560 

Motor cars 100,000 8,318 

Pensions $5,000,000 $10,000,000 

Street accidents 24,360 25,800 

Parks 7,250 acres 6,241 acres 

Hotels 700 250 

Theatres 132 140 

Banks 120 277 

Clearings .' " .' .' .' .' " .' .' .' ...... '. '. ! ! ! $96,183,554,464 $82,182,020,000 

Cloudy days 125 200 



In December of the year 1819 it was officially estimated that 
there were twenty thousand hogs running at large in the streets 
of the city. 



[106] 




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The Bowery 

"They do such things and they say such things 
In the Bowery" 

There has lately been an agitation to change the 
name of the Bowery to Central Broadway, Hewitt 
Avenue and other names, and many of the new mer- 
chants of the neighborhood favor the change. How- 
ever, it goes without saying that no such change will 
ever be tolerated by the citizens. It would be impos- 
sible to suggest a satisfactory name to take the place 
of the Bowery, or, what is more to the point, to give 
a good and substantial reason for the change. A name 
must have some meaning — some content, as the sci- 
entists would say, and the Bowery has abundance, 
while the other names have none at all if applied to 
this thoroughfare. It is not true that "a rose would 
smell as sweet if called by any other name," even 
though Shakespeare did say so. There is only one 
Bowery, and there will never be another. 

Many books have been written about Broadway, 
and Fifth Avenue, and Wall Street, but the Bowery 
has been strangely neglected. Intermittent articles 
have appeared describing the Bowery in a cursory 
and very incomplete way, but the subject has usually 
been curtailed or dropped as one containing elements 
of uncertainty and perhaps even of danger. Perhaps 
sometime a genius will arise and give us the Bowery 
in all its picturesque and lurid trappings, and maybe 
also the silver lining which is said to be on the other 
side of every dark picture. We remember what Oliver 
Wendell Holmes said in his discourses at the break- 
fast table — there were three John Smiths — John Smith 
as he saw himself, John Smith as others saw him, 
and the real John Smith. It would be delightful to 
get the real Bowery, for the Bowery is not so bad 
as it is often represented to be. Our friends in far- 
off, peaceful villages speak about the Bowery with 

[107] 



bated breath and conjure up visions of sin and wick- 
edness which would make even the hardened "Bowery 
Boy" look up in blank amazement and horror. And 
the Bowery has undoubtedly had a bad name, and 
perhaps the numerous missions which have made their 
homes there are the best evidence that there are a 
few bad people in it. But, admitting all that may be 
said, I don't think even the oldest inhabitant can 
recall a time when he would have been afraid to go 
through the Bowery at any hour day or night. And 
at the present time the Bowery is one of our best 
streets. Of course, the missions still persist, and the 
lodging houses are still quite numerous, but the 
crowds that go to and fro are very much like those 
we see in any of our other busy and bustling thorough- 
fares. 

In the early history of New York, when Broadway 
was only a short street leading up from the Fort, 
the Bowery was the only highway of ingress to the 
little town from the outlying districts which centered 
about the Bouwerie Village. There the estates or 
farms of many of our well-known New York families 
— the Bayards, Beekmans, Roosevelts, De Lanceys 
and Depeysters — were situated. We can see there- 
fore that the antecedents of the Bowery were highly 
respectable, and however it may have degenerated 
in later times, we may expect that — on the general 
principle that a stream always rises as high as its 
source — the Bowery will yet take its place among 
our most esteemed and respected thoroughfares. An 
interesting fact about the Bowery is that notwith- 
standing the tragic disrepute to which it has some- 
times fallen, there is not a single Old New Yorker 
anywhere who does not have a warm place in his 
heart for the dear old street that has figured so inti- 
mately and so conspicuously in the life of our city 
from the beginning to the present hour. 

Bouwerie Lane, the name by which it was known 
in the early English period, was redolent of the simple 
rustic life of the people who had settled there. It 
wound in and about their farms, marking the boun- 

[108] 



daries and shaping the outlines of their lands, and 
no doubt was the scene of many of the little tragedies 
and comedies that took place amongst them ; and 
when the people prospered and had herds and flocks 
to dispose of they drove them into the large tract of 
land which had been set aside for this purpose and 
which ultimately became the headquarters of the 
Butchers and Drovers that gathered there with the 
famous Bull's Head Tavern as their meeting place. 
The site of the Bull's Head was near Canal Street, 
where the Thalia Theater now stands. It was in this 
Tavern that General Washington was received and 
dined on the day of the evacuation of the town by 
the British. The Bowery looked very shabby and 
dilapidated as the triumphant American army marched 
through it on their way to the Battery; and well it 
might, for here it was that the British encamped dur- 
ing the occupation, and many grog shops and kindred 
places flourished and were left as a heritage for those 
who came after them. The American army, though 
jubilant and triumphant, did not present a very hand- 
some appearance. Their uniforms were shabby and 
worn and they had all the look of men who had 
been through a hard campaign. But this was counted 
to their honor and they were received with shouts and 
acclamations of joy. General Knox, with an advance 
guard, preceded Washington and marched as far as 
Wall Street, almost within sight of the last of the 
British troops. When they had all embarked he rode 
back with a few of his staff and met General Wash- 
ington, who later in the day marched at the head of 
his army through the Bowery to Broadway and thence 
to the Battery. He then returned to the Bull's Head 
Tavern, where the prominent men of the city and the 
army met to celebrate the great event. 

In time the Bull's Head Tavern disappeared and 
in its place arose the American Theatre, afterwards 
the Bowery. This was in 1826 and the Bowery was 
undergoing one of those transformations which hap- 
pened from time to time. The interests of the Butch- 
ers and Drovers were giving way to the more cos- 

[109] 



mopolitan influence of fashion and art. The theater 
opened with that soul-stirring melodrama, "The Road 
to Ruin," a peculiarly appropriate piece for the Bow- 
ery, if we can believe all that is said about the much- 
abused street. 

This theater was a great success, and most of the 
leading actors of the time appeared on its stage; Ed- 
win Forrest, George Barrett and Mrs. Barrett, Mr. 
and Mrs. Duff, Mrs. Young and other favorites were 
frequently seen here. In 1836 Charlotte Cushman 
made her first appearance in this theater. In her ab- 
sorbingly interesting impersonation of Lady Macbeth 
she at once scored a success and ever after held a 
high place in the admiration of the theater-going pub- 
lic and always a deeply affectionate one in the hearts 
of all the people. Old New Yorkers can remember 
with what regrets we parted with her when, after 
nearly half a century of instructing, inspiring and 
amusing us before the footlights, she at last with- 
drew to enjoy the privacy and rest she had so faith- 
fully earned. 

As the city grew more populous and the lands both 
east and west of the Bowery filled up, we begin to 
hear of clashes of the factions that grew up in the 
different sections of the town. The Bowery boys and 
the Broadway boys did not love each other at all 
and nothing suited them better than a "scrap." They 
fought then chiefly with fists, and many were the 
pitched battles of these would-be heroes. The Bowery 
boy has become historical — he is not in evidence in 
our day, but he must have been a picturesque figure 
when, at the height of his power and fame, he domi- 
nated the Bowery. Today he would be considered 
more amusing than dangerous — there was nothing of 
the gunman about him, and it is even questionable if 
the real Bowery boy was bad at all. He was a swag- 
gering and bragging personage who loved to assert him- 
self in all possible ways. He wore much jewelry, decked 
himself in showy cravats, and talked a language that was 
more familiar in the Bowery than anywhere else. His 
manner was always defiant, and when he looked at 

[HO] 




1 




<5 H. C. BROWN. 1916 



Pabst's Restaurant that was removed to make room for the Times Building, 
42nd Street and Broadway 



you it was with apparent condescension. But the 
Bowery boy with all these marks of self-assertion 
would hardly be recognized without a cigar. This 
was the one pre-requisite to his standing in the Bow- 
ery. It marked him off from the rest of his fellow 
citizens. A good big cigar placed in his mouth at 
the proper angle to express perfect content with him- 
self and perfect indifference to all the rest of the world 
put the last and finishing touch to this picturesque 
and almost forgotten figure. 

Near Grand Street, on the Bowery's east side, was 
Owney Geoghegan's Burnt Rag, which ended its career 
before slumming parties came along to make it more 
notorious. A little way above Grand Street on the 
same side stood, after the elevated road was built, 
"suicide post," the nearest railroad pillar to McGurk's 
dive, whence came men and women derelicts to lean 
against the post while they shot themselves or swal- 
lowed poison. Near the Bowery's upper end was 
Paresis Hall. Various so-called museums of many 
sorts were located between Chatham Square and the 
Cooper Union. 

The Bowery in those days was a feeder by night 
for a number of outlying resorts. Chuck Connors met 
his Chinatown slumming parties at the Bowery and 
Chatham Square. At Hester Street it was a short 
westward walk to Armory Hall, where Billy McGlory 
reigned and drew the line on shooting and stabbing 
within the hall. One evening McGlory, attended by 
his principal bouncer as a witness, went to The Sun 
office to complain because the paper had said a man 
in St. Vincent's Hospital reported to the police that 
he was stabbed in McGlory's. "He was stabbed just 
outside of McGlory's," said Billy. "I don't permit 
stabbing and shooting inside." He was told that The 
Sun was as averse to doing McGlory an injustice as 
to doing a wrong to any other person, and the next 
morning, the wounded man in the hospital having 
been seen, the proprietor of Armory Hall read in the 
paper that the patient disavowed the assertion that 

[HI] 



the stabbing took place on the inner side of the re- 
sort's threshold. 

Houston Street was the turning off place for Harry 
Hill's place of "refreshment for man and beast," as 
one of his indoor signs said, at the northeast corner 
of Houston and Mulberry Streets. This was the most 
notorious dive of its day in New York, but the 
stranger, from no matter how far back in the tall tim- 
ber, was as safe in Harry Hill's as he would have been 
at Police Headquarters, a few doors away. Once 
the visitor was on the sidewalk he took his chances. 

The north sidewalk at Bleecker Street led west to 
the American Mabille, kept by The. Allen. A short 
time before this dive was opened Mrs. de Barry, wife 
of a wine agent, had her diamond earrings torn from 
her ears by a footpad on the Fifth Avenue sidewalk. 
The story at that time was that Police Captain Byrnes 
of the Mercer Street station, afterward Inspector 
Byrnes, was told by Allen that if he would permit the 
latter to carry on the dive and wouldn't bother him 
overmuch the arrest of the highwayman who robbed 
Mrs. de Barry would be an easy matter. The man 
was caught and sentenced to a twenty-year term. 

With the passing of the Bowery boy many of the 
old landmarks have also disappeared. The old Bowery 
Theatre, however, first called the American, is still 
there and houses audiences who listen to plays in the 
strange dialect of the foreigners called Yiddish. The 
transformation of the street has been wrought, first 
by the elevated road, then by the bridges, two of 
which pour their enormous traffic day and night into 
this very important artery of city life. The dance 
halls, pool rooms, cheap gambling houses, and shady 
places in general have disappeared. We never hear 
any more of sandbagging, or panel-house robberies, 
or street outrages of any kind, and there is no doubt 
that the Bowery is fast becoming one of New York's 
most important east side business streets. The people 
who traverse it today are largely strangers, and are as 
ignorant of its picturesque history as if they still lived 
in the Steppes of Russia, but these are the people who 
are going to transform the Bowery. 

[112] 




Broadway and the Park from Chambers iOoKmg" 



South in 1830. 



Hamilton Secures the Federal Capitol for 
New York 

John D. Crimmins 

Among my interesting items concerning old New 
York is the following original letter in the handwrit- 
ing of Washington's great Secretary of the Treasury. 

At the time it was written the location of the Capi- 
tal had not been decided, and the rivalry between the 
various provinces was very keen. Philadelphia with 
the powerful backing of Franklin and Rush was well 
in the lead, though Boston backed by Hancock and 
Adams was a formidable rival. Hamilton took up the 
fight for New York, aided by Morris, Lewis, Living- 
ston and others. No contest in our Western states 
for the county seat in the present day exceeded in 
bitterness the struggle among the Colonies for this 
great prize. Hamilton's adroit move in presenting the 
City Hall to Congress as a gift to be used as a Capitol 
building decided the day, and New York became the 
first Capital of the new Republic. 

The letter, which follows, is therefore of surpass- 
ing interest, giving as it does an inside glimpse of 
national politics as they were at the very beginning of the 
City of New York and of our National Administra- 
tion. It is addressed to Richard Varick, at that time 
Mayor of the City. 

Dear Sr : 

It is in my opinion intirely necessary that the Common 
Council should be convened this day in order to pass an act 
for appropriating the City Hall to the use of Congress. The 
act should be published in the papers & notified by yourself, or 
if you are not well enough by a committee or member of your 
board to the Senators & representatives as they arrive . . . 
The Philadelphians^ are endeavouring to raise some cavils on 
this point — The thing must not pass to-day. For propriety 
absolutely requires that the Members should be offered a place 
by tomorrow which is the day for assembling. 

Yrs 
Richard Varick, Esq. A Hamilton. 

Tuesday, Mch 3rd, 1789. 

[113] 



Another equally interesting item is the Common 
Council's action in presenting the freedom of the city 
to Baron Steuben which follows: 

To the honorable Frederic William Baron de 
Stuben late Major General and Inspector General 
of the Armies of the United States of America. 

The Address of the Mayor Aldermen and Commonalty of the 
City of New York. 

In offering Testimonials of the Respect of this Corporation for 
Individuals who have distinguished themselves in our happy Revo- 
lution ; We cannot be unmindful of the merits of the Baron de 
Stuben. 

We recollect with Pleasure Sir, among other important Services 
which you have rendered, that to your well directed efforts this 
Country is essentially indebted for the Introduction of that System 
into our military Establishment, on which the Reputation and Success 
of our Arms so much depended. The Battle of Monmouth, soon after 
the commencement of your Labours and every subsequent Event of the 
late War, are memorable — Proofs of the Utility of that System 
in the Field ; and the Records of Congress bear Testimony in how 
great a Degree it contributed to promote the Interests of national 
Economy. 

As a public Mark of the Sense we entertain of your Services and 
of our Esteem for you Personally, We present you with the Free- 
dom of the City, within the Limits of which you have chosen your 
Residence. We shall only add that the interest we take in your 
Happiness dictates our warmest Wishes that you may experience from 
the Citizens of the State at large every Species of Distinction and 
Acknowledgement which can contribute to render that Residence 
agreeable. 
By order of the 
Common Council Jas. Duane, Mayor. 

A Half Forgotten Location, Observatory Place, 

Between 5th and Park Avenues 

"Observatory Place" was planned by the Commissioners 
appointed by the Legislature of the State of New York, in 
1807, to lay out the Island of Manhattan. In 1811 they fin- 
ished their work and published a map of the Island on which 
is shown "Observatory Place" located between 89th to 94th 
Sts. and from what is now Park Avenue to Fifth Avenue. 
This Observatory Place or square for a reservoir as laid out 
on the Commissioners , Map contained 26, 3-10 acres. Speak- 
ing of this section of the city, the Commissioners in their 
published report in 1811 make the following comment: "It 
appeared proper, nevertheless, to select and set apart, on 
an elevated position, a space sufficient for a large Reservoir, 
when it shall be found needful to furnish the City, by means 
of aqueducts, or by the aid of hydraulic machinery, with a 
copious supply of pure and wholesome water. In the mean- 
time, and indeed afterwards, the same place may be con- 
secrated to the purpose of science, when public spirit shall 
dictate the building of an Observatory. . . ." The Com- 
missioners* idea is carried out by the Croton Reservoir now 
in Central Park which is a little west of the ground orig- 
inally planned on their map. 

[114] 




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Remarkable Description of New York 
in 1781 

The following letters, written by Lieutenant Thomas 
Anbury, are remarkable not only for the accurate descrip- 
tions of the scenes which he depicts, but also for his 
story of the "signal" set off in New York, by which in 
relays the news was conveyed to Washington of the 
departure of the British fleet to succor Lord Cornwallis. 
Lieutenant Anbury, as one of Burgoyne's prisoners of 
war, was marched from Saratoga to Cambridge on foot ; 
also, still on foot, to Charlotteville, Virginia, and back 
again to New York. He was evidently a person of keen 
observation and of more than usual intelligence. Upon 
his return to England in 1789, he published these letters 
written to a friend from New York, entitled "Travels in 
the Interior of America," based upon his experiences. 
This volume, however, is little known and as an account 
of the "signalling" to Washington is the first we have 
read in any work on New York City. His remarks con- 
cerning various phases of the War and of the ulti- 
mate favor that was to overtake the Americans, are par- 
ticularly interesting, in view of what actually happened. 

The island of New York, at King's Bridge, is joined to 
the continent by a small wooden bridge, and the country around 
is very rocky and mountainous. The river, which separates the 
island from the continent, is a safeguard against any sudden in- 
vasion of the enemy, and the works that are thrown up, which 
are exceedingly strong, are on such commanding situations, 
that an army would be cut to pieces in attempting to pass it. 
This post is fourteen miles from the city of New York. 

The city of New York stands on the southern extremity 
of the island, and its situation is extremely delightful; com- 
manding such a variety of prospects, as are the most charming 
that can be conceived. The city is mostly built upon the East 
River, on account of the harbour. In many of the streets are 
rows of trees on each side, for shelter from the amazing heats 
in summer. Most of the houses are built with brick, very 
strong and neat, and several stories high; many of them have 
balconies on the roof, where company sit in the summer 

tH5] 



evenings, to enjoy the prospect of the opposite shores and har- 
bour; and the roofs are covered with shingles. The streets are 
paved and ( clean, but in general very narrow ; there are two 
or three, indeed, which are spacious and airy. The length 
of the town is somewhat more than a mile, and the breadth 
of it about half a mile. The situation is reckoned healthy, but 
subject to one great inconvenience, which is the want of fresh 
water. 

There are several public buildings, tho' but few deserving 
attention. There were two churches, the Old or Trinity Church, 
and the New one or St. George's Chapel, both very large; 
the former was destroyed by fire; by the remains it appears 
to have been in the Gothic taste. The latter is built upon the 
model of some of the new churches in London, and opposite 
to it is a spacious square, where stands the park of artillery. 
Besides these two, there are several other places of worship, 
consisting of two Low Dutch Calvinist churches, two High, one 
French ; meeting houses for Lutherans, Presbyterians, Quakers, 
Anabaptists, Moravians, and a Jews synagogue. There is a 
very handsome charity school for sixty boys and girls, a good 
workhouse, barracks for a regiment of soldiers, and an exceed- 
ing strong prison. The courthouse is not so considerable as 
might be expected for such a city, and is now converted into 
a guard-house for the main guard. 

The original fort was quadrangular, capable of mounting 
sixty pieces of cannon, but now there are great additions. In 
this fort stands the governor's palace, and underneath the fort 
is a battery capable of mounting ninety-four guns, and bar- 
racks for two companies of soldiers. Upon a small island, 
opposite the city, is an hospital for sick and wounded seamen. 

The North River is somewhat more than two miles over 
to Paulus Hook, where there is an exceeding strong work 
opposite New York. On account of the exposure to the north 
winds, and to the driving of the ice, in the winter, ships can- 
not anchor there at that season of the year, and therefore lay 
up in the East River, it being the safest and best, though the 
smallest, harbour. 

The sea near New York affords great quantities of oysters, 
as well as variety of other sea fish. Lobsters were extremely 
plentiful, of an enormous size; but after the cannonade at 
Long Island they forsook the coast, and not one has been seen 
since. The manner they first came upon the coast is rather 
singular, for although New England abounded with them, none 
were ever caught here; but this city was supplied by the New 
Englanders, who brought them in great well-boats. One of 
these boats coming thro' the Sound, and passing Hell Gates, 
a very dangerous rocky part, struck and split to pieces, and 
the lobsters escaped; after which they multiplied very fast, 
and were caught in great abundance, till frightened away by 
the noise of the cannon. 

This afternoon I went down to the beach, to see the whale 

[116] 




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boat set off with dispatches for Lord Cornwallis's army, and 
you cannot conceive how elated the crew were, entertaining an 
idea of conveying tidings that would make them joyfully re- 
ceived. 

As these are open boats, and have so many leagues to sail 
before they reach the Chesapeak, you must necessarily conclude 
the voyage to be attended with imminent danger. Their inten- 
tion is to coast along shore, but may be frequently driven out 
of sight of land; the last boat that came from Lord Cornwallis, 
was in that situation for three days. They easily evade being 
taken, as they can sail in shallow water, and keep close in 
shore. The boats that pass between the two armies have little 
apprehension of being captured, except in passing through the 
French fleet at the mouth of the Chesapeak. 

On crossing the East River from New York you land at 
Brooklyn, which is a ^ scattered village, consisting of a few 
houses. At this place is an excellent tavern, where parties are 
made to go and eat fish; the landlord of which has saved an 
immense fortune this war. At a small distance from the town 
are some considerable heights, commanding the city of New 
York. 

Long Island^ is the largest island _ from • Cape Florida to 
Cape Sable. It is one hundred and thirty miles in length and 
about fifteen miles in breadth, and from its formation derives 
its name. The south side, next to the Atlantic, is low, level 
and sandy, with extensive bays within the land, near the length 
of the island; on that side opposite the continent, the lands 
are high, hilly and broken, but with a number of fine bays 
and harbours. A chain of hills runs through the middle of 
the island, the whole length of it, from which there is an 
extensive view of the ocean and the adjoining continent. 

The Plain is a perfect level, and what is a phenomenon in 
America, has not a tree growing upon it. The soil is said to 
be incapable of producing trees, or any vegetation except a 
coarse grass, and a kind of brush-wood or shrub which sel- 
dom grows higher than four or five feet, and that only on a 
particular part of the plain. 

The soil of this plain is a black earth, covered with a kind 
of moss, and under the earth, which is of a spongy quality, 
is a bed of gravel, which, consequently absorbing the heaviest 
rains, prevents the water from remaining on the ground; it 
therefore naturally follows, that in wet seasons there is abund- 
ance of grass, and in dry ones it is entirely parched up. 

The plain supports great quantities of cattle, sheep and 
horses, which are supplied with water from the ponds made 
by the inhabitants in different places, and, that they may retain 
the rain, have clay bottoms; for what is equally as remark- 
able as the plain itself, there are no springs or running water 
throughout its whole extent. This plain is of the nature of 
our commons in England, having no inclosures, and almost 

[117] 



uninhabited, except a few public houses for the convenience 
of travellers. 

It is impossible to describe the anxiety of every one when 
the fleet left this place, in full hopes and expectation, although 
it had to fight its way through a much superior force, it would 
have been the means of saving the gallant and brave army 
under Lord Cornwallis ; but language is unable to describe 
the feelings of every loyal subject, when the fleet returned, 
unable to effect so noble a purpose; for three days before the 
fleet made the Chesapeak, that gallant army had surrendered 
to the combined forces of France and America. 

When the British fleet left Sandy Hook, Gen. Washington 
had certain intelligence of it, within forty-eight hours after it 
sailed, although at such a considerable distance as near six 
hundred miles, by means of signal guns and alarms. A very 
notorious rebel in New York, from the top of his house, hung 
out the signal of a white flag, the moment the fleet got under 
way, which was immediately answered by the firing of a gun at 
a small village about a mile from our post at Paulus Hook; 
after that a continual firing of cannon was heard on the opposite 
shore; and about two days after the fleet sailed, was the period 
in which Gen. Washington was so pressing for the army to 
surrender. There is a secrecy to be observed in war, necessary 
to the well-conducting of plans, and the execution of any par- 
ticular measure that is concerted, which, being disclosed, all 
is frustrated. This was the case in the present instance : the 
sailing of the fleet, by a villain under the mask of a Loyalist, 
was revealed to the Americans; and to similar causes may be 
accounted the many fatal calamities attending our army upon 
this continent. 

The loss of Lord Cornwallis's army is too heavy a blow 
to be soon or easily recovered ; it evidently must change the 
face of affairs ; for the war which commenced in this country, 
and ought to have been maintained in the offensive, must now 
degenerate into a dishonorable defensive; and if Great Britain 
is determined to overcome the Colonies, she must send out a 
very numerous reinforcement in the spring, or the surrender 
of Lord Cornwallis may be considered as the closing scene of 
the whole continental war in America. 

I have taken my passage in the Swallow Packet, which the 
latter end of the week sails for England. I preferred coming 
home in the packet rather than in a transport, not only as it 
is a better sailing vessel, and having more hands is in less 
danger of being captured; but the transports in general are 
so exceedingly crazy, and their bottoms so very bad, owing to 
their laying up such a length of time in rivers, that they are 
unable to withstand the boisterous winds and waves of a win- 
ters passage. 

As this is the last letter you'll receive from me in America, 
permit me, before I bid a final farewell to it, to make some 
few reflections on this unfortunate contest. 

[118] 





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The famous original life-size Stuart painting of Genl. Washing- 
ton, owned by Mr. John Jay Pierrepont, of Brooklyn — a family 
heirloom. Copyright 1900 by Manzi Joyant & Co. 



Although America, through France and her naval power, 
may gain independence, she will find in what an aukward pre- 
dicament she has involved herself, and how convulsed the prov- 
inces must be for a length of years. As a new state she must 
maintain or establish her public character, and is bound, by 
every tie of policy, not to desert her allies. 

Alas, deluded Americans ! When too late, you'll repent your 
rashness. Let me impartially ask the most sensible among 
them, When the Independency is established, will they possess 
that freedom and liberty as under the English government? If 
their answer is impartial, they must declare, Certainly we shall 
not; but in a few years perhaps we may. That period, I am 
afraid, is at a great distance. 

Much, indeed, are they entangled in the cabals of a French 
court, which will, sooner or later, not only endeavour to en- 
slave them in reality, but dispossess them of their southern 
provinces. It is not without just grounds I assert that e'er 
half a century elapses, America will be suing that protection 
from the mother country, which she has so ungratefully de- 
spised, to screen her from the persecutions and tyranny of 
France. They are conscious of being happy before this unfor- 
tunate revolution, and will feel that they are no longer so ; they 
must inevitably regret the change in sullen silence, or, if they 
have any thing like spirit left, rouze into arms again. 



Our Streets 

The streets of New York have been the constant 
wonder, consternation, despair, etc., of citizens and 
visitors alike. Volumes could be written of what has 
been done with them and probably more volumes of 
what will be done with them before we may expect to 
see them in some positively permanent condition. In 
the meantime, we can read with complacency this de- 
scription of them a century ago. 

The streets are firmly and neatly paved and the sidewalks 
are laid with durable flat stones from the quarries of Con- 
necticut, as also the crossings. Almost the whole city is well 
lighted with lamps, the management of which is not left to 
the care of greedy contractors, but is under the immediate 
inspection of the Corporation who have no interest in the mat- 
ter but a deal of reputation to lose if they should violate the 
trust reposed in them. A regular night watch is also estab- 
lished to give security to the inhabitants and clear the streets 
of improper persons. There are rows of trees planted on 
many of the streets which in summer afford a cool and refresh- 
ing shade from the intense rays of the sun. 



[119] 



* * * We could have wished to avoid censure of every kind, 
but when public health is endangered it would be criminal to 
have remained silent; yet it is remarked on all hands that 
the streets of N. Y. are the dirtiest in the U. S. There ap- 
pears to be one radical cause of this and that is the number 
of swine which are allowed to go constantly at large. We are 
aware there is a prohibitory law in existence respecting these 
animals, but they roam abroad at pleasure, no one considering 
it his business to interfere with them. We also know the 
existing regulations as to removal of filth could not be better 
written than they are. Still so long as immense numbers of 
swine are allowed to traverse the streets, so long will the 
inhabitants think themselves justified in throwing out their 
garbage to them for food; and so long will the streets of 
N. Y. remain proverbial for their filth . . . 

The principal street is Broadway, which runs from the Bat- 
tery to its extremity in the Bloomingdale Road and measures 
3 miles in length. Pearl Street is next in importance, being 
the principal mercantile mart of the City, where the chief stores 
and counting houses are situated. In Wall Street are situated 
the Banking-houses, Custom House, Insurance offices, Tontine 
Coffee House, and Exchange Brokers, etc. This is a very 
handsome, airy street. Towards the bottom in front of the Ton- 
tine Coffee House, the public sales by auction are conducted, 
which renders this quarter extremely busy, and gives a very fav- 
orable and correct idea of the extensive trade and commerce of 
New York. Chatham Street is an elegant street, in which a 
good deal of the retail business is transacted. It leads out of 
Broadway into the Bowery road, and together they form one of 
the most spacious streets in the City. Maiden Lane, John Street, 
Nassau and Broad Streets, Pine, William, Hudson and Cherry 
Streets though second rate are of considerable trade and im- 
portance. Fulton Street is remarkable chiefly from its having 
been lately formed, and so named after the ingenious and patri- 
otic inventor of the Steam Boats, and very appropriately com- 
mences on the Hudson River where the Albany and Paylus 
Hook Steam boats have their stations and terminates on the 
East River where the Brooklyn and New Haven Steam boats 
take their departure. 

Wells and pumps are to be met with in almost every street 
— these afford an excellent supply of wholesome spring water 
to the inhabitants. Most of the private families also have 
cisterns in their gardens for rain water, which they use in 
washing clothes. Several squares are laid down in the plan of 
the city which in a few years will prove of great ornament. 
They are not however in that state of formation at present that 
will admit of any satisfactory description. 

[120] 



Reminiscences of Old Columbia College 

Richard T. Bang, M.D., A.B., 76 

There have been three Columbias — the older one, 
founded as "King's College," or "The College of the 
Province of New York," in 1754, which became Colum- 
bia College after the Revolution in 1784, and which 
flourished at Park Place, Murray and Church Streets, 
until 1857; the old one, which was located on the square 
block from 49th to 50th Street, and from Madison to 
Fourth Avenue, from 1857 to 1897, and the new one, 
proudly standing, since 1897, on the acropolis of the 
City on Morningside Heights. In 1890, under Presi- 
dent Seth Low, the old modest College was transformed 
into the present new and magnificent Columbia Uni- 
versity, "Nulli Secundus." 

My reminiscences are of the Old College at the 
49th Street site, where I was a student from 1872 to 
1876. In the Seventies the annual number of matricu- 
lants at the School of Arts was about 120. At the Uni- 
versity now, the number of students attending all the 
schools is 16,144. 

When the removal to the 49th Street site took place 
in 1857, there were no car-tracks on Madison Ave- 
nue above 42nd Street, and there were but few houses 
in that neighborhood. The old buildings that stood on 
the block were to be used as the temporary home of the 
College, the intention of the trustees being to build a 
permanent home, facing Fifth Avenue, on the block from 
49th to 50th Street and from Fifth to Madison Avenue. 
For many obvious reasons, this project never material- 
ized. 

I well remember the first glimpse I had of Old 
Columbia. I had been prepared at school and by private 
tutors for a European education and was spending a 
final delightful evening with my French teacher who 
lived on 30th Street, near Broadway. It was a balmy 
night in June, 1872, and about a dozen young gentle- 

[ 121 ] 



men had foregathered there. One of these was Rudolph 
Aronson, afterwards the celebrated musical director and 
manager of the New York Casino, who had with him 
the most wonderful collection of autographs I had ever 
seen. I well remember the reluctance with which I 
gave up the inspection of this autograph album, in or- 
der to accept our host's invitation to attend the Good- 
wood Cup Celebration of the Class of '73 at Columbia 
College. We all walked up Fifth Avenue, which was 
then entirely and exclusively residential, and, on the 
way, when I deplored the fact to my teacher, that I 
would soon be obliged to go abroad to stay indefinitely, 
he suggested to me that I might try the entrance ex- 
aminations at Columbia, which were to take place dur- 
ing the following week, without saying anything about 
it at home. I have never forgotten that first evening 
I spent on the Old College grounds. First and fore- 
most came the students in their caps and gowns, and 
then the many lovely, beautifully-gowned girls, and the 
speeches, and the songs, and the cheers, and last, but 
not least, the dancing to the music of Grafulla's 7th 
Regiment Band. In those days the music for all fes- 
tive occasions was furnished by Bernstein, Gilmore, 
Eben, or Grafulla, and Strauss's waltzes were the chief 
selections played. It is needless to say, that I was 
charmed and delighted, and that I required no additional 
incentive, for I passed my entrance examinations read- 
ily, and with the consent of my parents, I became a 
member of the Class of '76. 

In the Fall of 1872 our Freshman year began. All 
of the students of the College attended Chapel from 
9:30 to 10 A. M. and each class had three recitations, 
or lectures, one from 10 to 11 A. M., another from 11 
to Noon, and a third from Noon to 1 P. M. Between 
hours we drifted around on the Campus, or in the 
old College buildings, (afterwards so aptly named the 
"Maison De Punk") and overstayed our limit of five 
minutes recess between hours, in the Cloak Room in the 
basement. There were no dormitories in those days, 
and after one o'clock, everybody, as a rule, went home. 
Our studies were possibly fewer and less difficult than 

[ 122 ] 




u 






the curriculum the School of Arts demands today. They 
consisted briefly of English, Greek, Latin, ancient and 
modern history, chemistry, geology, astronomy, all of 
the branches of mathematics, including algebra, tri- 
gonometry and mensuration, analytical geometry and cal- 
culus, physics, etc. The list of professors was not a 
large one. It was headed by President Barnard, and 
it included Professors Drisler, Short, Schmidt, Joy, 
Peck, Nairne, Rood, Merriam, and Van Amringe. 

President Barnard was always visible at Chapel, fre- 
quently in the President's Room, occasionally at col- 
lege functions, and once in a while, when he walked 
across the Campus on his way to and from his resi- 
dence, which stood on the College grounds, on the North- 
west corner of 49th Street and Fourth Avenue. We 
knew of him, however, as a very learned man who had 
richly earned the many honorary degrees that had been 
conferred upon him. He was very deaf and always 
used a speaking-tube, when carrying on a conversation. 
He had the reputation of being a most just and amiable 
gentleman, but at times, he could be decidedly brusque. 
I remember being in the President's Room in the be- 
ginning of my Sophomore year, when the "grande dame" 
mother of a lazy student who had been dropped from 
his class was explaining (necessarily, on account of the 
President's infirmity, in a loud voice,) that she wanted 
her son reinstated, and that she would provide him with 
all kinds of special tutors, if this were done. The Presi- 
dent, after getting the young man's record from a book 
on his desk, politely replied, that numerous attempts 
had been made to induce the youth to keep up with 
his class, all of which had failed, and he assured the 
mother, that further efforts would, in his opinion, be 
useless. When the mother, who was evidently unaccus- 
tomed to have any wish she expressed denied her, in- 
sisted and repeated her demand, the President quietly 
laid his end of the speaking-tube aside and said firmly 
and bluntly, "No, madam, that can not be done. Besides 
it is a mistake to waste a $4,000 education on a $4 boy." 
The lady looked daggers and flounced out of the room, 
while the President calmly returned to the work lying on 
his desk before him. 

[123] 



Professor Drisler was our especial favorite, and be- 
cause we were so fond of him, the Greek that he taught 
so thoroughly, became one of our easiest and pleasant- 
est studies. He had the biggest and the kindest heart 
of all of the professors, and whenever we were in 
trouble, he was always ready to advise and assist us. 
I can best and most briefly describe him in the words 
of Hamlet, "He was a man, take him for all in all, 
I shall not look upon his like again." 

Professor Short taught Latin. He was a good 
scholar and an able teacher, but he was always so dig- 
nified and exclusive, that he never became popular with 
the boys. I am afraid that was one of the reasons 
why "Saw my leg off-short" was one of the refrains 
most frequently sung by the students of those days. 

Professor Schmidt was our teacher in Greek An- 
tiquities and in German. He also gave us topics, on 
which we wrote essays, and these essays he kindly 
and carefully corrected and criticized. Some of his 
favorite comments, written by him at the end of our 
compositions, were: "Somewhat too sententious," and 
"Not always happy in expression." He was a most de- 
lightful gentleman, but not a good disciplinarian, of 
which fact many of the boys took advantage at times. 

Professor Joy was a quiet, unassuming lovable man 
who presided over the Department of Chemistry and 
Geology. I remember an incident which happened in 
his class-room, as he was completing his lectures on 
the manufacture of beer. He had just made the state- 
ment, "Thus you see, gentlemen, that the manufacture 
of beer depends entirely on the germination of the malt," 
when he was interrupted by an impulsive student who 
sat on one of the upper benches of the amphitheatre 
and who blurted out, "And is that the reason, Pro- 
fessor, the German nation is so fond of beer?" After 
the laughter had subsided, during which the expression 
on the Professor's face never changed, he went on and 
concluded his lecture, without taking notice of the inter- 
ruption. 

Professor Peck was a genial, rugged, just man, but 
his West Point training had made him a martinet. He 

[124] 




CO 



taught us higher mathematics and astronomy, and he 
succeeded in making those studies most attractive to us. 

Professor Nairne was a most erudite Scotch scholar, 
but the boys quickly discovered that he was no dis- 
ciplinarian. He taught us English belles-lettres and lis- 
tened to our recitations and criticized them. Many a 
notice have I seen on the Cloak-room bulletin-board, 
announcing the fact that there would be a "matinee" 
in Professor Nairne's room that day. 

Professor Rood was very tall and slender and the 
fact that he always wore a red neck-tie added, in our 
opinion, to his Mephistophelian appearance. He taught 
physics and was master of his subject. He had a pecu- 
liar way of shrugging his shoulders, a "French shrug" 
we used to call it, when asked a question, and if he 
replied at all, his answer was most laconic. His room 
was on the top floor of an annex to the old building, 
and his lectures were attended jointly by a class from 
the College and a class from the School of Mines. We 
had three or four flights of stairs to climb, and we al- 
ways marched up these stairs in lock-step, singing some 
marching, or rather stamping song, like "The Mulligan 
Guards," made popular by Harrigan and Hart, who were 
New York's chief comedians in those days. There was 
a small ante-room to Professor Rood's amphitheatre, 
where the sixty or more students left their hats, super- 
fluous books and other impedimenta. It was a common 
occurrence, at the conclusion of the lecture, to find all 
of the hats, books, etc., piled up in one heap in the cen- 
tre of the ante-room floor, where each man would finally 
get his belongings after much difficulty and exertion. 

Professor Merriam was one of our youngest teach- 
ers, and he officiated in the departments of Greek and 
Latin during our Freshman and Sophomore years. He 
was thorough, kind and painstaking, and we were all 
very fond of him. 

Last, but by no means least, came Professor Van 
Amringe, who was then in his prime, — about 40 years 
old. He was the adjunct professor of mathematics un- 
der Professor Peck, and he afterwards became the Dean 
of the College and its "Best-loved Alumnus." So much 

[125] 



has been said and written about "Van Am," in prose 
and in poetry, during his long and busy life-time and 
since his recent and deeply-lamented decease, that I 
could add but little that is new in this necessarily brief 
recapitulation. Suffice it to say that Cowper's lines in 
my opinion, describe him well — 

"An honest man, close-buttoned to the chin, 
Broadcloth without, and a warm heart within." 

When I entered College, there were about 45 mem- 
bers in my class. Thirty-seven of these were grad- 
uated, and about twenty-seven of them are still liv- 
ing. About sixteen of these are lawyers, five are min- 
isters, three studied medicine, and three are educators. 
This roster includes the following gentlemen: Rev. 
Harold Arrowsmith, of Brooklyn ; Herman Drisler, re- 
tired lawyer and educator, of New York; P. Henry 
Dugro, Justice, Supreme Court of New York; Richard 
T. Ely, Professor of Political Economy at the Uni- 
versity of Wisconsin; Aymar Embury, lawyer, of New 
York; Louis O. Ivey, retired lawyer and now treas- 
urer of the Whitlock Cordage Co., of New York ; Town- 
send Jones, Edwin C. Kent, and Theodore F. Lozier, 
lawyers, of New York ; Rev. Cornelius W. Morrow, Pro- 
fessor of Psychology at Fisk University, Nashville, 
Tenn. ; Frederick Oakes, retired physician and now a 
member of the New York Stock Exchange; Wash- 
ington E. Page, lawyer, of New York; Rev. Edward 
Pratt, of Shoshone, Idaho; Louis C. Raegener, retired 
lawyer, of New York; Egbert G. Rankin, physician, of 
New York; James A. Renwick, lawyer, of New York; 
William F. A. Von Sachs, retired lawyer, now living 
in Vienna, Austria; Eugene Seligman and George W. 
Seligman, lawyers, of New York; Isaac N. Seligman, 
banker, of New York; Du Bois Smith and William E. 
Ver Planck, lawyers, of New York; Irvin A. Sprague, 
broker, of New York; William C. Thayer, Professor 
of English at Lehigh University, Bethlehem, Pa. ; Rev. 
Montgomery H. Throop, retired minister, of New York ; 
Rev. Leighton Williams, of New York; and Richard 

[126] 




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T. Bang, physician, of New York. All of our teachers 
are dead. 

The chief student celebrations of Old Columbia were 
"The Semi-Annuals," "The Burial of the Ancient," "The 
Goodwood Cup Celebration" and "Class Day." 

"The Semi-Annuals" were held every February at the 
Academy of Music on 14th Street, after the semi-an- 
nual college examinations. Two members of each class 
were elected to deliver original orations, and the topics 
selected were frequently most weird and uninteresting 
ones. Grafulla's or Gilmore's music in between the ora- 
tions was, in my opinion, the chief attraction, serving, 
as it frequently did, as an invitation to many a delight- 
ful dance in the halls, boxes and corridors of the spacious 
old play-house. I remember, on the one occasion on 
which I had the honor of speaking at a Semi-Annual, 
I had selected the cheerful topic, "An Hour in Trinity 
Church-yard," and as I concluded my oration with the 
statement "And I cherish amongst my recollections of 
time spent usefully and well — An Hour in Trinity 
Church-yard," and listened to the perfunctory applause 
that followed, I was convinced that the only person in 
that audience who had been interested and who had 
appreciated my efforts, was my mother. Some few years 
after we were graduated, these Semi-Annuals were 
wisely abandoned and now, I believe, the boys have a 
dance at Delmonico's instead. 

At the end of the Sophomore year, we celebrated 
"The Burial — or Cremation — of the Ancient." In other 
words, we burned, with much pomp and ceremony, 
Boyesen's Book on Grecian Antiquities, because we were 
glad to get rid of this dry and uninteresting study. Pre- 
ceded by a band of music playing dirges, a procession 
of students, in cap and gown, formed at the Worth 
Monument at 26th Street and marched up Fifth Ave- 
nue to the College. On the Campus a large bonfire 
had been built and there, with a poem, an oration, and 
much singing and snake-dancing, "old Bo" was prop- 
erly incinerated. I happened to be the orator at the 
'76 Burial, and I remember telling my impatient and 
turbulent auditors, that "inasmuch as he had earned a 

[127] 



reward, we ought to reward him with an urn." The 
celebration usually ended with a collation and a "song- 
fest" at Fritz's Hall on 50th Street, between Fourth 
and Lexington Avenues, which place was the students' 
rendezvous in those days. 

"The Goodwood Cup Celebration" occurred at the end 
of the Junior year. This cup was a loving-cup given to 
the most popular man in his class by his class-mates. Bob 
Townsend was its receipient from my class. Bob after- 
wards became Colonel Robert Townsend, a member of 
Governor Hill's staff, and he was also, for many years, 
an Assistant District Attorney under Colonel Fellows 
and Delancey Nicoll. When he retired from the District 
Attorney's office some years ago, I was present at the 
dinner tendered to him by his friends and colleagues 
at the Hotel Savoy in this city. On this occasion an- 
other loving-cup was presented to him, and I reminded 
him of the '76 Goodwood Cup. With tears in his eyes 
he told me how much more he had appreciated the Col- 
lege honor that had been bestowed upon him in his 
early youth. Colonel Townsend died suddenly only a 
few short months ago. The "Goodwood Cup Celebra- 
tion" consisted chiefly of two orations, one delivered by 
the student who presented the cup on behalf of its donors, 
and the other, a reply by the Cup Recipient. The rest of 
the celebration was a dance, with a collation. 

"Class Day," was, of course, the Senior year celebra- 
tion. The exercises consisted in reading a History of 
the Class, placing a Class Memorial Plate somewhere 
on the grounds, delivering the Class-Day Oration, read- 
ing the Class-Day Poem, planting the Class Ivy, smok- 
ing the Class-Pipe and saluting the Old Rooms. In be- 
tween these exercises three or four songs, with orig- 
inal words, were sung, usually the Class-Song, thp Song 
of the Pipe and the Parting Song. The entertainment 
always ended with dancing. 

There were, I think, two College papers which ex- 
isted at Old Columbia during the Seventies — "The Cap 
and Gown" and "The Spectator," both excellent publi- 
cations, entirely in the hands of the undergraduate body 
and managed and run by the students. In the Junior 

[128] 




1 



I 



year the "Columbiad" was published. This was a hand- 
some magazine, sometimes a book, recording all of the 
occurrences of the past year at College, with full in- 
formation concerning athletic contests, membership in 
societies, etc. It was, in short, a College Almanac, and 
each Junior class tried to issue a Columbiad which was 
an improvement on its immediate predecessors. 

The Literary Societies were, of course, Philolexia 
and Peithologia. In the later Seventies, a third So- 
ciety came into existence, the Barnard, named after the 
President. 

There were about eight or ten chapters representing 
the principal Greek Letter Fraternities of the Country at 
Columbia in those days, together with many exclusive 
smaller societies. Amongst the National Greek Letter 
Fraternities represented were : Alpha Delta Phi, Delta 
Kappa Epsilon, Psi Upsilon, Phi Kappa Psi, Delta Psi, 
and Delta Phi. 

Rowing, foot-ball, baseball and general athletics were 
our chief pastimes. We had a boat-house on the Har- 
lem River, just below the Railroad Bridge at 125th 
Street, which was the Mecca of many students on Sat- 
urdays and Holidays in the spring and fall of the year. 
Our crew, although Columbia began its rowing existence 
at Springfield, Mass., on the Connecticut River in 1873, 
was victorious at Saratoga in 1874 and came in second 
at Saratoga in 1875. Three members of my class, Jasper 
T. Goodwin, Irvin A. Sprague and Isaac N. Seligman, 
rowed in the '74 and '75 boats. Jasper T. Goodwin was 
the stroke and did much to bring the colors of Columbia 
to the front. 

Football at Columbia had its beginnings in about 
1870, the game in those days being played with twenty 
men on a side. The only place we had for practice was 
the so-called Campus, or patch of lawn, skirted by trees, 
in front of the 49th Street side of the College. Our 
twenty in the Seventies made a good showing. There 
was little, or no training done, for we had no gymnasium, 
and this, in my opinion, was the main reason for the 
occurrence of numerous accidents. I remember my left 
shoulder coming in contact with a tree-trunk during one 
of the scrub-games on the Campus, with the result that 

[129] 



my clavicle was broken. I was assisted across the rail- 
road track on Fourth Avenue to the Women's Hospital, 
then located on the east side of Fourth Avenue on 49th 
Street, and there my arm was bandaged to my body in 
what, in later years, I learned was called a Sayre dress- 
ing, which arrangement allowed my coat-sleeve to dangle 
empty by my side. I also remember coming home with 
a smile on my face, proud of the fact that I was a foot- 
ball hero, injured in a worthy cause, but oblivious of the 
impression made upon others by my empty coat-sleeve. 
My dear mother caught one glimpse of me and fell into 
a faint, thinking I had lost my arm, which illusion was, 
however, soon happily dispelled. 

Baseball was fairly well played at all colleges in 
those days. Its beginnings at Columbia were in about 
'58 or '60. General athletic meets were held annually 
on the grounds of the New York Athletic Club at Mott 
Haven, but there were few, if any, inter-collegiate con- 
tests. 

My chronicle of reminiscences would not be com- 
plete without mentioning that old Stephen Weeks, who 
had been moved up with the College from Park Place, 
was still the janitor, and, as he loved to be called, the 
assistant Librarian. Francois and Mike were the sub- 
janitors who did the real work. Weeks' chief labors 
consisted in tolling the chapel bell and blowing the whistle 
at the end of recess. 

I could easily prolong my tale, but time and space 
forbid. Let me fitly conclude my article by giving to 
the light of day the words of the parting song of '76, 
written to the air of "Lauriger Horatius" by John E. 
H. Hyde, later on a prominent patent lawyer of New 
York, who died several years ago. The only time this 
fine poem was ever printed was when it was placed on 
our Class-Day program. 

"Hail to the departed years, 
Which too soon have left us! 
Of the fairest days of life 
Has their death bereft us. 
Youth, the spring of life, is o'er, 

[130] 




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But the seed is planted, 

May our autumn, with its fruits, 

Prove a harvest granted! 

Of the sparkling glass of life, 
Foaming youth is sweetest, 
And of all our fleeting years, 
Those of youth are fleetest. 
Seize the glass and drain it dry, 
E'en though one of sorrow, 
For the past we breathe a sigh, 
While we toast to-morrow. 

May our Manhood's coming years, 
Still in friendship find us ! 
Though our class-ties loose to-day, 
Yet our mem'ries bind us. 
Here we've had our brighest thoughts, 
Dreams, which we have cherished, 
Thoughts, whose brightness could not last, 
Dreams, which long since perished. 

Though our early hopes have failed, 
Should we then regret them? 
Dreaming has no part in life, 
Let us then forget them ! 
May our lives, by noble deeds, 
Writ on history's pages, 
'Grave the year of seventy-six, 
Deeper yet on ages ! 



[131] 



The Shopping District 

It is interesting to note the shifting scenes of the shop- 
ping district of New York. Not long ago the now de- 
serted Twenty-third Street and the district in Sixth 
Avenue between Fourteenth and Twenty-third Streets 
were humming with the busy life of the retail business. 
The stream of feminine beauty and gayety which flowed 
through these streets, eddying in and out of the great 
and little dry goods palaces, has been deflected to other 
parts and now we find it in the more spacious and 
aristocratic regions of Fifth Avenue and the cross streets 
between Madison and Sixth Avenues. Taking Fifth 
Avenue at Thirty-fourth Street as a center and radiating 
out in every direction from that point we have, without 
doubt, the most extensive and by far the most luxurious 
shopping center of any city in the world. The shifting 
of the scene has been accomplished within a compara- 
tively short time. Since the Waldorf-Astoria succeeded 
the Astor houses at Fifth Avenue and Thirty-fourth 
Street many palatial business establishments have been 
built in both of these fine thoroughfares, and all of the 
cross streets have likewise been built up with stores of 
all kinds for retail business purposes. 

In walking along Fifth Avenue one is first of all im- 
pressed with the architectural beauty and chasteness of 
many of these business buildings and afterward with the 
wonderful combination of modern practicality with 
classic style. Business and art go hand in hand — the 
dollar and the ideal in perfect unison, and the New 
York merchant is proved to be not the sordid money 
getter he is so often represented to be but a pretty good 
amalgam of the man who dares and the man who dreams. 
As an evidence of his artistic taste one need only take 
a walk through the aisles of any of these fine establish- 
ments and witness the good taste and pleasing arrange- 
ment of the goods. Perhaps the most attractive features 

[132] 




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2 

x 

3 



of the shopping district are the windows. There was 
a time when the leading retail merchants sent representa- 
tives to London and Paris to study the art of window 
dressing, but that point has long ago been passed and 
it may be said with perfect truthfulness that the pupil 
could now give lessons to the former master. A walk 
along Fifth Avenue is a revelation of taste and beauty 
unequaled in any city in the world. 

A recent development of the retail business in the 
numerous cross streets is the specialty shop which makes 
a feature of one particular line of goods only — such as 
millinery, gowns, gloves, lingerie and other things. These 
shops find a clientele among women who like the quiet 
and exclusiveness of these dainty little places and the 
sort of personal and intimate attention which they re- 
ceive there. For women whose tastes are fastidious and 
exacting these specialty places offer an ideal resort. 
There has also developed very rapidly the antique shop 
which is found more numerously than any of the others 
and locates mostly in the cross streets in the neighbor- 
hood of Fifth Avenue. These are extremely interesting 
places to visit and contain rare and costly articles from 
every clime and nation. 

In a big city like New York the shopping district can- 
not be restricted to any given locality. It breaks out in 
spots and remains there or suddenly moves according 
to either the necessity or whim, as we choose to call it, 
of the people. For instance, we have a very important 
shopping district in the neighborhood of Grace Church 
which refuses to be stampeded or moved by any of the 
metamorphoses of this ever-changing city. Here it has 
been since A. T. Stewart built his magnificent dry goods 
palace away back in the 70s, and here it flourishes still 
and increases. And Fourteenth Street also retains its 
hold and still possesses one of our oldest and best known 
establishments. As the city extends and localities fill 
up new districts for shopping spring up and grow into 
important centers in an amazingly short time. Witness, 
for instance, the business establishments on Broadway 
from Seventy-second Street up as far as Straus Park. 
There are stores in that district which have large stocks 

[133] 



of goods vying with the greater establishments further 
downtown in variety, beauty and quality of material. 

A very large and important shopping district has de- 
veloped in Brooklyn from Borough Hall along Fulton 
Street and up Flatbush Avenue as far as Fourth Ave- 
nue. This district is not at all restricted to Brook- 
lyn shoppers. Intercommunication between the bor- 
oughs has made it possible for shoppers to reach this 
section as conveniently as the most favored localities of 
Manhattan, and consequently shoppers come from all 
parts, even from uptown New York. These Brooklyn 
establishments are as large as those in New York and 
as fine in their appointments, and the volume of business 
done is as great. 

The shopping district for the Bronx centers about 
149th Street and Third Avenue, one of the busiest sec- 
tions of the city. The business of this district is very 
large but is chiefly of a local nature. The amazing 
growth of the Bronx is having its effect on the retail 
business and is fast transforming these handsome local 
stores into business establishments of cosmopolitan im- 
portance. 

Men's Wear in 1822 

White handkerchiefs were worn by men only on spe- 
cial occasions, as when in full dress; at other times red 
silk was the prevailing material. It was not until this 
year that false collars to shirts were worn, and only 
by a few. 

There were some other articles of men's wear that 
are worthy of record. Thus: instead of the single 
neck-cloths, stiffeners, termed "puddings," were intro- 
duced ; and soon after an article termed a "stock," com- 
posed of stiff, woven horsehair, fully three inches in 
width, buckled behind; and leather straps from the legs 
of pantaloons, buttoned at the sides, were worn under 
the boots. 

[134] 




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© H. C. BROWN, 1916 



The Seamen's Institute— South Street. The lighthouse tower is 
a memorial to the Titanic victims. A brass tablet on the wall 
records this fact. The light can be seen twenty miles out to sea. 



Memories of Old Brooklyn 

In 1816 Brooklyn had a population of nearly 7,000 
souls. To-day it has a million and three quarters. Be- 
tween these two points stretches the wonderful pano- 
rama of Brooklyn's development. The quaint old wood- 
cut we often see printed of the ferry that plied between 
Brooklyn and Peck Slip, New York, in these early days 
gives hardly a hint of the enormous traffic that surges 
from shore to shore in our own times ; and no one would 
have predicted then that the tiny little village of low 
wooden houses clustered about the foot of Fulton Street 
would expand in a brief century into one of the greatest 
aggregations of people in the whole world. When we 
compare our little ferry of 1816 with the immense 
structures of communication of the present day it gives 
us pause and we wonder what the future may bring 
forth. 

Although the ferries are almost unknown to the 
present generation, they filled a very important place in 
the lives of preceding generations of Brooklynites, 
and what crowds they carried! There was no more in- 
teresting sight than to see these crowds arriving from all 
directions at the ferry slips. All the car lines focussed 
on these points and unloaded their thousands there, and 
streams of hurrying pedestrians poured in from every 
street until a huge mass of human beings collected, ready 
to push and hustle for the boat as soon as it was made 
tight to the slip. We hear much about the bridge 
crowds, but it is a question if the ferry crowds were not 
entitled to the palm. There are many Brooklynites liv- 
ing who can remember the exciting and perhaps humor- 
ous scenes so often enacted. It was not at all an in- 
frequent occurrence that a few daring souls on the 
fringes of the crowd would make a bold jump for the 
ferry boat after it had started out from the slip, and in- 
stead of landing on the deck plunge into the foaming wa- 
ters below. They were always fished up by the ferry 

[135] 



hands not much the worse for the dipping, but sadder and 
wiser men. These ferry crowds were always good- 
natured, and they stood jammed in the cabin and on the 
decks indulging in no more than the usual banter and 
good-natured fault-finding of the complacent citizen. 

There were other crowds in those days that were 
just as picturesque and interesting and belong in a spe- 
cial sense to the life of Brooklyn — the crowds that be- 
sieged Talmadge's Tabernacle in Schermerhorn Street; 
and old Plymouth Church where Henry Ward Beecher 
was the idol of the people. To get a seat in the Taber- 
nacle in those days was out of the question. You were 
lucky if you got inside the building at all. Many a time 
I have mingled with the crowd on the outside buzzing 
around the building from one door to another trying to 
get in. And the crowds still came pouring into Scher- 
merhorn Street from all the intersecting streets until 
there were more people on the outside than there were 
in the church. Then we could hear the cornetist and 
we knew the services were fairly under way. By the 
time Dr. Talmadge got down to his sermon the crowds 
in the corridors thinned out and any one who was tall 
enough could look over the heads of those who jammed 
the doorways and get a view of the wide platform and 
the long, thin solitary figure moving dramatically from 
one end to the other. The great duel of intellects be- 
tween Col. Ingersoll and Dr. Talmadge created great 
excitement and attracted greater crowds than ever. The 
discussions became a subject of world wide interest, and 
were not always in favor of the great agnostic. 

It is often said that you must hear and see a speaker 
to get the full meaning and spirit of what he says, and 
this was true of Dr. Talmadge. Nevertheless, his ser- 
mons were read by millions of people in every Eng- 
lish speaking country on the globe. His enunciation 
was sometimes execrable — he always said "mulitude" 
for multitude, but his dramatic movements and poses 
were so striking and impressive and so perfectly original 
that his audience sat spell-bound under their force and 
power. People used to say that his arms and legs and 

[136] 



particularly his fingers were as eloquent as his spoken 
words. 

Old Plymouth Church, of course, is more than a 
Brooklyn institution. It is a familiar name in every 
American home and every Sunday, pilgrims from far 
distant points wend their way through the beautiful old 
streets of the Heights to this shrine of the Puritans. 

When Mr. Beecher was at the height of his fame in 
the early 70's, the crowds that came to hear him could 
not have been accommodated in a building twice the 
size. A continual stream came up Fulton Street from 
the ferry (there was no bridge then) and a long line of 
cars was always to be seen discharging their human 
freight at Orange Street, all bound for Old Plymouth. 
There were none of those handsome apartment build- 
ings then. Just the fine old Colonial houses of which a 
few still remain. But all were bent on just the one thing 
— to hear the master orator of the nineteenth century. 
And no one was ever disappointed, for Henry Ward 
Beecher could touch every note of the human heart with 
a delicacy and power unapproached and unapproach- 
able. Many of us can recall the fine old Puritan gentle- 
man as he briskly ascended the steps to the platform and 
casting his soft hat on the floor at his side took his place 
in the center chair and calmly gazed out on the great 
congregation. A strange quality of Mr. Beecher's voice 
was that no matter how low he might speak you could 
hear him distinctly in every part of the church and when 
he let himself out his voice rang with the clearness and 
melody of a bell. 

It is doubtful if there ever was a more picturesque 
figure in Brooklyn than Henry Ward Beecher. Count- 
less stories are told of his remarkable personality and 
I have frequently stood beside him myself crossing the 
Fulton Ferry on the outward deck even if the day was 
stormy. It was also a great habit of his to read on the 
front platform of the horse cars and indulge in conver- 
sation with the driver and the conductor. In fact, he 
was noted for this and used to remark that many of 
his most interesting observations resulted from this ex- 
perience. Another eccentricity by which he was noted 

[137] 



was his fondness for precious stones. It was not an 
unusual thing for him to visit a firm of jewelers in Mai- 
den Lane and leave their office with a pocketful of 
diamonds of the first water. These he delighted to 
spread out on his library table, enjoying their wonderful 
scintillating rays. He seemed to have a perfect pas- 
sion for the sparkling stones, and after he had them in 
his possession a few days the firm would send quietly 
over and get them back again. 

Upon one occasion he met his distinguished contem- 
porary, Dr. Talmadge, on Fulton Street, in front of 
the Brooklyn Furniture Store, before whose premises 
were displayed a large assortment of armchairs and va- 
rious other articles for sale. These two distinguished 
citizens became very much interested in their conversa- 
tion and sat down in two rockers that were marked 
down to $1.98 and continued their conversation, ob- 
livious to the fact that a large crowd had been attracted 
by the spectacle. The police were finally called on to 
keep the crowd moving and when the conversation fin- 
ished the two distinguished divines went their way with 
no further thought of the incident. 

To Dr. Newell Dwight Hillis, the eloquent successor 
of Mr. Beecher, is due the credit of the Beecher Me- 
morial, a dream of Dr. Hillis' ever since he came to 
Brooklyn nearly seventeen years ago. It resulted in 
the Arbuckle Institute, a school for the education of 
young men and women in technical subjects. The build- 
ings are the munificent gift of the late John Arbuckle 
and his sister, Catharine, still living. A fine monument 
to Beecher, showing him as he appeared on the platform 
speaking, has been erected on the grounds facing on 
Orange Street. 

One other noted divine of these days was Dr. Richard 
Salter Storrs of the Church of the Pilgrims, a masterly 
speaker and a man of fine presence and voice but rather 
cold and reserved in manner. His oration at the open- 
ing of the Brooklyn Bridge was a masterpiece of classic 
English and will always hold an important place in the 
history of the borough. Next to President Arthur he 
was the most noted man at that event. President Arthur 

[138] 




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himself we can remember as a man of exquisite taste. 
He was known to be the "pink of perfection" in all 
matters pertaining to dress and manners — a gentleman 
of the first water. But on the occasion of the opening 
of the bridge there was consternation and amazement 
when the President appeared in an old "topper" which 
had lost its luster and looked as if it had seen much 
service. 

Many Brooklynites can remember when Flatbush 
Avenue from the Willink entrance to Prospect Park was 
a beautiful country road, embowered in old and stately 
trees. There were no cars beyond the Willink entrance 
at that time but on Sunday afternoons the Nostrand and 
Franklin Avenue cars, the only two lines running so 
far out, brought their thousands to the Park and many 
of us who loved the more secluded roads would wend 
our way leisurely through Flatbush Avenue out as far 
as Flatlands. The old Dutch Reformed Church dating 
from 1654 and the oldest on Long Island and Erasmus 
Academy now entirely enclosed by the magnificent build- 
ings of Erasmus Hall High School were the chief land- 
marks and here and there on either side of the road 
were the old mansions of the early Dutch settlers, some 
of which still remain quaint and beautiful as ever. We 
did not think then that Flatbush was so soon to become 
the most populous and important suburb of Brooklyn, 
and indeed, as many visitors say, by far the most beau- 
tiful suburb of any city in the United States. Perhaps 
the proximity of Prospect Park has something to do 
with this. 

A peculiarity of the young people of Brooklyn be- 
fore the advent of elevated roads and subways was the 
custom of promenading through the beautiful and shady 
paths of Greenwood on the Sunday afternoons. A con- 
tinuous stream passed through the Fifth Avenue en- 
trance and up the hill toward the famous Charlotte Can- 
da monument and thence through Central Avenue to the 
Lake. It was an odd fancy that took young people gal- 
lanting through the city of the dead in their best bib 
and tucker and chatting and smiling with the lighthead- 
edness of youth, but it was not done either in irrever- 

[139] 



ence or careless neglect of the proprieties. Something in 
the beauty and charm of the winding paths and road- 
ways no doubt had much to do with it, and perhaps, 
too, the want of parks and the general barrenness of 
the streets made the walk through the cemetery the 
only really enjoyable one in the neighborhood. What- 
ever the reason, the Sunday afternoon crowds were a 
surety. Now all that is changed, the walks are given 
over to the meditative and the young people hie them- 
selves to Coney Island. There were no street cars to 
Coney Island at the time of which we write and none 
of the present-day attractions there. Transportation 
was afforded by a train consisting usually of one car, 
which was not always crowded and Vanderveer's Ho- 
tel was the great rendezvous for visitors. This was be- 
fore the days of Brighton or Manhattan Beach and when 
Dreamland and Luna Park were still afar off. As boys 
we used to go in swimming where lately stood the fa- 
mous Oriental Hotel, and many a struggle with the 
strenuous undertow was experienced by the youths who 
adventured into these treacherous waters. Since then 
Ocean Parkway — one of the finest driveways in the 
country, and Ocean Avenue with its handsome homes 
and many other great highways have been finished all 
the way down to the Island. 

Old frequenters of Coney Island will tell you how 
the first site of the Brighton Beach Hotel and the beach 
itself have long ago disappeared in the all-consuming 
maw of old ocean. When the hotel was first built it 
stood several hundred yards further out than it does 
to-day and there was a splendid beach stretching all 
along the coast on either side for miles. The relentless 
and never-ceasing encroachment of the sea first com- 
pelled the moving of the hotel far inland and then the 
building of bulwarks to keep the remorseless waters 
back, but nature was not to be balked of her prey, and 
the original site was soon swallowed up and is now 
far out and fathoms deep under the sea, and the end is 
not yet! It would be interesting to watch the struggle 
between nature and man during the next two or three 
generations. At Manhattan Beach Estates they have 

[140] 




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already erected the first line of forts but it has yet to be 
be seen if they can withstand the pounding of an enemy 
that never gets tired. 

It scarcely seems like twenty-five years since Ocean 
Parkway was alive with bicycles rushing in pell-mell 
speed to and from Coney Island. These were the days 
of real sport, real excitement; and it looked sometimes 
as if the entire population of the city with little old 
New York thrown in had only one purpose in view and 
that was getting to Coney Island and getting there quick. 
The nights were made merry with the shouts and laugh- 
ter of the joyous riders and their lamps shed a maze 
of light up and down the road as far as the eye could 
see. They came from everywhere and came in thou- 
sands, for here was the finest and longest bicycle path 
that was ever built and it led to the very edge of the 
ocean. And the glorious morning rides ! How many 
enthusiasts discovered the extraordinary enjoyment of 
these morning rides? Skimming over the smooth road- 
ways of beautiful Prospect Park, along the edge of the 
lake and past the Wheelmen's Rest into the splendid 
highway that stretched out before you perfectly smooth 
and flat — nothing could be finer. And at the end of the 
journey a cup of coffee or a glass of soda and a biscuit 
or sandwich in the little wooden refuge on the sands. 
They can't do much better in these later times. 

In the other direction — due north — I can only re- 
member one place that attracted the Brooklynite and he 
had to share it with the East Side New Yorker — that 
was Bowery Bay. It was a long, long way in these days 
and the journey had /to be taken in installments, first to 
Greenpoint, then across the creek in a little bob-tail car 
to Long Island City, and from there to Astoria, from 
which point we had to foot it ; but the latter part of the 
journey was the most pleasant, as it was through beauti- 
ful country roads leading on to the sandy shores of 
Bowery Bay. This is now North Beach, the great pleas- 
ure ground of that section of Brooklyn lying north of 
Grand Street. 

The most conspicuous monument of Revolutionary 
days in Brooklyn is Fort Greene, now a beautiful little 

[141] 



city park. This fort was a strong point in the long bat- 
tle line extending from Gowanus to Wallabout Bay in 
the famous battle of Long Island. There has been 
erected recently on this site a very handsome column 
commemorating the sailors and soldiers who perished 
during the Revolution in the prison ships of Wallabout 
Bay. 

Not far south of this historic spot is the Pratt In- 
stitute, a college of technical education for men and 
women founded by Charles Pratt in 1884. The library 
is an exceptionally fine one and contains over 100,000 
volumes. The manual and industrial training of this 
institution is a special feature and has carried its fame 
to all parts of the world. Charles M. Pratt, a son of 
the founder, is president ; George D. Pratt, present Com- 
missioner for the Conservation of Public Lands, is treas- 
urer; and Frederick B. Pratt, secretary. Herbert Lee 
Pratt, the well known collector, is a trustee. In this 
neighborhood also is Adelphi College, which also bene- 
fited by Mr. Pratt's munificence and is the best beloved 
perhaps of any institution in Brooklyn. It was estab- 
lished in 1869 as Adelphi Academy, but is now a col- 
lege for women. Dr. S. Parkes Cadman, the brilliant 
pulpit orator and scholar, was the acting president until 
recently when Dr. Frank Dickinson Blodgett was made 
president. 

Almost opposite Adelphi are two famous churches 
of Brooklyn — Emmanuel Baptist and St. James' Epis- 
copal, both old churches but comparatively new buildings 
far famed for the beauty of their structure and interior 
arrangements. And only a very short distance west is 
perhaps the most chaste and dignified ecclesiastical build- 
ing in the borough — the chapel of the Roman Catholic 
Cathedral, Queen of all Saints. The Masonic Temple is 
on the next corner, a new and handsome addition in 
architecture to this section of Brooklyn, and the Church 
of the Messiah in Greene Avenue whose graceful spire 
is one of the most admired in this city of churches. 

[142] 




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The Long Island Historical Society 

To those who are interested in the historic events of 
Brooklyn and Long Island, a visit to the Long Island 
Historical Society in Pierrepont Street would pay. There 
he would find a wealth of material relating to local af- 
fairs. An excellent library, a fine collection of prints, 
relics and memorials of Colonial life and other interest- 
ing articles pertaining to this subject are at his disposi- 
tion. The Long Island Historical Society is also en- 
titled to a very high place among the original discoverers 
and publishers of historical documents pertaining to 
New York City. It was owing to their enterprise that we 
have the Journal of Dankus & Sluyter, a narrative of a 
voyage to New York and Brooklyn and a tour in several 
of the American Colonies in 1679-80, edited by Mr. 
Henry C. Murphy, one of the members of the society. 
Mr. Murphy also discovered in the archives at the Hague 
the original letter of the first Dutch minister, John 
Megapolensis, who continued a settled ministry in New 
York until he died in 1669, a period of 27 years. A 
valuable possession of the Society is a collection of 
one hundred and twenty-three original letters of George 
Washington, a portrait of Washington, and a fine bust 
of the same. Judge Willard Bartlett, the president of 
the Society, and Mr. John Jay Pierrepont, the treasurer, 
are both men intensely interested in all Long Island 
lore and give ungrudgingly of their time and knowledge 
to its affairs. The other officers are William B. Daven- 
port and Joseph E. Brown, vice presidents ; Tunis G. 
Bergen, corresponding secretary; and Cyril H. Burdett, 
recording secretary. Miss Toedtleberg is librarian. 



Crossing on the Ice, 1821 

On the 21st of January the North River from the Battery 
up was so wholly frozen over that many thousand persons 
crossed from the foot of Cortlandt Street to Paulus Hook 
(Jersey City). On the 25th foot passengers crossed the East 
River to Brooklyn and to Governor's Island; on the 26th a 
boat was brought up from Staten Island on the ice, and persons 
walked to Staten Island from Long Island. 

[143] 



Preparedness Seventy Years Ago 

There is much excitement at the present time about 
compulsory preparedness and judging from comments 
and conversations one hears it would seem as if the 
idea was something entirely new to our people. As 
near as the '40s they were quite accustomed to the idea 
that every man owed a debt to his country in the mat- 
ter of military training. Here is an interesting account 
of "general training-day" from "A Tour Around New 
York/' by John Flavel Mines, and published by Harper 
& Brothers. 

The present generation has much to boast of in its advance 
upon the traditions and inventions of the fathers, but it has 
forever missed some delights whose memories are still redolent 
of pleasure to us who are tottering down the western slope 
of the hill. To the boy of today the once magic words "general 
training-day" have no meaning. To the Oldboys they still 
convey through memory's kaleidoscope rare pictures of the past. 
The "June training" was a holiday whether the school-house 
kept its doors open or not. At one time it covered the space 
of three days; later on a single day was devoted to the public 
instruction in the manual of arms. And a blithesome day it 
was. It never rained during those twenty-four hours. Very 
early in the sweet summer morning the victims and votaries 
of Mars used to assemble on the gravelled sidewalk of St. 
John's Park and in other convenient places, and go through the 
manual in awkward array. Short and tall, old and young, 
shabby and well dressed, the motley crew were ranged in line, 
while the instructor in tactics, sword at side and with rattan 
in hand, endeavored to switch them into order and swear into 
their dull heads some idea of military discipline. It was a 
spectacle for which all New York prepared itself for weeks 
in advance with a broad grin. A virtual holiday, it always 
culminated in a carnival. When the hour arrived for the dis- 
play of this motley crew in parade, all New York poured forth 
into the streets through which its awkward army marched, and 
laughed until its sides ached. 

The fun of training-day was phenomenal, but it had to 
be paid for. After the glory of the review came the terrors 
of the court-martial. In a few weeks those who had failed to 
turn out for inspection, as by law directed, and those who had 
not equipped themselves in such martial array as the statute 
required, found themselves standing in the impressive presence 

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of a circle of epauletted officers, whose sternness was equalled 
only by the amount of gold lace that bedizened them. Then 
woe befall the unlucky wight who had hoped to escape detec- 
tion as an artful dodger of his duty, or the careless trainer, 
whose bayonet, cartridge-box, or musket had not materialized 
itself to the inspector's eye. All delinquents were incontinently 
fined in sums varying from 25 cents to $5, and those who 
had not the money to pay were promptly filed off under guard 
and consigned to the iron grasp of Marshal Davids ; The 
unhappy defender of his country's honor had no alternative but 
to furnish the hard cash, or to rest his martial bones in Eld- 
ridge Street Jail until such time as his fine had been liquidated 
at the rate of one dollar for each day of imprisonment. 'Twas 
ever thus, that those who would dance must pay the piper. 



Records of Trinity Church 

Generally speaking, the records of Births, Marriages 
and Deaths in Trinity Church are not available for pub- 
lication. Persons, however, who are in search of speci- 
fic information are provided with a copy of any particu- 
lar item which the church may possess. 

The parish registers having been destroyed in the great 
fire of 1776, a new set of books was commenced. The 
destruction of those old registers cannot be too deeply 
deplored. One only, a Register of Marriages, escaped 
destruction; and that goes back only to 1746, the time 
of a previous fire. In marriages they have no records 
prior to that date; in baptisms and burials they can go 
as far as 1777. 



The Social Center Shifts Again 

Fifth Avenue between Sixty-sixth and Sixty-seventh 
Streets is the centre of population of the prominent families 
of New York. Two years ago the centre was at Madison 
Avenue and Sixty-fourth Street. 

Park Avenue has more prominent families than any other 
thoroughfare, 702. Fifth Avenue has 438 families and Mad- 
ison Avenue has 330. Of the 702 families living in Park Ave- 
nue 606 are housed in fifty apartment houses. In one apart- 
ment house alone, that at 375 Park Avenue, there are forty- 
nine families. 

Below Central Park there are 3,942 families, on the east 
side above Fifty-ninth Street 2,277 families, and on the west 

[145] 



side above Fifty-ninth Street 1,156 families, a total of 7,375 
families. The 7,375 families mentioned as living in Manhat- 
tan are only 60 per cent, of the total number of prominent 
New York families. The other 40 per cent, is divided be- 
tween those living in the country, 3,097 families, abroad 713 
families and at miscellaneous places 1,200 families. There are 
110 prominent New York families wintering at Washington, 
89 in California, 204 in Paris and 169 in London. 

In 1888 Twenty-first Street, which boasted more prom- 
inent families than any other, had 292 families, while Thirty- 
second Street came next with 111 families. It is an interest- 
ing fact that Washington Square and Gramercy Park have 
about the same number of well-known families now as in the 
year 1888. 



Passenger Traffic — Subway and Elevated 

The greatest number of passengers ever transported by 
the Interborough Rapid Transit Company in one day went 
over the subway and elevated lines December 20, 1915. On that 
day, according to President Theodore P. Shonts, 2,468,970 pas- 
sengers were carried, of whom 1,385,253 rode in the subway. 

From December 1 to December 27 the total number of 
passengers carried on both the subways and the elevated lines 
was 53,351,275, 3,000,000 more than were carried during the 
corresponding period last year. During the week ended De- 
cember 18 the number of passengers carried was 14,018,126, 
and during the week ended December 25 the total was 13,- 
658,849. 

The handling of the passengers on December 20, the rec- 
ord day, was accomplished without a single accident. 



Steamboat Replaces Horse Boat on East River Ferry 

September 11th, 1826, the Williamsburgh Ferry Co. peti- 
tioned the Common Council to allow them to replace their 
horse-boat with a steamboat, as a steamboat was not provided 
for in their grant. 



First Tow Boats 

Up to this year, 1825, when tow or tug boats were intro- 
duced, sailing vessels were navigated from Sandy Hook around 
the city, and even through Hell Gate, under their canvas- alone. 
Vessels of war, beating from the Navy Yard down the East 
River and Bay, were a frequent and interesting sight. 

[146] 



SUPPLEMENT to the 
NEW-YORK GAZETTEER No. 44. 

PEACE? LIBERTY! and INDEPENDENCE! 
PHILADELPHIA March 24, 1783. 

YE STFRD AY arrived, after a paiTage of 32 days from Cadiz, a French 
floop of war commanded by M. de Quefne, with the agreeable intelligence 
of PhACE. The particular Articles respecting this happy and glorious 
Event are as follows. The principle articles or the preliminaries of the 
Peace of the 20th January, 1783. 

France to retain Tobago and Senegal. 

France to reftorc to Great-Britain Grenada, St. Vincents* Dominic* 
arid St. Chrijlopkers. 

St. Eujlaria, Demarara* Barbice and Ifiquibo to be reftored to the Dutch. 

Great-Britain 10 reftorc to France, Goree*St. Lucia* St. Pierre* and 
Mhqttelon. 

The fimety of France and England on the Coaft of Newfoundland, to re- 
main on the fame footing on which they were by the treaty of 1763, except 
that part of the Coaft Cape Bona&fia ac Cape St. Johns* (hall belong to the 
irnclifli^ 

F&ANCE.tobe fe,-eftabhfhed in the Eaft-Indies* as well in Bengal* as on the 
Eatt ami Weft Ccattof the Peninfula, as regulated by the treaty 1763. The 
articles of preceding treaties, coocertaing the demolilhing of Dunkirk to be 
fuppreficd. 

Spain to retain Minorca and Welt-Florida. 

Great-Britain cedes Easl-Fhrida to Spain. 

An- agreement to be entered into between Spain and Great-Britain, about 
the cutting of weed in the Bay of Honduras. 

Great-Britais to retain the Dutch Settlements of Negapatam in the 
Eafl-IrJiei. 

Great-iBritain to reftore Trinauemale \o the Dutch, if not retaken* 

St.EuJiatia* Demarara* and IRouibo to be rcftorcd by the French to the U- 
niteo Provinces. 

Great-iBritain acknowledges the. Sovereignty & Independence of the 
United States of America. 

The Limits of the Unitid St ates to be agreed upon in the provifional ar- 
ticles between them and Great-Britain, except that they (hall not extend /fur- 
ther downi the river Mi ftftppi than the 3 2d degree of North Latitude, from 
whence a line is to be drawn to the head of the Kiver St. Mary, and along the 
jhiddlc of itbat river down to its mouth. 



FIRST ANNOUNCEMENT THAT PEACE HAD BEEN DECLARED BETWEEN AMER- 
ICA AND ENGLAND THUS ENDING THE REVOLUTIONARY WAR (LAST TWO 
PARAGRAPHS). 



[147] 



The City Government 

In the following pages an attempt has been made to 
present in concise and intelligible form the more impor- 
tant facts relating to the city government, and this in- 
formation should prove of value not only to the citizens 
of New York but also to officials and citizens elsewhere 
who are interested in the administration of our great city. 

THE MAYOR 

John Purroy Mitchel 

Term Expires December, 1917 

The Mayor of New York is the chief executive officer 
of the city. He is responsible for the entire municipal 
administration with the exception of the Department 
of Finance and the departments under the jurisdiction 
of the five borough presidents. His salary is $15,000 
per annum and his term is four years. 

The Comptroller 

William A. Prendergast 

The Comptroller is elected by the voters of the city at the same 
time as the Mayor, and likewise for a four-year term. His salary is 
$15,000. The Comptroller is the chief financial officer of the city. 
His functions and duties are best indicated in the description of the 
work of the Department of Finance. 

The President of the Board of Aldermen 

Frank L. Dowling 

The President of the Board of Aldermen is elected by the city at 
large for a term of four years and, as his title implies, is the pre- 
siding officer of the board. 

The charter provides that the President of the Board of Alder- 
men shall be Acting Mayor during the Mayor's absence and shall be- 
come Mayor in case of a vacancy in that office. His salary is $5,000. 

Borough Presidents 

Marcus M. Marks, Manhattan 
Lewis H. Pounds, Brooklyn 
Douglas Mathewson, Bronx 
Maurice E. Connolly, Queens 
Calvin D. Van Name, Richmond 

[148] 




u 



The City of New York is divided into five boroughs — Manhattan, 
Brooklyn, The Bronx, Queens and Richmond — whose limits are con- 
terminous respectively with the counties of New York, Kings, Bronx, 
Queens and Richmond. Each of these boroughs elects a borough presi- 
dent for a term of four years, who is in a measure a local mayor 
responsible to a large degree for matters relating to local improvements 
and administration. 

Board of Estimate and Apportionment 

This board is, in fact, the board of directors of the municipal cor- 
poration of New York, and as such determines the policies of the 
city with reference to all financial matters, assessable public improve- 
ments, franchises, privileges and permits. Its control over these mat- 
ters is almost absolute. 

The board of estimate now consists (in accordance with the pro- 
visions of the revised charter of 1901) of eight members, all of whom 
are officials elected for four-year terms. The Mayor, who is Chair- 
man, the Comptroller and the President of the Board of Aldermen 
have three votes each, the presidents of the boroughs of Manhattan and 
of Brooklyn have two votes each, and the presidents of the boroughs 
of The Bronx, Queens and Richmond have one vote each — a total of 
sixteen votes. 

Board of Aldermen 

Frank L. Dowling, President 
P. J. Scully, Clerk 

The Board of Aldermen consists of (1) seventy-three members elected 
by districts for two years; (2) the President of the Board of Alder- 
men elected at large for four years; and (3) the president of each 
of the five boroughs. The head of each city department is entitled 
to a seat but not a vote in the Board and must attend its meetings 
when required. The law compels the Board of Aldermen to meet at 
least once a month except during August and September. Its stated 
meetings are held in the City Hall, Tuesdays at 1 :30 P. M. The 
minutes of each meeting are printed in the City Record on the sub- 
sequent Thursday. 

The most important powers of the Board of Aldermen are the fol- 
lowing : 

1. To codify and revise the ordinances. 

2. To adopt a building code. 

3. To make, amend, or repeal all police, park, fire and building 
regulations and ordinances. 

4. To initiate the issue of special revenue bonds for certain speci- 
fied purposes supplementing budget appropriations. 

5. To authorize purchases in excess of one thousand dollars 
without public letting of contracts. 

6. To exercise general legislative control over bridge tolls, water 
rates, street traffic and the establishment of public markets. 

7. To reduce or eliminate during the twenty days allowed for its 
consideration any item in the budget as passed by the Board 
of Estimate and Apportionment. 

8. To elect from its own number by majority vote a Vice- 
Chairman, who acts as President in case of a vacancy in that 
office and who becomes Acting Mayor if vacancies occur simul- 
taneously in the offices of Mayor and President. 

9. To elect from its own number by majority vote a Chairman 
of the Finance Committee who is ex officio a Commissioner of 
the Sinking Fund. 

10. To appoint a City Clerk for a term of six years. 

11. To appoint for terms of two years four Commissioners of 
Elections. 

12. To appoint Commissioners of Deeds. 

[149] 



Names of Aldermen and Districts for 1916-17 



Dist. 



MANHATTAN 



1 — Bernard E. Donnelly. 

2 — Michael Stapleton. 

3 — Patrick H. Sullivan. 

4 — William H. Burns. 

5 — Joseph M. Hannon. 

6 — Emanuel I. Silberstein. 

7 — Frank L. Dowling. 

8 — Moritz Tolk. 

9 — John F. McCourt. 
10 — Frank Dostal. 
11 — Louis Wendel, Jr. 
12 — William P. Kenneally. 
13 — John McCann. 
14 — William T. Collins. 
15 — William F. Quinn. 
16 — John T. Eagan. 
17 — Thomas A. Williams. 
18 — Thomas M. Farley. 
19 — Michael J. Shields. 
20 — Edward Cassidy. 
21 — Augustus M. Wise. 
22 — Edward V. Gilmore. 
23 — S. Clinton Crane. 
24 — Frank Mullen. 
25 — Charles Delaney. 
26 — Henry H. Curran. 
27 — Isaac Gutman. 
28 — Louis F. Cardani. 
29 — Frederick Trau. 
30 — Lauren Carroll. 
31 — John McKee. 
32 — Charles J, McGillick. 
33 — Samson Friedlander. 

THE BRONX 
34 — Edward W. Curley. 
35 — Peter Schweickert. 
36 — Robert L. Moran. 
37 — James R. Ferguson. 
38 — Harry Robitzek. 



39 — William J. Daly. 
40 — Clarence Y. Palitz. 
41 — Thomas W. Martin. 

BROOKLYN 
42 — M. J. Hogan. 
43 — James J. Browne. 
44 — Frank A. Cunningham. 
45 — John S. Gaynor. 
46 — John Wirth 
47 — John Diemer. 
48 — James J. Molen. 
49 — Francis P. Kenney. 
50 — Charles W. Dunn. 
51 — August Ferrand. 
52 — William W. Colne. 
53 — Frederick H. Stevenson. 
54- — Alexander Bassett. 
55 — Frank T. Dixson. 
56 — William P. McGarry. 
57 — John J. Ryan. 
58— Fred Smith. 
59 — Arnon L. Squiers. 
60 — George Hilkemeier. 
61 — Francis P. Bent. 
62 — Harry Heyman. 
63 — Charles H. Haubert. 
64 — Charles J. Moore. 
65 — Alexander S. Drescher. 

QUEENS 
66 — Samuel J. Burden. 
67 — Edward W. Cox. 
68 — Frank J. Schmitz. 
69 — Charles A. Post. 
70 — John Kochendorfer. 

RICHMOND 
71 — William K. Walsh. 
72 — John J. O'Rourke. 
73 — Charles P. Cole. 



Board of Commissioners of the Sinking Fund 

The Board of Commissioners of the Sinking Fund, composed of the 
Mayor (chairman), the Comptroller, the Chamberlain, the President 
of the Board of Aldermen and the Chairman of the Finance Commit- 
tee of the Board of Aldermen is a board of trustees charged with the 
duty of administering the several sinking funds of the city which 
provide for the redemption of the city debt and the payment of in- 
terest. It is also the custodian of the city's real and personal prop- 
erty. 



Department of Finance 

William A. Pkendergast, Comptroller 

Under the charter there are six bureaus of the Department of Fi- 
nance : — the bureau for the collection of the city revenue and of mar- 
kets ; the bureau for the collection of taxes ; the bureau for the collec- 
tion of assessments and arrears ; the auditing bureau (with fourteen di- 
visions) ; the bureau of the Chamberlain and the bureau of municipal 
investigation and statistics. 

[ISO] 



The Division of City Paymaster, one of the divisions of the Auditing 
Bureau, pays every employee in the service of the City of New York 
and the five counties therein. The labor group is paid weekly ; the 
others are paid monthly or semi-monthly, as the employees of the 
several departments have elected. Of the eighty-five thousand perma- 
nent employees, eighty-eight per cent are paid by check, involving the 
issuing of 130,000 checks a month ; the other twelve per cent are paid 
in cash at or near their work by deputy city paymasters. About 
1,560,000 checks are issued each year and about 556,000 cash payments 
are made. 

In addition to the eighty-five thousand permanent city employees 
there are about twenty thousand whose services are temporary. These 
comprise election officers, lecturers of the Board of Education, teachers 
in recreation centers, etc Thus the paymaster's office pays in cash, 
or by check, about 105,000 persons a year, a number greater than the 
population of many cities. 

Aside from issuing the checks the city paymaster cashes checks for 
employees in the clerical force who call at his office on pay days. About 
$400,000 in currency is used for this purpose each month. Through 
an arrangement with 150 banks and trust companies of New York the 
city pay-checks are made as good as currency. Formerly city employees 
were obliged in many instances to pay discounts to shopkeepers and 
others for getting their checks cashed. There is no need whatever, under 
the revised procedure, for this abuse. The banks cash upon identifica- 
tion the pay check of any city employee without discount. The checks 
are so designed as to carry a specimen signature which in effect is 
certified by the city, and in general use corresponds to a traveler's 
check. Thus identification is made automatic. 

"Pay-As-You-Go" Policy 

On September 11, 1914, the Board of Estimate and Apportionment 
adopted a resolution approving the terms of an agreement between the 
city and the underwriters of the $100,000,000 loan by which there was 
established with respect to the financing of non-revenue producing public 
improvements what is familiarly known as the "pay-as-you-go" policy. 

That portion of the agreement dealing with this new "pay-as-you-go" 
policy involved the adoption of a plan whereby an annually increasing 
proportion of the cost of permanent improvements of the non-revenue 
producing class will be defrayed from the tax budget until after 1918 
the entire cost will be so defrayed. 

This plan provided that all non-revenue producing improvements 
authorized during 1915 should be financed, three-quarters by fifteen 
year corporate stock and one-quarter by one year bonds payable from 
the 1916 tax budget ; that those authorized during 1916 should be 
financed, one-half by fifteen year corporate stock and one-half by one 
year bonds payable from the 1917 tax budget ; that those authorized 
during 1917 should be financed, one-quarter by fifteen year corporate 
stock and three-quarters by one year bonds payable from the 1918 tax 
budget ; that those authorized during 1918 and subsequent years should 
be financed wholly from the annual tax budget. 

While such a plan will materially increase the tax budgets of the 
immediate future the ultimate effect upon the city's finances will be 
most beneficial. Every dollar borrowed on a 4^ per cent fifty-year 
bond costs $2.69 before repayment. By financing public improvements 
from the tax levy instead of by means of long term bonds, their cost 
to the city will be one dollar for each dollar spent instead of $2.69, 
so that ultimately the budget will be relieved of much of its present 
huge burden for interest and sinking fund payments. 

The Chamberlain 

Henry Bruere 

The Chamberlain is the city and county treasurer. Although his 
office is a bureau of the Department of Finance, he is appointed by the 
Mayor. His salary is $12,000. His most important duty is the care 
of the city's funds. 

[151] 



Department of Taxes and Assessments 

Lawson Purdy, President 

The Department of Taxes and Assessments is administered by a 
board of seven commissioners who are appointed by the Mayor and 
whose duty is the assessment for the purposes of taxation of all real 
and personal property within the city. 

There are three classes of real property: (1) land, (2) buildings or 
improvements, and (3) special franchises of corporations; and two 
classes of personal property: (1) tangible property, such as household 
goods, merchandise, machinery, tools etc., and (2) intangible property, 
such as mercantile credits, chattel mortgages' promissory notes, cash, etc. 

The tax department's estimate of the value of a parcel of land is 
derived chiefly from records of sales, mortgages and leases. Values 
thus determined are entered in the tax books and are made the basis of 
tax maps which show for any given locality the distribution of front 
foot values. The purpose of these maps is to prevent the levying of dis- 
proportionate assessments on adjoining parcels. All complaints as to 
illegal or excessive assessments are made to the Board of Tax Com- 
missioners and acted upon before the completion of the assessment 
rolls. Their action is subject to review by the Supreme Court under 
certiorari proceedings. 

Buildings or improvements are assessed separately from the land. 
The value of a building is determined by applying to its floor area a 
unit value per square foot. This unit is chosen and adjusted with 
reference to the kind of building involved, the height between floors, 
present condition and the amount of initial cost that should be written 
off because of obsolescence and depreciation, the proportion of the lot 
area covered, etc. 

For several years the city has endeavored to assess property at a 
fair market value with the result that valuations throughout the city 
are now a full one hundred per cent of market value. In many sections 
of the State this policy does not obtain. The tax levied by the State for 
State purposes, however, is based not upon assessed values but upon 
adjusted values determined by the State Board of Equalization. 

Taxpayers' Calendar 

February 1 — Assessment rolls made up. 

March 1 — Assessment rolls delivered to Board of Aldermen. 

March 13 — Board of Aldermen fixes tax rate. 

March 28 — Assessment rolls delivered to Receiver of Taxes before this 
date. 

April 1 — Work of assessing for the next year begins. 

May 1 — All personal taxes and half of the real estate taxes payable in 
May. If first half has been paid, final half of tax may be paid 
from now until November 1, with a rebate at the rate of 4 per 
cent per annum for the time intervening between date of payment 
and November 1. 

May 31 — Last day to pay first half of real estate or personal tax 
without interest. 

June 1 — Interest at 7 per cent commences to run from May 1 on 
unpaid taxes due in May. 

June 30 — Last day to begin proceedings under certiorari to review de- 
termination of the Tax Commissioners on application for reduction 
of assessed valuation. 

October 1 — Tax day : Tax books are opened, showing assessed valuation 
of real and personal estate for the following year. Applications 
for reduction of valuations of real estate can be made until Novem- 
ber 15, and of personal estate until November 30. 

October — Generally last week : Public hearings on tax budget. 

November 1 — Second half of real estate taxes payable. Payment can 
be made during the month without addition of interest. 

November 15 — Last day to file claims for reduction of real estate 
valuations. 

November 30 — Last day to correct personal tax valuation. 

December 1 — Interest at 7 per cent commences to run from November 1 
on second half of real estate tax, if unpaid. 

[152] 



? 



c 

35 




Board of Assessors 

Alfred P. W. Seaman, Chairman ; Jacob J. Lesser, William C. Ormond 
The chief duty of the Board of Assessors (composed of three members 
appointed by the Mayor) is the levying of assessments to defray the 
original cost of local improvements, such as the grading, curbing and 
paving of streets, the laying of sidewalks and the laying of sewers. 

Department of Education 

William G. Willcox, President of Board; William H. Maxwell, Super- 
intendent of Schools. 

Control of the public school system is vested in an unpaid Board 
of Education, consisting of forty-six members appointed by the Mayor 
for terms of five years. These forty-six commissioners are divided 
among the boroughs as follows : Manhattan, 22 ; Brooklyn, 14 ; The 
Bronx, 4; Queens, 4, and Richmond, 2. ' Direct responsibility for 
school management rests with the Board of Superintendents, which 
consists of the City Superintendent and eight Associate Superin- 
tendents. . . 

In addition, there are forty-six local school boards, each com- 
posed of five members appointed by the borough president, a mem- 
ber of the Board of Education designated by the president of that 
board, and the district superintendent assigned to duty in the dis- 
trict. These local boards visit the schools in their neighborhood and 
make recommendations to the Board of Education. 

Every child between seven and fourteen years of age is required 
by law to attend school throughout the school year. Children between 
the ages of fourteen and sixteen who have completed the work of 
Grade 6B, or an equivalent course of study, may leave school and 
obtain employment if upon examination by the physicians of the 
Department of Health they are granted the necessary employment 
certificate. Those children, however, between fourteen and sixteen 
who have obtained employment certificates but who have not graduated 
from the elementary school, are required to attend evening schools or 
day continuation classes for six hours a week not less than sixteen 
weeks in the school year. 

The work of the evening elementary schools consists chiefly in 
teaching English and civics to foreigners. The pupils of the evening 
high and trade schools receive instruction in the regular academic 
work of the high school and in the commercial, professional or in- 
dustrial work in which they are employed. 

Vocational training is provided by three vocational or trade 
schools — two for boys and one for girls. 

Among its other activities the Board of Education maintains 
vacation schools and playgrounds, operates free baths in thirty-seven 
school buildings, conducts a series of free public lectures and has 
established recreation centers in sixty-two schools. 

Teachers in the public schools are appointed from eligible lists 
established as the result of examinations held by the Board of 
Education. The names on an eligible list must be exhausted or three 
years must have elapsed before appointments can be made from new 
lists. In the elementary schools the teachers' salaries range from 
$720 to $1,820 and in the high schools from $900 to $3,150. 

The supervising and teaching staff of the day schools consists of 
2,701 men and 18,404 women. 

The average daily attendance of pupils in day schools is 702,856 
and the number of day schools 549. 

In addition to the educational facilities provided by public schools 
there are many parochial and private schools in the city and thirty- 
nine corporate schools or societies. These corporate schools are the 
incorporated charitable institutions in which the city maintains de- 
pendent children. These institutions receive from the city two classes 
of appropriation, one for the maintenance of the children and the 
other for their education. The Department of Education pays $15.00 
per year for each child enrolled in the corporate schools. There are 
about 16,000 such children. 

[153] 



The College of the^City of New York 

S. E. Mezes, President 

The Board of Trustees of the College of the City of New York con- 
sists of nine residents of the city, appointed, each for a term of 
nine years, by the Mayor. The President of the Board of Education 
is an ex officio member of this governing body. 

This college, established in 1848, is maintained by the city as 
part of its system of free education. The educational and social 
services rendered by the institution are as follows : 

(1) The day session of the college offers courses leading to 
the degrees of B.A. and B.S. The education here provided is freely 
granted to male residents of the city who meet the entrance require- 
ments common to colleges of high standard. 

(2) The evening session of the college, with organization, aim 
and regulations similar to those of the day session, is conducted at 
night for qualified male students who are employed during the day. 

(3) Special courses in the day and evening sessions are offered 
for non-matriculated students who are city employees. These courses 
are designed to improve the quality of municipal service. Pees may 
be charged for these special courses. 

(4) Extension courses for teachers (male and female) are held 
in professional and cultural subjects. Credit for work done here is 
allowed by the City Superintendent of Schools. 

(5) A preparatory school — in Townsend Harris Hall — offers 
work so arranged that able and earnest students may complete their 
preparation for college in a minimum of three years. 

(6) Public organ recitals are given on Sunday and Wednesday 
afternoons, in the Great Hall. Fifty-eight recitals were given last 
year at which the average attendance was over 1,500. 

(7) The stadium and gymnasium are given over to social service 
of an educational and recreational character. Greek plays, other out- 
door theatricals and pageants, as well as athletic contests and exhi- 
bitions, are presented here to the public. 

Hunter College of the City of New York 

George S. Davis, President 

Hunter College, formerly the Normal College, was established in 
1870 and is administered by a board of eleven trustees consisting of 
the Presidents of the Board of Education and of Hunter College and 
nine members appointed by the Mayor. It is a free college for women 
residents of the city. 

The course of study requires four years' academic work after 
graduation from high school and leads to the degrees of A.B. One 
of the chief purposes of the institution is the preparation of women 
who intend to become teachers in the elementary and high schools 
of the city. In order to provide such students with practical training 
in teaching, a high school and a model elementary school form part 
of the college organization. The college also maintains a school for 
training students in kindergarten work. 

Public Libraries 

Edwin H. Anderson, Director, New York 
F. P. Hill, Chief Librarian, Brooklyn 
J. P. Hume, Chief Librarian, Queens 

There are three public library corporations in the City of New 
York: (1) the New York Public Library, consisting of the Astor, 
Lenox and Tilden Foundations, which serves the boroughs of Man- 
hattan, The Bronx and Richmond; (2) the Brooklyn Public Library; 
and (3) the Queens Borough Public Library. These three library 
systems maintained 93 branches in 1914 and circulated 15,856,109 
books. 

In 1901, Andrew Carnegie offered the city $5,200,000 for the 
construction and equipment of free circulating libraries provided the 

[154] 



city should furnish the sites and should also provide adequately for 
the maintenance and operation of the buildings when erected, the 
annual expenditure by the city for such purposes to be not less than 
ten per cent of the amount expended by Mr. Carnegie. The agreement 
further provided that the total number of libraries to be erected should 
not exceed 78, unless by mutual consent. 

Metropolitan Museum of Art 

5th Ave. at 82d St. 

OFFICERS : Robert W. De Forest, President; Joseph H. Choate, First 

Vice-President; Henry Walters, Second Vice-President; Howard 

Mansfield, Treasurer; William L. Andrews, Honorary Librarian; 

Henry W. Kent, Secretary. 

BOARD OF TRUSTEES : V. Everit Macy, Henry Clay Frick, John G. 

Johnson Francis L. Leland, Robert W. De Forest, George F. Baker, 

Henry Walters, Samuel T. Peters, Joseph H. Choate, George Blu- 

menthal, Howard Mansfield, Daniel C. French, William Church 

Osborn, J. Pierpont Morgan, William L. Andrews, Edward D. Adams, 

R. T. Haines Halsey, Elihu Root, Edward S. Harkness, Lewis Cass 

Ledyard. 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE : William L. Andrews, Elihu Root, Daniel 

C. French, William Church Osborn, Edward D. Adams, John W. 

Alexander, George Blumenthal, Edward S. Harkness. 

FINANCE COMMITTEE : Edward D. Adams, Chairman; George F. 

Baker, Henry Clay Frick, The Treasurer (Ex-officio). 
AUDITING COMMITTEE : Francis L. Leland, Clvairman; J. P. Morgan, 
Samuel T. Peters. 

The Metropolitan Museum of Art is managed by a self-perpetuating 
board of twenty-one trustees chosen for seven-year terms, and by the 
Mayor, the Comptroller, the President of the Park Board and the 
President of the National Academy of Design as ex officio members. 
The Museum is maintained from endowments, contributions and dues, 
admission fees and appropriation by the city. 

The chief departments of the museum are the following : paintings, 
classical art, Egyptian art, decorative arts, arms and armor, and the 
library. Each one of these departments maintains representative 
collections which are continully augmented by gift, by purchase, and 
some of them by the discoveries made by the museum's field expedi- 
tions. The library contains 28,000 volumes and 37,000 photographs. 
The museum can be reached directly by Fifth Avenue motor-bus. It 
is open week days, in summer, from 10 A. M. to 6 P. M. ; in winter, 
from 10 A. M. to 5 P. M. ; Sundays from 1 P. M. to 6 P M. ; and 
Saturdays from 10 A. M. to 10 P. M. Admission is free except on 
Mondays and Fridays, when a charge of twenty-five cents is made. 

American Museum of Natural History 

Columbus Ave., 77th St. and Central Park W. 

OFFICERS : Henry Fairfield Osborn, President; Cleveland H. Dodge, 
First Vice-President ; J. P. Morgan, Second Vice-President; Henry 
P. Davison, Treasurer ; Adrian Iselin, Jr., Secretary. 

BOARD OF TRUSTEES: Arthur Curtiss James, J. P. Morgan, John 
B. Trevor, Percy R. Pyne, Walter B. James, Charles Lanier, Anson 
W. Hard, R. Fulton Cutting, Seth Low, Frederick F. Brewster, 
Adrian Iselin, Jr., Thomas DeWitt Cuyler, Ogden Mills, Madison 
Grant, Cleveland H. Dodge, A. D. Juilliard, Felix M. Warburg, 
Henry C. Frick, Archer M. Huntington, George F. Baker, Henry 
Fairfield Osborn, Joseph H. Choate, James Douglas, George W. 
Wickersham. 

EXECUTIVE COMMITTEE: J. P. Morgan, Chairman; Henry Fairfield 
Osborn, ex officio; Charles Lanier, Cleveland H. Dodge, A. D. Juil- 
liard, Felix M. Warburg, Adrian Iselin, Jr., Arthur Curtiss James. 
Ogden Mills. 

[155] 



AUDITING COMMITTEE: George W. Wickersham, Thomas DeWitt 
Cuyler, Frederick F. Brewster. 

FINANCE COMMITTEE: J. P. Morgan, Charles Lanier, George F. 
Baker, Henry C. Frick. 

NOMINATING COMMITTEE — Percy R. Pyne, R. Fulton Cutting, Madi- 
son Grant. 

COMMITTEE ON BUILDING AND PLANS — Percy R. Pyne, Walter 
B. James, Madison Grant. Cabot Ward, Commissioner of Parks. 

The American Museum of Natural History was incorporated in 
1869 as an educational corporation for the purpose of encouraging 
and developing the study of natural science. It is governed by a self- 
perpetuating board of twenty-five trustees who hold office for terms 
of five years and by the Mayor, the Comptroller and the President of 
the Park Board, who serve as trustees ex officio. 

The Museum is supported by endowments, by contributions and 
dues, and by appropriations from the city. The permanent endow- 
ment fund now amounts to nearly $7,500,000, including the recent 
Jesup bequest of $5,000,000. 

In order that the collections may be kept as complete as possible 
and to further scientific knowledge the trustees support many ex- 
peditions for the purposes of exploration. In 1914 twenty-nine field 
parties or agents were actively engaged in the interests of the museum 
in various sections of North America, South America and Africa. 

The museum has recently undertaken another form of extension 
work in the public schools, namely, the loaning of lantern slides to 
teachers for class room use. The purpose of this extension work is 
to facilitate the instruction of children in natural science and to 
promote their interest therein. For a number of years the museum 
has maintained circulating collections of nature study material for 
schoolroom use. In 1914 about four-fifths of the public schools were 
regularly supplied with these collections. Another valuable feature 
of the educational work of the museum is its provision for the instruc- 
tion of the blind. Large relief globes, showing the physical features 
of the earth, have been prepared and are made the basis of the 
instruction of blind children in physical geography. Special casts 
of North American mammals have also been made for the teaching 
of the blind. 

The museum is open to the public without charge on week days 
and holidays from 9 A. M. to 5 P. M. ; Sundays, 1 P. M. to 5 P. M. ; 
and Tuesday and Saturday evenings 7 to 10 P. M. 

Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Scienoes 

Charles D. Atkins, Director. 

OFFICERS : A. Augustus Healy, President; Robert B. Woodward, First 
Vice-President ; George D. Pratt, Second Vice-President; Walter 
H. Crittenden, Third Vice-President; Daniel V. B. Hegeman, 
Treasurer; Herman Stutzer, C.E., Secretary. 

BOARD OF TRUSTEES: Elijah R. Kennedy, E. Le Grand Beers, 
Julian D. Fairchild, Charles Jones Peabody, David A. Boody, 
Martin Joost, J. Adolph Mollenhauer, George D. Pratt, John W. 
Frothingham, Rev. Charles C. Albertson, D.D., William J. Coombs, 
Dick S. Ramsay, Henry L. Batterman, John Thomas Underwood, 
Frank L. Babbott, Jacob G. Dettmer, Horace J. Morse, Albert De 
Silver, John Hill Morgan, A. Augustus Healy, Alfred T. White, 
Walter H. Crittenden, Edward C. Blum, Rev. Alfred Duane Pell, 
R. R. Bowker, Herman Stutzer, C.E., Arthur M. Hatch, Clinton 
W. Ludlum, Luke Vincent Lockwood, William B. Davenport, 
Lysander W. Lawrence, Rev. S. Parkes Cadman, D.D., Frank S. 
Jones, P. A. Valentine, William A. Putnam, William T. Evans, 
Daniel V. B. Hegeman, Rt. Rev. Mgr. Edward W. McCarty, LL.D., 
Gates D. Fahnestock, Francis H. Sloan, George W. Brush, M.D., 
Henry H. Benedict, Frank Healy, Samuel P. Avery, William C. 
Courtney, Edwin G. Warner, Ph.D. 

[156] 




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The Brooklyn Institute of Arts and Sciences is governed by a 
self-perpetuating board of fifty trustees. The Mayor, the President of 
the Borough of Brooklyn, and the Brooklyn park commissioner are 
ex officio members of the board. The expenses of the Museums are 
met in part by appropriations in the city's budget and in part by 
admission fees, members' dues, contributions and income from endow- 
ments. The work of the Institute is carried on by three divisions — 
the Department of Education, the Museums and the Botanic Garden. 

New York Zoological Society 

William T. Hornaday., Director 

The New York Zoological Society is governed by a board of 36 
managers elected by the Society for terms of three years. The Mayor 
and the President of the Park Board are also members of the board. 
The Zoological Park in the Bronx and the Aquarium in Battery Park 
are under the control of the Society and are maintained in part 
from endowment funds and in part by the city. 

The Zoological Park opens at 9 A. M. from April 15th to October 
15th and at 10 A. M. during the rest of the year, and closes through- 
out the year a half hour before sunset. Admission is free, except on 
Mondays and Thursdays, when a fee of twenty-five cents is charged. 
The park can be reached most easily by taking a Bronx Park Sub- 
way express to the end of the line. 

The Aquarium 

Charles H. Townsend, Director. 

The Aquarium, located at the Battery, is open daily without 
charge in summer from 9 A. M. to 6 P. M., and in winter from 10 
A. M. to 4 P. M. 

New York Botanical Garden 

Nathaniel L. Britton, Director 

The New York Botanical Garden is under the control of a board 
of 26 managers of which the Mayor and the President of the Park 
Board are members. The expenses of the institution are met in part 
from the city's budget and in part from members' dues, contributions 
and income from endowment. 

The main building contains a scientific and economic museum, a 
herbarium, a library and a lecture hall. In the conservatory there 
are plants from tropical and warm temperate regions, and in the 
400 acres of grounds there are plantations of shrubs, trees and hardy 
herbaceous plants in addition to the natural woodlands. 

The grounds and buildings are open daily to the public without 
charge. The museum building is open in summer from 10 A. M. to 
5 P. M. and in winter 10 A. M. to 4.30 P. M. The conservatories 
are open from 10 A. M. to 4 P. M. ; free public lectures on botanical 
subjects are given in the museum building every Saturday afternoon 
from April to November. 

The Botanical Garden is a part of the Bronx Park system and 
can be reached most easily by taking the Third Avenue Elevated to 
the end of the line. 

Parks 

Cabot Ward, President; Raymond V. Ingersoll, Thomas W. Whittle, 
John E. Weier 

The park system of New York City is under the control of the 
Park Board, which consists of four commissioners appointed by the 
Mayor. 

The Park Board controls 8,500 acres of park land assessed at 
$641,000,000, maintains 120 miles of parkways, operates 94 play- 



[157] 



grounds and 9 recreation piers, in addition to public baths, gymnasia 
and bathing beaches. 

Park land is devoted to many uses, — some of the parks, par- 
ticularly those in The Bronx and in Queens, include many acres of 
woodland and in addition to such natural advantages, park property 
has been developed for more specific forms of recreation. Four public 
golf links are maintained by the park department, three in The 
Bronx and one in Queens. Permits for the use of these links are 
granted for a nominal fee. 

Public tennis courts are located in Central Park, Prospect Park, 
Van Cortlandt Park, Forest Park, Highland Park and other parks. 

Baseball diamonds are maintained in many parks and playgrounds. 

Provision is also made by the park department for basket-ball, 
cricket, polo, skating and many other recreational activities. 

Another use to which park property is put is camping. In Pelham 
Bay Park (The Bronx) and Rockaway Park (Queens) the city fur- 
nishes to campers, at a nominal charge, a small lot for the erec- 
tion of a tent. In Pelham Bay Park the fee charged is $10 for the 
season (June to September) and includes $3 for water rent. The 
areas of the larger parks are : 

Central 843 acres Pelham Bay 1,756 acres 

Prospect 526 " Forest 536 

Bronx 719 " Seaside 263 

Van Cortlandt 1,132 " Highland 102 " 

One of the most modern and most thoroughly equipped of these 
playgrounds is the Betsy Head playground, located in a densely popu- 
lated section of Brooklyn. The area of this playground is about ten 
acres. It includes a children's playground, with wading pool, sand 
piles, slides, etc., an athletic field with grandstand seating 15,000, a 
swimming pool 150 feet long, with bath house, a running track, a 
soccer field, and a gymnasium for men and women. It also contains 
500 school farm plots and a model farmhouse. 

The park department maintains six children's school farms con- 
taining seven acres. Two crops are grown and harvested each year 
on these farms and 6,300 children were assigned last year to indi- 
vidual plots 8 feet by 4 feet. The farm plots are also used by school 
teachers as demonstrating stations for farm work. Last year some 
25,000 children received practical instruction by visiting the farms 
and by studying in the classroom samples of beans, beets, carrots, 
lettuce and corn grown on the farms. 

Band and orchestral concerts are given during the summer in 
many of the parks. 

Bronx Parkway Commission 

This commission was established to acquire and lay out a park 
reservation on the banks of the Bronx River and to preserve the river 
from pollution. The parkway that has been approved has an area of 
1,130 acres, begins at the north end of Bronx Park and extends 155^ 
miles to the new Kensico Lake reservation. A highway is to be con- 
structed along the full length of this reservation to serve as a link 
between the park system of New York City and the city's holdings 
in the watersheds. 

Department of Health 

Haven Emerson, M.D., President 

The Board of Health, composed of the Health Commissioner, who 
is president, the Police Commissioner and the Health Officer of the 
Port of New York (a State official), is the head of the Department 
of Health of New York City. It enacts the Sanitary Code, issues 
emergency health orders and has very broad powers in all matters 
affecting public health. 

The official in direct charge of the enforcement of the Sanitary 
Code and other health laws and responsible for the administration 
of the Health Department is the Commissioner of Health, who is 

[158] 



appointed by the Mayor and who is ex officio President of the Board 
of Health. 

The work of the department is carried on by a Bureau of Ad- 
ministration, a Bureau of Records, a Sanitary Bureau and the Bureaus 
of Preventable Diseases, Child Hygiene, Food and Drugs, Laboratories, 
Hospitals, and Public Health Education. 

Bellevue and Allied Hospitals 

John W. Brannan, M.D., President 

The Department of Bellevue and Allied Hospitals is controlled 
by a board of eight trustees, seven appointed by the Mayor and the 
Commissioner of Public Charities ex officio. The Department operates 
five hospitals, as follows : 

Bellevue Hospital, foot of East 26th Street, Manhattan. 

Gouverneur Hospital, Gouverneur Slip, corner of Front Street, 
Manhattan. 

Harlem Hospital, Lenox Avenue and 136th Street, Manhattan. 

Fordham Hospital, Southern Boulevard and Crotona Avenue, 
The Bronx. 

Ocean Beach Hospital for Children, Rockaway, Queens. 

These hospitals care for acute cases of all kinds. In general, 
the three allied hospitals (Gouverneur, Harlem and Fordham) receive 
patients from the ambulance districts in their immediate neighbor- 
hood. They have a bed capacity of about 200 each. Bellevue Hospital, 
however, with a bed capacity of about 1,200, is the receiving hospital 
for accident cases and acute cases from the entire lower portion of 
Manhattan. Ocean Beach Hospital at Rockaway Beach is for the care 
of children suffering with non-pulmonary tuberculosis. 

Department of Public Charities 

John A. Kingsbury, Commissioner 

The Commissioner of Public Charities is appointed by the Mayor, 
and, as the local overseer of the poor, is responsible for the care 
and treatment of the city's dependents. 

The department operates a Municipal Lodging House, a hospital 
and schools on Randall's Island for the care of feeble-minded and 
epileptic children, five general hospitals, — two on Blackw ell's Island 
(Metropolitan and City Hospitals), and three in Brooklyn (Kings 
County, Coney Island, and Cumberland Street Hospitals), — a home for 
convalescing mothers at Hunter's Island, two homes for the aged and 
infirm (Blackwell's Island and Clarkson Street, Brooklyn), a colony 
for homeless men and vagrants at Staten Island, a tubercluosis hos- 
pital on Staten Island, and two mortuaries. 

Board of Ambulance Service 

The Board of Ambulance Service, composed of the Police Com- 
missioner, the Commissioner of Public Charities, the President of the 
Board of Trustees of Bellevue and Allied Hospitals, and two citizens 
appointed by the Mayor, has supervision and control over the am- 
bulances of all public and private hospitals (except the hospitals of 
the Department of Health). 

Tenement House Department 

John J. Murphy, Commissioner 

The Commissioner of the Tenement House Department is ap- 
pointed by the Mayor and charged with the duty of enforcing the 
Tenement House Law. This law defines a tenement as any house or 
part of house occupied or arranged to be occupied by three or more 
families living independently of each other and doing their own cook- 

[159] 



ing on the premises, so that the Tenement House Department has 
jurisdiction not only over what are commonly called "tenement houses" 
but also over the most expensive apartment houses of the city. 

On January 1, 1915, there were in the City of New York 78,366 
old law tenements and 24,573 new law tenements, a total of 102,939 
buildings under the jurisdiction of the Tenement House Department. 

Department of Street Cleaning 

J. T. Fetherston, Commissioner 

The Commissioner of Street Cleaning, appointed by the Mayor, 
is responsible for the cleaning of streets and the removal and dis- 
position of ashes, garbage, rubbish, street sweepings, snow and ice 
within the limits of Manhattan, The Bronx and Brooklyn. In Queens 
and Richmond these duties are performed by the borough president. 

The city's streets are for the most part swept by hand but in 
certain sections sweeping, flushing and squeegee machines are used. 
When the water supply is adequate the streets are flushed. It is the 
endeavor of the department to perform its work during the hours 
when the traffic is least heavy and so the business section and more 
congested portions of the city are given their thorough cleaning at 
night. 

The department has recently established a "model district" in 
Manhattan, bounded by Twelfth Street, Forty-second Street, Sixth Ave- 
nue and East River, in which it is experimenting with the most 
modern types of cleaning and carting devices. The results of this 
trial will determine the extent to which the work of the department 
will be developed along the lines of machine cleaning and carting. 

One of the greatest problems confronting the department is that 
of snow removal. In Manhattan, particularly, the demands of traffic 
are such that if snow is not removed immediately the business of the 
city is seriously impeded. In an endeavor to prevent the recurrence 
of conditions arising from the severe blizzard of March, 1914, the 
Department of Street Cleaning organized during the summer an emer- 
gency snow squad of 40,000 men. The names and addresses of these 
men were catalogued according to the districts in which they would 
be employed, and arrangements were made whereby the Police De- 
partment would notify the men to present themselves for work. During 
the fall certain groups of these emergency workers were drilled in 
their new duties and instructed in the plan which the department had 
worked out for using the sewers as a means of snow removal. 

Two storms of the winter of 1914-1915 afforded sufficient oppor- 
tunity to prove the efficacy and relative economy of this scheme by 
which a large squad of emergency street cleaners is called out during 
a snow storm and by shoveling and sweeping the snow into the sewers 
almost as fast as it accumulates, the streets are cleared without clog- 
ging the sewers. This method of snow removal costs less than half 
as much as and takes only half the time required by the former method 
of carting in trucks. 

The Department of Street Cleaning employs about 5,400 regular 
and 1,600 temporary employees. A street sweeper cleans from 3,000 
to 13,000 square yards of pavement a day, according to the char- 
acter of the district, and a driver collects daily about five tons of 
waste material. 

The annual wages paid to street sweepers range from $720 to 
$792 — the great majority receive $780. Drivers are paid from $768 
to $864. 

Police Department 

Arthur Woods, Commissioner 

The Police Department is under the control of a commissioner 
appointed by the Mayor for a term of five years and is removable 
by either the Mayor or the Governor. 

The authorized strength of the several ranks of the uniformed 
force in May, 1915, was : 

One Chief Inspector, 19 Inspectors, 97 Captains, 524 Lieutenants, 
726 Sergeants and 9,387 Patrolmen. 

[160] 



For the purposes of administration and supervision the city is 
divided territorially into 89 precincts, each under a captain, and 17 
inspection districts (made up of from 4 to 7 precincts), each under 
an inspector. 

Traffic regulations are enforced by a special squad assigned ex- 
clusively to that work. There are 588 members of the Traffic Squad ; 
47 are mounted and 24 have motorcycles. 

The Marine Police keep 7 boats constantly in service patrolling 
the waterfront and have 3 boats for emergencies. It is their duty 
to prevent and suppress the operation of thieves along the docks, on 
the boats anchored in the harbor, and on islands which are not 
patrolled by the regular force. 

The Detective Bureau maintains a central office at Police Head- 
quarters and 9 branch offices (each covering from 7 to 13 precincts). 
At the central office is located the Bureau of Criminal Identification 
with its "Rogues' Gallery," Bertillon, finger-print, and criminal records, 
and also a system of files containing records of all criminal cases 
reported to the police, of stolen property, and of pawned valuables. 

Fire Department 

Robert Adamson, Commissioner 

The Fire Department is under the control of a Commissioner, ap- 
pointed by the Mayor. On May 1, 1915, the fire fighting force con- 
sisted of 4,983 men, including chiefs, deputy chiefs, captains, lieu- 
tenants, etc. 

In March, 1915, a rescue company was organized for use at spe- 
cially hazardous fires. These men are equipped with smoke helmets 
and oxygen tanks and can operate under conditions where an un- 
equipped fireman could not live. The company is particularly valuable 
in coping with fires where the smoke is unusually heavy or where 
fumes from chemicals render the air dangerous. 

Department of Correction 

Burdette G. Lewis, Commissioner 

The Department of Correction is under the control of a com- 
missioner appointed by the Mayor. It has jurisdiction over nearly all 
city institutions for the custody of criminals and misdemeanants. These 
institutions include the New York County Penitentiary on Blackwell's 
Island ; the Workhouses on Blackwell's, Riker's and Hart's Islands ; 
the City Prisons of Manhattan (The Tombs), Brooklyn and Queens; 
the New York City Reformatory for Misdemeanants and the ten dis- 
trict prisons located in Manhattan and The Bronx. The department 
has no authority over the conviction or commitment of prisoners but 
is charged solely with their custody after commitment. 

Board of Inebriety 

William Browning, M.D., B. B. Burritt, T. J. Colton, John 
Dorning, M.D., Rev. J. J. Hughes, C.S.P. 

The Board of Inebriety, consisting of five members appointed by 
the Mayor, and the Commissioner of Public Charities and the Com- 
missioner of Correction ex officio, was established in July, 1911. 

Under the law a court of record may commit an inebriate to the 
custody of the board for a period varying from one to three years, 
upon his own application, or on the petition of a relative, the Com- 
missioner of Public Charities, or the trustees of Bellevue and Allied Hos- 
pitals. For the purpose of the law, inebriety is held to include 
addiction to alcohol or drugs, and the evidence required includes cer- 
tificates by two physicians. 

[ 161 ] 



Department of Water Supply, Gas and Electricity 

William Williams, Commissioner 

The Department of Water Supply, Gas and Electricity is under 
the control of a commissioner appointed by the Mayor. The Depart- 
ment has jurisdiction over (1) the sources of supply, the distribution 
and the quality of water; (2) the collection of revenue from the sale 
of water; (3) the high pressure fire service in Manhattan and Brook- 
lyn; (4) the regulation of the rates charged by the private water com- 
panies in Queens; (5) the lighting of streets, parks and public build- 
ings; (6) the use and transmission of gas and electricity in or under 
the streets; (7) the construction of electric mains, conductors and sub- 
ways in or under the streets; (8) the inspection of electric wires and 
appliances in all buildings; (9) the licensing of operators of moving 
picture apparatus * This work is carried on by three principal bureaus : 
(1) water supply, (2) water revenue collection, (3) gas and electricity. 

The Bureau of Water Supply is responsible for the water supply 
of the city. Its jurisdiction, including the Croton, Brooklyn and 
Staten Island watersheds, extends over an area of more than 600 
square miles. 

Kensico reservoir, north of White Plains, will store 29,000,000,000 
gallons and is 75 per cent completed. Hill View equalizing reservoir, 
with a capacity of 900,000,000 gallons, is located just north of the city 
and is 91 per cent completed. On Staten Island, Silver Lake terminal 
reservoir, with a capacity of 400,000,000 gallons, is 42 per cent com- 
pleted. 

The 92 miles of Catskill aqueduct north of the city, together 
with the 18 miles of tunnel and the 15 miles of large pipe lines within 
the city, are structurally complete, and will be ready to deliver 250 
million gallons of water daily during 1916. 

Catskill water will be delivered by gravity under pressure suf- 
ficient to cause it to rise to elevations from 225 to 275 feet above 
sea level. Much of the pumping which now costs yearly about $1,500,- 
000, may therefore be dispensed with upon completion of the system. 

The cost of the new Catskill system will be about $177,000,000 
and the amount of water supplied will be about 500 million gallons 
daily. 

Department of Docks and Ferries 

R. A. C. Smith, Commissioner 

The Department of Docks and Ferries is administered by a com- 
missioner appointed by the Mayor. The commissioner has exclusive 
control, subject in certain particulars to the Commissioners of the 
Sinking Fund, of all waterfront property belonging to the city. This 
control includes the granting of permits for the use of wharf property 
and the regulation of wharfage and dockage rates (except those fixed 
by law). The dock commissioner may also set aside piers for recrea- 
tion purposes and assign waterfront for the use of other city depart- 
ments. 

Department of Bridges 

F. J. H. Kracke, Commissioner 

The Commissioner of Bridges, who is appointed by the Mayor, 
has control over the administration of the Department of Bridges. 
He has jurisdiction over the construction, repair and maintenance of 
all public bridges crossing navigable streams 

There are forty-two such bridges, representing an investment on 
the part of the city in land and structures of over $135,000,000. The 
four bridges which cross the East River (Williamsburg, Manhattan, 
Brooklyn and Queensboro) cost about $88,000,000. The Williamsburg, 
Manhattan and Brooklyn bridges are the longest suspension bridges 
in the world. The Queensboro Bridge is the second longest cantilever 
bridge in the world. 

[162] 




e AMERICAN STUDIO 



The Metropolitan Tower and Dr. Parkhurst's Church, Madison 
Square. 



Public Service Commission 

Oscar S. Straus, Chairman 

The State of New York is divided into two public service districts, 
the first district consisting of the five counties in the City of New 
York. 

The jurisdiction of the Public Service Commission of the First 
District extends over all railroads, street railroads and other com- 
mon carriers, as well as over gas and electric corporations within its 
district, but it has no authority over telephone or telegraph companies, 
such authority being vested in the Public Service Commission of the 
Second District. 

The Public Service Commissions have power to examine into the 
general condition, capitalization, franchises and management of all 
common carriers ; to prescribe the form of annual reports ; to in- 
vestigate accidents ; to fix rates and service ; to order repairs, changes 
or improvements ; to order changes in time schedules and to compel 
the increasing of the number of trains or cars. The approval of the 
Public Service Commission must be obtained prior to commencing 
construction or extension of a railroad. The commission also has 
power to control the consolidation or merger of the public service 
corporations and to supervise the financing of such corporations. 

Transit Facilities 

The street railways in the city, including subway and elevated 
lines, operate 1,576 miles of single track. During the year ended 
June 30, 1914, these railways carried 1,813,204,692 passengers and 
received in fares $94,153,673. This sum, on the basis of the city's 
population, represents a per capita expenditure of $17.43. 

Subways 

The present subway, which is owned by the city, consists of 25.63 
miles of road and 73 miles of track. Although built to accommodate 
only 400,000 passengers per day it now carries frequently more than 
1,000,000 passengers per day. The construction of the subways was 
undertaken in 1901, the main line being opened for traffic in 1904 and 
the extension to Brooklyn in 1908. The total cost was $56,129,785.76. 

The new lines now under construction call for 44.55 miles of new 
subway with 257 miles of single track ; 53.19 miles of new elevated 
road with 57 miles of single track and 19.8 miles of third track and 
other additional tracks on the existing elevated roads, making the total 
single track mileage of new lines 333.7 and the total for the whole 
dual system, 629.7. 

A new subway is also being built in Broadway, Seventh Avenue 
and 59th Street, Manhattan, connecting a new tunnel between Brook- 
lyn and the lower end of Manhattan with the Queensboro Bridge, so 
that trains from Brooklyn will cross under the East River, continue up 
Broadway to 42nd Street, then up Seventh Avenue to 59th Street 
through 59th Street to the Queensboro Bridge and across into Queens. 

The cost of these extensions of the rapid transit system including 
equipment, will approximate $325,000,000. The companies are to 
bear the entire cost of equipment although it ultimately will become 
the property of the city, the entire cost of reconstruction and ex- 
tension of their own lines, and also to contribute toward the cost 
of construction of the city lines. 

The new system will probably be completed in 1917. When in 
full operation the Brooklyn Rapid Transit trains will be able to enter 
Manhattan by means of four bridges and two tunnels and can be oper- 
ated northward through Broadway and Seventh Avenue to 59th Street 
and eastward through 59th Street and over the Queensboro Bridge to 
Astoria and Corona in Queens, and on the Brooklyn side the system 
will include the lines to Coney Island and other remote parts of the 
borough. Over the whole Brooklyn system the fare will be five cents 
and transfers will be given so that it will be possible for a pas- 
senger to take a train at Corona near Flushing, ride through to 
Manhattan at 59th Street, then south to Canal Street and then across 

[163] 



the Manhattan Bridge and through the Fourth Avenue Subway and 
its connections to Coney Island, all for a single fare. As soon as the 
new roads are completed and it is possible for the Brooklyn company 
to operate trains from Manhattan to Coney Island direct over the 
New Utrecht and Gravesend Avenue lines, the five-cent fare to Coney 
Island will be assured. 

On that part of the system to be operated by the Interborough 
Company the length of the five-cent ride will also be greatly extended. 
A passenger will be able to ride from Pelham Bay Park through The 
Bronx, down the whole length of Manhattan, under the East River 
to Brooklyn and out Eastern Parkway and Livonia Avenue to New 
Lots Road for a single fare. Transfers will also be given between all 
parts of the Interborough system, except that the transferring privilege 
between elevated roads and the subway will not be extended. 



Law Department 

Lamar Hardy, Corporation Counsel 

The Corporation Counsel, appointed by the Mayor, is the head of 
the Law Department. 

One of the most important duties of this department is to give 
legal advice to the Mayor and other city oflicials. The Corporation 
Counsel is also charged with the duty of preparing and approving the 
form of all legal instruments, such as contracts, leases, bids, bonds, 
agreements and releases. 



Courts of Record 

The Court of Appeals is the highest court of the state. Its juris- 
diction is exclusively of an appellate character. Cognizance is taken 
by this court only of questions of law, except in criminal cases where 
a capital offense has been committed. 

The Supreme Court of the state, composed of 102 justices elected 
by districts for fourteen-year terms, is divided into four judicial de- 
partments. The First Department consists of New York and Bronx 
counties ; Kings, Queens and Richmond counties form part of the Sec- 
ond Department. The work of each department is apportioned between 
the Appellate Division, the Appellate Term, and the Special and Trial 
Terms. 

The County Courts have jurisdiction in criminal cases not punish- 
able by death and in civil cases involving amounts less than $2,000. 
The judges are elected for six-year terms by the respective counties. 

The Surrogate's Courts have jurisdiction over the estates of in- 
fants and deceased persons and over matters incidental to the adminis- 
tration of such estates. Each of the five counties of the city has a 
Surrogate's Court, presided over by a surrogate, except that in New 
York County there are two surrogates and in Richmond County the 
County Judge acts as Surrogate. The surrogates of New York County 
are elected for fourteen-year terms by the electors of the county. In 
the other counties their terms are six years. 

The City Court is found only in New York County. It was for- 
merly a marine court, but now has jurisdiction over all civil actions 
instituted for the recovery of property or damages to the extent of 
$2,000. It is composed of ten justices elected for ten-year terms, one 
of the justices being designated by the whole as Chief Justice. The 
court holds special and trial terms, the trial terms being devoted to 
jury cases. 

The Court of General Sessions is found only in New York County. 
It is a criminal court with a jurisdiction extended even to cases pun- 
ishable with life imprisonment and death. The court has seven judges 
who are elected by the voters of the county for fourteen-year terms. 

The Municipal Courts have jurisdiction over civil actions involving 
sums not exceeding five hundred dollars. There are twenty-five justices 
in Manhattan, three in The Bronx, eleven in Brooklyn, four in Queens 
and two in Richmond. 



[164] 




The Hudson Terminal Buildings on Church and Cortlandt 

Streets — one block from Broadway. St. Paul's Churchyard and 

the offices of Trinity Church Corporation in foreground. 



Courts Not of Record 

The Court of Special Sessions has exclusive jurisdiction to hear 
and determine in the first instance all charges of misdemeanor (except 
libel) and all bastardy proceedings. 

The Children's Court has exclusive jurisdiction in the City of 
New York to hear and adjudicate all misdemeanor charges against 
children (defined by law as persons under sixteen years of age), all 
charges of juvenile delinquency and all other cases in which the court 
or a City Magistrate has power to commit children. 

The City Magistrates' Courts are held by the Board of City 
Magistrates consisting of a Chief City Magistrate and thirty-eight City 
Magistrates, each of whom is appointed by the Mayor for a term of 
ten years. 

All male persons arrested after the day courts are closed (except 
on a charge of felony) are brought to the night court for men. All 
females arrested after the close of the day courts (except on a charge 
of felony) are brought to the night court for women. The Domestic 
Relations Courts have jurisdiction in cases involving non-support of 
wives, children or poor relatives. 

All persons convicted in these courts of prostitution, vagrancy, 
jostling for the purpose of picking pockets, begging, "mashing" (men 
annoying women in public places) and degenerates are finger-printed. 
A copy of each of these prints is sent to the finger-print bureau, where 
sufficient photographic copies are made to furnish one to each of the 
district courts, so that the following day a record of the conviction is 
on file in every one of the courts. The professional pickpocket, prosti- 
tute or beggar is immediately disclosed upon being finger-printed. 

Probation officers are the confidential agents of the judges, the 
justices and the magistrates. Their duty is to ascertain facts in cases 
coming up for judgment and to keep the court informed as to the 
actions of each individual placed in their charge. They are further- 
more expected to help in every way the probationers under their care. 

City Marshals 

There are sixty-eight city marshals, all of whom are appointed 
by the Mayor for six-year terms and are removable by him on charges 
after a hearing. Their duties consist chiefly in executing dispossess 
warrants and municipal court judgments and in preparing affidavits 
of attempted service. They also serve summonses, orders of arrest 
and writs of attachment, summon jurors and advertise the sale of 
property. The fees which they receive are retained by them in lieu 
of regular salary. 

Coroners 

There are eleven coroners : four in Manhattan, two in each of the 
boroughs of The Bronx, Brooklyn and Queens, and one in Richmond. 
They are elected from their respective boroughs at the general election 
for terms of four years. It is their duty to investigate all unusual, 
accidental or suspicious deaths, to take ante-mortem statements, and 
to hold inquests to determine the cause of death. They act in the 
capacity of magistrates to the extent that after an examination of 
persons arrested for homicide they decide whether they shall be held, 
with or without bail, to await the result of the inquest. 

Commissioners of Accounts 

Leonard M. Wallstein, Commissioner 

The Commissioner of Accounts makes investigations at the direc- 
tion of the Mayor, as well as on his own initiative, into specific depart- 
mental conditions and special matters affecting the welfare of the 
city. The office has popularly been referred to as "The Mayor's Eye," 
but in reality it is the Mayor's agency for administrative investigation. 

[165] 



Municipal Civil Service Commission 

Henby Moskowitz, President 

The members of the Municipal Civil Service Commission are ap- 
pointed by the Mayor and removable by him at pleasure or after a 
hearing on charges by the unanimous vote of the State Civil Service 
Commission, subject to the approval of the Governor. The law pro- 
vides for the appointment of three or more commissioners, not more 
than two-thirds of whom may be of the same political party. The 
present commission consists of three members. 

The chief duties of the Civil Service Commission are as follows : 
(1) examination and rating of candidates for admission to the city's 
service; (2) certification of names from appropriate lists established 
as the result of examination ; (3) examination and rating of employees 
seeking promotion ; (4) certification of all city pay rolls. 

Board of City Record 

David Ferguson, Supervisor 

The Board of City Record, consisting of the Mayor, the Corpora- 
tion Counsel and the Comptroller, has charge of the publication of the 
official journal of the City of New York, the City Record, which is 
issued daily except Sundays and legal holidays. 

Board of Elections 

E. P. Boyle, President 

The Board of Elections is a bi-partisan board composed of four 
commissioners appointed by the Board of Aldermen for a term of two 
years upon the nomination of the county committees of the two most 
important political parties. The board has entire charge of all pri- 
mary, special and general elections held in the five counties con- 
stituting the City of New York. 

Department of Licenses 

George H. Bell, Commissioner 

The department is charged not only with issuing licenses and 
collecting fees therefor, but with the enforcement of regulations relative 
to licenses. Motion picture theatres, for instance, are not licensed 
unless ventilation, fire escapes and the character of entertainment 
offered conform to the standards prescribed by the department. Licenses 
are not issued to dance halls or pool rooms until a report on the 
application has been made by the police. Employment agencies are 
restricted to properly conducted business offices and are not permitted 
to charge fees where no service is given. Taxicabs are not licensed 
unless approved as sanitary and safe. Licenses may be withdrawn 
or withheld from shows, dance halls or pool rooms admitting minors 
unaccompanied by bona fide guardians. Motion picture theatre licenses 
may be suspended or revoked for violation of these provisions. Licenses 
are withheld from peddlers and others dealing in or handling food, 
fruits, confections, etc., until they present a certificate from the De- 
partment of Health as evidence that they are not afflicted with tubercu- 
losis, venereal or other communicable diseases. The inspectors of the 
Department of Licenses have the power of arrest which is conferred 
upon them by the Police Department. 

Public Employment Bureau 

In the fall of 1914 a free public employment bureau was or- 
ganized under the Department of Licenses. 

Applicants for employment are carefully examined as to their 
fitness for different kinds of work. Males are divided into the follow- 

[166] 



ing general classes : professional, technical, industrial, agricultural, 
culinary, mercantile help and laborers. Female applicants are classified 
according to their fitness for office, store, factory, hotel, restaurant, 
institution, professional employment, etc. By means of advertisements 
in New York and other papers, personal solicitation, circulars, etc., 
the needs of employers are ascertained and applicants best fitted to 
meet such needs are certified to them. During the period from No- 
vember 19, 1914, when the office was opened, to May 1, 1915, 25,048 
persons registered for employment ; 5,001 were referred to positions 
and 1,879 are known to have secured employment. 

Mayor's Bureau of Weights and Measures 

Joseph Hartigan, Commissioner 

This bureau is under the supervision of a commissioner appointed 
by the Mayor. It is designed to protect the interests of both con- 
sumers and dealers through systematic regulation and inspection of 
weighing and measuring apparatus. 

Central Purchasing Committee 

The Mayor's Central Purchasing Committee, of which the City 
Chamberlain is Chairman, was appointed in November, 1914, to secure 
for all departments the advantage of the city's best experience in the 
purchase and handling of supplies, materials and equipment. 

Public Markets 

The old established municipal markets in the City of New York 
are as follows : 

Names Locations 

Washington Market Fulton and West Streets. 

Jefferson Market Greenwich Street and Sixth Avenue. 

West Washington Market .... Gansevoort and West Streets. 

Gansevoort Market Little West 12th and Gansevoort Sts. 

Delancey Street Market Pitt and Willett Streets. 

Wallabout Market Washington Avenue, Brooklyn. 

Art Commission 

Robert W. De Forest, President 

Geo. L. Rives, Vice-President 

Walter H. Crittenden, Secretary 

John Quincy Adams, Assistant Secretary 

The Art Commission is composed of the Mayor, the presidents 
of the Metropolitan Museum of Art, New York Public Library, Brooklyn 
Institute of Arts and Sciences, or their appointed representatives, and 
six members appointed by the Mayor at the nomination of the Fine 
Arts Federation. 

The Art Commission must approve all paintings, mural decora- 
tions, stained glass, statues, sculptures, monuments, fountains, arches 
or other structures of a permanent character before the city can 
acquire them either by purchase or by gift. 

The Commission also has jurisdiction over the plans and loca- 
tion of buildings, bridges, approaches, gates, fences, lamps or other 
structures erected by the city or upon city land, except that where the 
cost of such structure does not exceed $250,000 the approval of the 
Art Commission is not required, if the Mayor or the Board of Alder- 
men requests the commission not to act. 

No existing work of art may be removed, re-located or altered 
except with the Commission's consent. The lines, grades and plot- 
ting of public ways and grounds come within the jurisdiction of the 
Art Commission. 

[167] 



Armory Board 

Clark D. Rhinehart, Secretary 

The Armory Board is composed of the Mayor, the Comptroller, 
the President of the Board of Aldermen, the President of the De- 
partment of Taxes and Assessments, the Commanding Officer of the 
Naval Militia, and the two senior ranking officers (of or below the 
grade of Brigadier General) in command of troops of the National 
Guard quartered in New York City. 

It is the duty of the Armory Board to select sites for and erect 
new armories and to superintend the alterations, repairs and improve- 
ments of existing armories. 

National Guard and Naval Militia 

The National Guard of the State of New York consists of ap- 
proximately 17,000 officers and men, representing all arms of the 
service. 

That portion of the National Guard of the State which is sta- 
tioned in the City of New York consists of two brigades of infantry ; 
two regiments of field artillery (less two batteries) ; one regiment 
of cavalry (less one squadron and two troops), one squadron of cavalry, 
and one machine gun troop of cavalry ; one pioneer battalion and one 
pontoon battalion of engineers ; one battalion of signal corps ; one field 
hospital ; one ambulance company ; and three coast defense commands 
(thirty-two companies). The troops stationed in New York City aggre» 
gate about 11,000 officers and men. 

The Naval Militia now consists of three battalions under the 
command of a commodore. Two of the battalions are located in New 
York City — one in Manhattan and the other in Brooklyn. The present 
enlisted strength is about 1,550. 

Examining Board of Plumbers 

James M. Morrow, Chairman 

The members of the Examining Board of Plumbers are appointed 
by the Mayor to examine and certify to the fitness of all persons de- 
siring to practice plumbing in the city. 

The Board of Examiners 

George A. Just, Chairman 

The Board of Examiners renders final decision in disputes in- 
volving more than $1,000, arising from (1) the disapproval by a 
Superintendent of Buildings of a form of construction or kind of 
material to be used in the erection or alteration of a building; (2) 
the claim that the rules of a Bureau of Buildings or the provisions of 
the law are not applicable; (3) the claim that the form of construction 
contemplated is as good as, or better than, that provided by law. 



[168] 



New York the Premier City of the World 

John Wanamaker 

The biggest, busiest, healthiest, wealthiest and hap- 
piest agggregation of people in the whole world is now 
living and working together in the city of New York. 

New York has become the metropolis of the world 
— first in population, in wealth, in business, in com- 
merce, in finance, in education, in music, in charity, in 
achievement, in power. 

Believing that this sovereignty is not generally 
known to the people of our city, I have collected a few 
statistics. 

These statistics are monumental. They are almost 
bewildering. They shall be presented as simply and as 
plainly as possible. 

On January 1, 1914 — before the war, which has affected 
the growth of both cities — New York had already passed Lon- 
don in population. 

Administrative London counting the 28 boroughs under 
one city government, then had 4,517,172 residents ; New York, 
with only five boroughs, 5,518,752. 

Metropolitan London, with 693 square miles, had 7,448,- 
681 ; New York, with 683 square miles, 7,454,296. 

Today New York, according to the latest estimate, made 
by the City Board of Health, has a population of about 5,800,000 
actually within her city limits, and approximately 8,000,000 in 
her metropolitan zone, counting the people who live in the 
suburbs but who work in New York. 



New York is increasing in population at the rate of 18,000 
a month, adding every three months a new city as large as 
that which Washington knew when he was President of the 
United States and the national Capitol was on Wall Street. 

Averaging every three minutes there is a birth in New 
York. Every seven minutes there is a death. Every ten min- 
utes there is a marriage. 

One in every nineteen persons in the United States lives 
in New York. One in every thirteen lives or works here. 

More people live in New York than in all the cities of 
Liverpool, Manchester, Birmingham, Leeds, Sheffield, Bristol, 

[169] 



Bradford, Nottingham, Portsmouth, Oldham, Croydon, Brigh- 
ton, Norwich, Birkenhead and Plymouth, the fifteen largest 
English cities next to London. 

More people live in New York than in the combined cities 
of Berlin, Hamburg, Munich, Dresden, Stuttgart. 

More people live in New York than in all of the twelve 
States of Maine, New Hampshire, Vermont, Rhode Island, 
Delaware, Idaho, Montana, Nevada, Oregon, North Dakota, 
Utah and Wyoming. 

* * * 

There are approximately a million individual families in 
New York, and 400,000 buildings of all kinds. 

Manhattan has 25,000 one-family houses, 2,700 two-family 
houses, and 40,000 multiple type houses. 

Brooklyn — the great home borough — has 63,000 one-fam- 
ily houses, 51,000 two-family houses, and 46,000 multiple type 
houses. 

Bronx — fastest growing of all the boroughs, having in- 
creased 225 per cent, in population since 1900, due largely to 
the extension of the rapid transit system — has 14,000 one-fam- 
ily houses, 2,000 two-family houses, and 10,000 multiple type 
houses. 

Richmond has 15,000 one-family houses, 1,500 two-family 
houses, and 500 multiple type houses. 

Queens — largest of all the boroughs in area — has 38,000 
one-family houses, 14,000 two-family houses, and 5,100 multiple 
type houses. 

* * * 

In a business way, the figures are also impressive. 

With one-twentieth of the population of the United States 
New York produces one-tenth of her manufactured products. 

With 26,000 manufacturing plants, employing three-quarters 
of a million of people, paying half a billion dollars in wages, 
the city turns out over two billion dollars of goods annually. 

In addition, one billion dollars more of goods go out 
through the port of New York and one billion dollars more 
come into the port every year — in normal times. 

Busiest Corner in the World 

The question was recently asked as to the busiest corner 
in the world and the reply was made that while no exact fig- 
ures were available several experts considered it to be Fifth 
Avenue and Forty-second Street. Attention is, therefore, called 
to the figures collected by the New York police and published 
December 12. This traffic count showed the city's busiest cor- 
ner to be Park Row and Frankfort Street, where for twenty- 
five days an average of 296,200 pedestrians and 6,700 vehicles 
passed daily between 8:20 A. M. and 6:30 P. M. Fifth Ave- 
nue and Forty-second Street averaged 113,780 pedestrians and 
18,800 vehicles. 

[170] 




© H. C. BROWN, 1916 



Fifth Avenue from 35th to 33d Street, showing the Wm. Astor. 

corner 34th Street, and Win. Waldorf Astor houses, corner 33d 

Street, since demolished to make room for the Waldorf-Astoria 

Hotel. 



The City's Coat-of-Arms 

While New York has not always been mindful of her 
Colonial treasures it is a source of satisfaction that her 
coat-of-arms, with a trifling alteration, remains the same 
as when granted to the city by the last of the Stuart 
Kings to reign over New York. 

The design of the seal denotes the commercial su- 
periority of New York. That supremacy grew out of 
a law prohibiting the bolting of flour outside the city 
limits, and this gave to its people a monopoly of the ex- 
port trade in breadstuffs and biscuits. This monopoly, 
with the export of furs, really made New York the cen- 
ter of trade in America, a proud position she will ever 
retain. 

An excellent representation of this seal adorns the 
cover of this volume. It shows the shield argent 
charged with four sails of a windmill proper; between 
their outer ends two beavers proper, one in chief and one 
in base, and two flour barrels proper in fess, one on 
each side. The crest shows a bald eagle proper rising 
from a demi-terrestrial globe. An Indian and a sailor 
support the shield. 

The change to which we refer was made by the Com- 
mon Council after the Revolution. At a meeting held 
March 16, 1784, it was ordered that the crown which 
had hitherto formed the crest be removed and the eagle 
substituted. 

With this slight exception New York's seal has re- 
mained unchanged for over two and a half centuries. 

The city also rejoices in a special flag for its own use. 
This emblem bears the original colors of the Dutch — 
orange, white and blue in perpendicular stripes. On the 
white stripe is shown the coat-of-arms of the city as de- 
scribed above. This flag was adopted on the 250th anni- 
versary of the first meeting of the Board of Aldermen, 
or Schepens. 

[171] 



New York in 1816 

Wonderful Changes in the City of Today as compared with a 

Hundred Years Ago. Interesting Description of Its Size, 

Streets, Theatres, Etc., Etc. 

A century in the life of a municipality is a very short 
time. London is over a thousand years old and Paris 
nearly as many. At the most our own city is scarcely 
a hundred and fifty, counting from 1789, when we elect- 
ed our first President, while another similar period 
takes us back to the days when Hudson anchored the 
Half Moon in our waters for the first time. 

And yet today we are the first city in all the world 
— the first in population, in wealth and in commercial 
importance. In the height of our buildings^ the dar- 
ing originality of our architecture, the length of our 
subways, the size of our parks, the number of our 
bridges, the importance of public and private buildings 
we stand absolutely alone. Incredible as it may seem 
there is no more beautiful business building architectur- 
ally in any city in the world than the Woolworth on our 
own Broadway. A dozen others are entitled to almost 
equal praise. New York builds not only for utility but for 
beauty as well and its general color scheme of white 
combined with its brilliant sunshine makes it one of 
the most dazzlingly beautiful cities in the world. 

In the matter of transportation alone the difference 
between today and a hundred years ago almost sur- 
passes belief. Within a few months at most when you 
leave your business for the day it will be un fait ac- 
compli to enter the subway at South Ferry, and board- 
ing an express train, select a comfortable seat, with per- 
fect heat and light, devote yourself to your favorite 
newspaper for about forty minutes, and you will have 
been transported to the other end of the city, say at 
Pelham Bay Park, a distance of very nearly twenty 
miles. 

[172] 




B) H. C. BROWN, 1816 

The old Middle Dutch Church, which formerly stood on the 
corner of Fulton and William Streets— now occupied by De Voe, 
Raynolds 6c Co. The "Fulton Street Daily Prayer Meetings'* 
are still held in this building at noon to conform with the 
conditions under which the land was originally donated for church 
purposes. 



In other directions changes have been equally im- 
portant. But our readers who know the city as it is 
today would no doubt like to know what it was a hun- 
dred years ago and the following selections from news- 
papers and other publications of that period will no 
doubt be found of great interest, as they relate to ex- 
actly the same city in which they now live. Our first 
quotation therefore is from a Guide Book of the city 
of unusually careful compiling and consequently of great 
value in its descriptions of the city in various direc- 
tions. These guide books were well edited and were 
depended upon by the stranger for information regard- 
ing the city. This one begins with the following de- 
scription of the city, its size and other details. 

"In extent the city measures in length from the Battery 
to 31st Street about four miles. The whole of this space 
is not yet covered with buildings, but the greater proportion 
of it is, and probably as new houses are rapidly appearing, 
the plan of the City will be filled up in the course of a few 
years." 

Should it happen that you do live near Pelham Bay 
Park and are fond of fishing, hunting, skating, etc., 
you may have these at hand, but by no means to such 
an extent as in the neighborhood of Thirty-first Street 
a hundred years ago, when it was the extreme out- 
skirts of the flourishing City of New York and even 
now there are still living some old citizens who can 
tell you of the snipe, etc., to be had where the Public 
Library stands, and the fishing where the Park Avenue 
Hotel is. 

The same writer goes on to say: 

"The number of Dwelling Houses is estimated at 17,000. 
The population exceeds 100,000, which gives about six inhabi- 
tants to each house. In consequence of the many destructive 
fires which happened in New York, all houses erected within 
a certain district must now be built of brick or stone, with 
party or fire walls at least six inches above the roof. This 
regulation has introduced much neatness and regularity in the 
general aspect of the dwelling houses." 

Apropos of the population at this time a very curious 
prediction was made as to its future increase; it was 

[173] 



estimated that every five years would see 25 per cent, 
added and which computed to 1900 made a grand total 
of 5,247,493 ! A commentator had this to say : 

"The ratio however will by no means continue in the same 
proportion, as here given, from various causes, but especially 
from the want of adequate building room to accommodate suit- 
ably such an enormous increase on this island. It is barely 
possible that the year 1850 may see this city with a population 
of 4 to 5 hundred thousand but beyond that number the increase 
must be more limited yearly !" 

Of course Greater New York has outgrown the lim- 
its of Manhattan Island and has arrived at the distinc- 
tion of being the most populous city of the world, and 
the word of the prophet has come true almost exactly, 
the population for 1916 being 5,685,000. 

But what of the estimate of six inhabitants to each 
dwelling? Our conservative friend could not possibly 
foresee a single building housing thousands of the in- 
habitants at one time, as is quite possible now in sev- 
eral of New York's hotels and apartment buildings. 

New York boasted of its hotels, etc., in 1816 just 
as we do now. Note the gorgeousness of one of them 
at least and compare it mentally with the Biltmore or 
the Waldorf and remember that for a decade the City 
Hotel was the leading hotel of New York's exclusive 
society and rejoiced in everything pertaining to a first- 
class hostelry in this country at that time. 

"The City of N. Y. is amply provided with these for the 
accommodation of visitors. There are no lodging houses or 
furnished apartments here as in England. Strangers must board 
in the place where they lodge. Unfurnished rooms may some- 
times be had, but these have been difficult to procure of late, 
owing to the rapid increase of the population. These are the 
Hotels:— City Hotel, B'way— Merchants' Hotel, Wall Street- 
Mechanics' Hall, B'way — Tontine Coffee House, Wall St. — Bank 
Coffee House, Pine Street — Tammany Hall, Nassau Street — 
Washington Hall, B'way — Commerce Hotel, Pearl St. 

"The principal of these is the City Hotel — it is an immense 
building 5 stories in height, and contains 75 rooms of various 
dimensions, fitted up and furnished in a tasteful and elegant 
manner. Every luxury of the table to be obtained is provided 
for the patrons." 

, [174] 



It was at the City Hotel in 1816 the first savings 
bank in New York was organized and here was held 
the first meeting of citizens for promoting the Erie 
Canal as here set forth: 

At a numerous and respectable Meeting of the citizens held 
agreeably to public notice at the City Hotel on Saturday eve., 
Dec. 30, 1815, for the purpose of taking into consideration the 
measures proper to be adopted in order to promote a Canal 
Navigation between the great Western Lakes and the tide waters 
of the Hudson River — Wm. Bayard, Esq., in the chair — John 
Pintard secretary, 

De Witt Clinton, Esq., from committee appointed for that 
purpose at a former meeting, reported that in their opinion it 
would be proper to present a memorial to the Legislature in 
favor of a canal from Lake Erie to the Hudson, and that the 
committee had prepared such memorial for the consideration 
of this meeting. 

Resolved unanimously that the same be adopted. And 

Resolved that De Witt Clinton, Cadwalader D. Colden, John 
Swartwout, Thomas Eddy, and William Bayard, Esquires, be 
a general committee ... to promote the undertaking. 

The proprietor of a hotel not mentioned in the Guide 
Book to New York thus addresses himself to the pub- 
lic through the columns of the Evening Post : 

Miles Greenwood having made arrangements for the accom- 
modation of an additional number of boarders at the Union 
Hotel, 68 William St., begs leave to solicit the patronage of 
those gentlemen desirous to economize in their expenses. He 
hopes however that those not so desirous will not be discour- 
aged from honoring him with a visit, by the humble terms on 
which he proposes to serve them, but that they will estimate 
his house according to the quality of its provisions and con- 
veniences. 

Boarders can be accommodated at 3.50 a week. 

And those in search of a good roadhouse as far 
away as Twenty-sixth Street, might be accommodated 
here: 

Bellevue Coffee House — Nicholas Thompson, late of 147 
Water Street, informs his friends and the public that he has 
opened that agreeably situated House on the banks of the East 
River, a few yards east of the new Alms House (26th Street), 
called the Bellevue Coffee House, where he will pay every atten- 
tion to the accommodation of those who visit it. Dinners, 

[175] 



Breakfasts, and Suppers and Relishes furnished in a handsome 
style and at moderate prices. A Boat with fishing tackle, etc., 
is kept for the use of Customers, also an elegant Bathing 
House. 

Ladies, Your Attention, Please 

Mrs. Barber, Corset, Dress and Habit Maker has removed 
from No. 80 to No. 96 Broadway and will use her best en- 
deavors to obtain the earliest European fashions. 

Introducing Franklin Street 

On the petition of the owners and inhabitants of property 
on Sugar Loaf Street, the name of said street was changed to 
that of Franklin Street. 

Evening Post, July 10, 1816. 
The Goal for Fast Horses 

< Macomb's Stone Dam, across the Harlaem River. The sub- 
scriber announces that Colonel Macomb's Stone Dam, across 
the Harlaem River is completed; and that it is so constructed 
as to answer all the purposes of a bridge, being brought up 
to a surface of twenty-four feet in width in the clear. The 
roads connected therewith are so far finished as to open a di- 
rect route to Williamsbridge, White Plains, etc. 

John Marshall, Superintendent. 

Evening Post, July 12, 1816. 

From a Member of the Anti-Noise Society 

Communication — Our city has of late taken a very musi- 
cal turn. In the day time we are entertained with trumpets 
by New Jersey buttermilk blacks, and New York rusk-boys — 
in the night by the smutty ditties of the nightly scavengers. 
Would it not greatly add to the harmony, to have the bells 
of all the churches rung at every half-hour in order that the 
sick and dying may keep an account of their last moments? 

• The Gazette, July 9, 1816. 

Never remedied except during the administration 
of the late lamented Col. Waring, the best Street Com- 
missioner New York ever had. 

The practice of sweeping the streets in dry windy weather, 
without previously sprinkling, ought to be prohibited by the 
civil authority. No person can walk during sweeping hours 
without being almost suffocated. 

[176] 



itj|G^r3 




he 

2 



u 



^2 

E 



[In reply to the above we have to remark that there is an 
ordinance of the corporation forbidding this practice. It is 
evident no notice is taken of the constant infringement of the 
law.] 

The wood sawyer pursuing his occupation was a com- 
mon sight. 

Coroner's Report — A man unknown about 35 years old, 
while sawing wood in Pearl Street, dropped down dead. 

Demand for pews in the fashionable St. George's 
Church in Beekman Street. 

Wanted — Either the whole or half of a Pew, on the 
ground floor of St. George's Church, contiguous to the pulpit; 
for which a liberal rent will be paid. 



City Parks in 1816 

Comparatively very few of the citizens of New York 
have any adequate idea of the extent of the Public 
Parks that have been provided by the city. The sub- 
ject, as it well deserves, has been treated at great length 
elsewhere in this volume — although it would necessitate 
a very large book of itself to do proper justice to the 
wonders and beauties of these vast areas reserved for 
all time for the delectation of our citizens. From a 
comparison with the very limited Park Property of 
1816 it would appear that New York had greatly in- 
creased in this direction, and greatly to its credit. The 
following descriptions of such parks as were in ex- 
istence in 1816 are of unusual interest, so great are the 
changes that have occurred in the various sections since 
that time: 

The Battery Walk — Is the most delightful promenade in 
the city. It is an open space on the south-west point of the 
island to which everyone has access ; originally this point of 
land was^ fortified by the Dutch who threw up embankments, 
upon which they placed some pieces of cannon. Such was 
the origin of this renowned walk, the battery, devoted to the 
purpose of war, but which has ever since been consecrated 
to the sweet delights of peace. * * * The ornament of 
New York, and the pride of the lovely island of Manhattan. 
( Knickerbocker. ) 

[177] 



Bowling Green, formerly a place of amusement for the 
citizens, who used to play here at ball, quoits and other diver- 
sions. 

The Park (Present City Hall Park). This is a very 
elegant, pleasant and fashionable resort. Its extent is about 
4 acres, and its situation in the middle of the city, on the 
right hand as we ascend Broadway, renders it easy of ac- 
cess. * * * Rows of trees, interspersed with walks afford 
a cool and agreeable shade from the heat. The whole is en- 
closed by a railing, the City Hall greatly enhances the beauty 
of the place, and as it is in contemplation to remove the Jail 
and Bridewell to some other quarter, these improvements will 
greatly add to the attractions of a spot so highly and de- 
servedly prized by the citizens of New York. 

Much has been written of these three City Parks 
since 1816 as they loom large in the early history of 
New York. They were the scenes of many important 
public events and are also our first public breathing 
spots. As such they are entitled to the love and venera- 
tion of all our people. 



Old Time Amusements 

There was one theatre only in New York a century 
ago, therefore it is called The Theatre in the accom- 
panying list of six places of amusement "where money 
for admission is received. ,, The New Yorkers of that 
day undoubtedly found a great deal to amuse them out- 
side of the play house — one popular form of dissipa- 
tion being the book auctions that were held in the even- 
ing. The New Yorker of today would find little ex- 
citement in the rival bids for a copy of Baxter's "Saints 
Rest" or Adam Smith's "Wealth of Nations." Tastes 
have changed. 

Places of Amusement where money for admission is received : 
1. The Theatre (Chatham Street, afterwards called the Park 
Theatre). 2. Vauxhall Gardens. 3. The Circus. 4. The Gal- 
lery of Paintings. 5. The Mechanical Panorama. 6. The Naval 
Panorama. 

The Theatre is a large and substantial stone and brick 
structure well adapted for the drama which is liberally sup- 
ported in New York. In fitting up the interior much taste has 

[178] 




The most interesting of all the Lincoln portraits. Taken at 

Cooper Union, New York, on the occasion of his first appearance 

in the East after the famous Lincoln-Douglass debates. 



been displayed and the hand of the artist is obvious in the 
painting of the scenery. The house will hold 2500 spectators 
and is generally open from the 1st of September to 4th July. 

Vauxhall Gardens is situated near the top of the Bow- 
ery and is a pretty general resort. Music and fire-works are 
the principal attractions. In the centre of the garden is an 
equestrian figure of Washington, and the orchestra, erected 
in the midst of trees, has a romantic effect. 

The Circus is a large wooden building near the stone 
bridge in Broadway (Canal Street) erected only in August 
last (1815). It is called the "New Circus," there having been 
former attempts to establish a place of amusement of this de- 
scription here, but without effect. The present is under the 
guidance of Mr. West, who, if he does not meet with better 
success than his predecessors, will not have to blame himself 
for want of variety of entertainments. Astonishing horseman- 
ship, wonderful performances on the tight rope, the liliputian 
poney, flying horseman and the hunted tailor are the principal 
items in the bill of fare which excites the wonderment of the 
inhabitants of this populous city. 



The Palisades Interstate Park 

It will doubtless be some years yet before New Yorkers in 
general realize what a wonderful addition has been made to their 
resources for health and pleasure through the opening and 
development of the Palisades Interstate Park. On a recent 
Sunday more than five thousand foot-passengers crossed over at 
the Dyckman Street ferry alone and this number will greatly 
increase during the coming summer. 

The development of this immense pleasure ground was 
greatly accelerated by the generous gift of Mrs. E. H. Harri- 
man of 10,000 acres of land and $1,000,000 in cash, when the 
project was still in its beginnings. One of the great features of 
this splendid park will be the Henry Hudson Drive to be 
located under the Palisades with approaches to the top of the 
cliffs. 

The Society Library 

The New York Society Library continues to prosper. In 
1900 the subscriptions amounted to only $200, while for the 
fiscal year ending March 31, 1916, this amount had grown to 
$5,588. 

F. Augustus Schermerhorn, Charles C. Haight, David B. 
Ogden, Paul Tuckerman, and Charles de Rham were elected 
trustees for a term of three years. 

[179] 



The Leonard Lispenard House 

Elsewhere in these pages the quaint marriage notice 
of Leonard Lispenard to Ann Rutgers is recorded. We 
would not be able to locate exactly the home of Lis- 
penard to which he took his bride were it not for the 
fact that Washington spent one night there while on his 
way from Philadelphia to Cambridge to assume com- 
mand of the American Army. News of the battle of 
Lexington had already reached New York and, while not 
regarded seriously by the King's officers, it was, never- 
theless, taken as an indication of the serious resistance 
of the Americans. But the startling news of the battle 
of Bunker Hill and the presence of British war vessels 
in the harbor caused Washington and his advisers grave 
concern regarding his route through New York. Ordi- 
narily speaking there were three main traveled roads 
from Philadelphia to New York. One by way of Perth 
Amboy, the Arthur Kill, Kill Von Kull and New York 
Bay, or crossing by Perth Amboy to Staten Island, and 
thence by boat to New York, or from New Brunswick 
to Elizabethport and thence by boat to New York, or 
what was most feasible of all, continuing through New- 
ark to Jersey City, then called Paulus Hook, and from 
that point to the foot of Courtlandt Street, N. Y. All 
of these routes landed the traveler at the lower end of 
the city. 

However, as the Royal Governor Tryon had already 
arrived at Sandy Hook, it became a delicate matter how 
to avoid an embarrassing situation. Up to this time 
there had been no formal declaration of war and the 
Royal Governor was entitled to a formal reception from 
the people as a whole, while Washington's appearance, 
representing the new nation in the making, was likely to 
arouse a counter demonstration by the people. 

Washington's advisers wisely concluded that by go- 
ing up to Hoboken and crossing there they would avoid 

[180] 




Diana's Tower on Madison Square Garden seen from Fifth 
Avenue and 24th Street. 



possible trouble. This naturally led to a landing on the 
New York side at about the present Laight and Green- 
wich Streets near Leonard Lispenard's place. The 
American troops were disposed accordingly and Wash- 
ington received with full honors. 

To the fact that Washington spent the night at Leon- 
ard Lispenard's mansion we are indebted for the exact 
location of the homestead, which is now definitely deter- 
mined to have been 198 Hudson Street. A tablet has 
therefore been affixed to this location reading as follows : 



Opposite this Tablet 

in Hudson Street stood the 

House of Leonard Lispenard 

in which 

GENERAL GEORGE WASHINGTON 

was Entertained June 25, 1775, 

while en route 

from Philadelphia to Cambridge 

to Assume Command of the Continental Army. 

This Tablet was Erected 

By the Empire State Society 

Sons of the American Revolution 

June 25, 1914. 



Mr. Lispenard had already given many proofs of his 
devotion to the American cause and this selection of his 
home as an abiding place over night was perfectly nat- 
ural. A Loyalist, writing of the event and referring to 
Washington and his hosts, says the former was received 
by shouts and huzzas from the rebellious, and was es- 
corted to town in the same tumultuous and ridiculous 
manner. 

[181] 



Washington Irving Introduces American 
Literature to the Old World 

The nineteenth century had hardly opened when New- 
York gave signs of being the coming literary centre of 
the New World. As yet, however, nothing had been 
produced of exceptional merit. Alexander Hamilton had 
founded the Evening Post, a daily paper that was des- 
tined to have much influence on American letters and 
had imparted to its columns a scholarly standard that has 
been maintained to the present day. It remained for 
Washington Irving, one of its early contributors, to 
gain recognition for American literature in the great cul- 
tured centres of Europe. Irving was a native New 
Yorker and was born at 128 William Street and chris- 
tened in St. George's Chapel, then in Beekman Street. 
He lived a long and useful life and for many years was 
the first citizen of New York. He was largely instru- 
mental in persuading John Jacob Astor to found the 
Astor Library. He was one of his executors, president 
of the commission which created Central Park and held 
many other positions of dignity and trust in the city. 
Elsewhere in these pages Mr. Poultney Bigelow has writ- 
ten an appreciation of Irving which is of great interest. 

But it is as the first author to receive recognition 
abroad for American letters that his chief distinction 
lies. His list of works is a long one, but the book which 
is best known to our citizens is his inimitable "Knicker- 
bocker's History of New York." The popularity of this 
work shows no signs of diminishing and today its sales 
are greater than at the time of its first publication. This 
edition brings today $285.00 per copy if nicely bound. 
What he wrote as a whimsical ephemeral production has 
now become a classic and the good-natured badinage 
with which he records the doings of our solemn Dutch 
ancestors has gained in popularity as time has passed. 

[182] 




E 
5 



o 
2 



O 



Irving was evidently not unaware of the advantages 
of clever advertising and conceived the idea of printing 
a number of letters designed to excite curiosity regard- 
ing Diedrich Knickerbocker. These appeared in the 
Evening Post, at weekly intervals prior to the appear- 
ance of his book and a glance at the collection will readily 
prove that our amiable friend was vastly superior to the 
many so-called experts in this field today. We print 
these letters in the succession in which they appeared, 
and our readers, we think, will agree with us that they 
are well worth a place among the beginnings of Ameri- 
can literature. As will be seen, they were excellently 
adapted to arouse interest and sympathy regarding the 
fate of old Diedrich and readily excited considerable 
curiosity regarding the book which he was supposed to 
have left with the irascible Innkeeper. The result amply 
justified Irving's expectations, as all New York was 
agog to see what sort of a "very curious kind of a book" 
he had written. 

Distressing 

Left his lodgings some time since, and has not since been 
heard of, a small elderly gentleman, dressed in an old black 
coat and cocked hat, by the name of Knickerbocker, As there 
are some reasons for believing he is not entirely in his right 
mind, and as great anxiety is entertained about him, any in- 
formation concerning him left either at the Columbian Hotel, 
Mulberry Street, or at the office of this paper, will be thank- 
fully received. 



From the same, November 6, 1809. 

To the Editor of the Evening Post: 

Sir, — Having read in your paper of the 26th October last, 
a paragraph respecting an old gentleman by the name of 
Knickerbocker, who was missing from his lodgings ; if it would 
be any relief to his friends, or furnish them with any clew 
to discover where he is, you may inform them that a per- 
son answering the description given, was seen^ by the passen- 
gers of the Albany stage, early in the morning, about four 
or five weeks since, resting himself by the side of the road, 
a little above King's Bridge. He had in his hand a small 
bundle tied in a red bandanna handkerchief : he appeared to 
be travelling northward, and was very much fatigued and 
exhausted. A TRAVELLER. 

[183] 



From the same, November 16, 1809. 

To the Editor of the Evening Post: 

Sir, — You have been good enough to publish in your paper 
a paragraph about Mr. Diedrich Knickerbocker, who was miss- 
ing so strangely some time since. Nothing satisfactory has 
been heard of the old gentleman since; but a very curious 
kind of a written book has been found in his room, in his 
own handwriting. Now I wish you to notice him, if he is 
still alive, that if he does not return and pay off his bill 
for boarding and lodging, I shall have to dispose of his book 
to satisfy me for the same. 

I am, Sir, your humble servant, 

SETH HANDASIDE, 

Landlord of the Independent Columbian Hotel, Mulberry 
Street. 



From the same, November 28, 1809. 

Literary Notice 

Inskeep & Bradford have in the press, and will shortly publish, 

A History of New York 

In two volumes, duodecimo. Price three dollars. 

Containing an account of its discovery and settlement, with 
its internal policies, manners, customs, wars, etc., etc., under 
the Dutch government, furnishing many curious and inter- 
esting particulars never before published, and which are gath- 
ered from various manuscript and other authenticated sources, 
the whole being interspersed with philosophical speculations 
and moral precepts. 

This work was found in the chamber of Mr. Diedrich 
Knickerbocker, the old gentleman, whose sudden and myste- 
rious disappearance has been noticed. It is published in order 
to discharge certain debts he has left behind. 



From the American Citizen, December 6, 1809. 

Is this day published 

By Inskeep & Bradford, No. 128 Broadway 

A History of New York 

etc., etc., 

(Containing same as above.) 

[184] 



Among other brilliant literary men who were soon 
to shed glory in American letters and who lived in New 
York were: Fitz-Greene Halleck, Dr. Joseph Rodman 
Drake, Edgar Allan Poe, Charles F. Browne (Artemus 
Ward), Fitz-James O'Brien, Godfrey Saxe, Benjamin 
P. Shillaber, Theodore F. Tuckerman, Charles G. Hal- 
pin, Miles O'Reilly, Henry Brevoort, James K. Paulding, 
Charles Ferro Hoffman, Henry Ogden, Peter and Gou- 
verneur Kemble, Peter and William Irving, brothers of 
Washington Irving. 

This group in a degree recalled the days of Garrick, 
Johnson and others in Grub Street. They were Bohe- 
mians of the better sort and made their headquarters in 
a porter house at John and Nassau Streets when their 
finances were low — an ordinary, and, in fact, chronic 
condition. Here they enjoyed "blackguard suppers," as 
they affectionately termed their humble repasts, but when 
fortune smiled upon them they hied them forth in 
ghoulish glee to their "country estate," an ancient resi- 
dence on the banks of the Passaic not far from Newark, 
to which they gave the playful name of "Cockloft Hall." 
To this day Cockloft Hall remains Newark's most treas- 
ured literary possession, and its glories will be revived 
in the celebration of that city's 250th anniversary, which 
is to be held this year. 

In 1820 Halleck mourned the death of Drake, who 
was buried in Hunt's Point in the Bronx. Returning 
from the funeral he composed that famous monody which 
begins : 

Green be the grass above thee, 
Friend of my better days, 
None knew thee but to love thee, 
None named thee but to praise. 

It is an exquisite poem and a fitting tribute of the 
love he bore his friend. "There will be less sunshine for 
me hereafter now that Jo is gone," he remarked to his 
friend De Kay that evening, and so it proved. 

Events now move swiftly even in literary circles in 
New York. Irving goes to Spain, there to further en- 
hance his reputation by the Conquest of Granada. At 
the Madrid Court he met the future Empress of the 

[185] 



French, then a mere child of eight years. It is a singular 
fact that Eugenia is still alive, though nearly sixty years 
have passed since Irving died and is the last link that 
connects Irving with any known living person. The late 
John Bigelow, for many years New York's first citizen, 
who died at 94 only three years ago, was the last living 
American to remember Irving in life. 

The little cottage in which Poe lived is fortunately 
still preserved, and the City has done itself credit by 
purchasing also part of the ground surrounding it and 
setting it aside as Poe Park. 

The list of men and women of later years who have 
shed lustre on American letters is a long one. They may 
not have been native sons, but wherever born it was in 
New York that their talents were recognized and their 
worth appreciated. 

Where Washington Took Farewell of His 
Officers 

Fraunces' Tavern, on the southeast corner of Broad 
and Pearl streets, contains on the second floor the 
famous "long room," in which General Washington took 
affecting leave of his officers and aides Dec. 4, 1783, be- 
fore proceeding to Congress to surrender his commis- 
sion. It was originally a private house built in 1700 by 
Etienne De Lancey. It was opened as a tavern by Sam- 
uel Fraunces in 1762. The building has been restored 
by the Sons of the Revolution to its original proportions. 
The first floor is still a tavern ; or more properly speak- 
ing a modern restaurant where good meals can be ob- 
tained by the stranger. The second floor contains a dis- 
play of historical relics. 

Next to the Jumel Mansion this building is more 
closely associated with the memory of Washington than 
any other on the island, and is the Mecca of many a 
patriotic pilgrimage. The Chamber of Commerce was 
organized here in 1756, and the Tavern was the scene of 
many spirited meetings by the Sons of Liberty prior to 
the Revolution. 

[186] 



President Washington's Life in New York 

The Presidential Residence in New York was not a place 
of great hilarity. In fact, it was rather dull and uninviting. 
Although President Washington entertained much, the dinners 
he gave were considered rather dull affairs and it was a habit 
of his, while the guests at the table were conversing freely, to 
toy with a fork or spoon, saying nothing and looking very 
much like a man who was greatly bored. He was imperious 
and peremptory and very exact as to his rules of life. Such a 
thing as waiting for a guest was out of the question. His hour 
for dining was observed to the minute. It is related that on 
one occasion when he expected two noted public men to dine 
with him the hour struck but the guests did not appear. Never- 
theless Washington went in to dinner punctually on time and, 
when the two gentlemen arrived fifteen minutes late, he greeted 
them with his usual urbanity, and said "Gentlemen, we are 
punctual here. My cook never asks if the company has ar- 
rived but if the hour has." 

There were times, of course, when Washington threw off 
the stiff and dignified manner of the hero and appeared just 
like the ordinary human being and in such a mood would be- 
come very genial and quite talkative. But he rarely melted out 
sufficiently to become humorous, although he got to the point 
of being chatty and cheerful. At levees and social functions 
the ladies surrounded him as often as there was opportunity 
and Washington, although not a ladies' man, would be quite 
entertaining and attractive. One young woman writes to a 
friend of having met Washington on such an occasion, and 
adds, "when General Washington throws off the Hero and takes 
up the chatty, agreeable Companion, he can be down right 
impudent sometimes — such impudence, Fanny, as you and I 
like." 

We can hardly imagine the Presidential Mansion being dull 
and prosy; but such it was and we have Martha Washington's 
own testimony to that effect. In a letter she wrote from New 
York to her friend at Mt. Vernon she says : "I live a very 
dull life here and know nothing of what passes in the town. 
I never go to any public place. t Indeed, I think I am more 
like a State prisoner than anything else; and, as I cannot do 
as I like, I am obstinate and stay at home a great deal. Kiss 
Marie. I send her two little handkerchiefs to wipe her nose." 
So it is not all gold that glitters and we can easily imagine 
that, after the long and trying services he had rendered his 
country and the years of arduous toil in consolidating and 
establishing the Republic, Washington was glad to retire to the 
quiet and seclusion of Mt. Vernon. 

[187] 



In Provincial Congrefs, 

New-York, Auguft 8th, 177& 

RESOLVED, 

THAT the feveral Committees and Suh-- 
Committees of the different Counties with- 
in this Coloriy, be directed immediately to 
purchafe or hire all the ARM S, with or without. 
Bayonets, that are fit for prefent Service (on the 
Credit of this Colony) and to deliver them to the 
refpe£tive Colonels in this Colony employed in the 
Continental Service, or their Order, for the Ufei of 
.he Continental Army* 

A true Copy from the Minutes, 

Robert Benson, Secry, 



REVOLUTIONARY BROADSIDE GIVING FIRST NOTICE OF ARMED RESISTANCE 
TO THE CROWN 



[188] 




© H. C. BROWN. 1916 



Great naturalist and authot-of "Audubon's Birds. 
Another beloved citizen of New York, 



Hunting Bears in Pearl Street 

From Wooley's Journal of New York. 

[In 1678 Charles Wooley, A.M., a young graduate of Cambridge 
College in England made a trip to this country spending two years 
in New York and vicinity. The city itself he describes as "poore 
unsettled and almost without trade ; small in size and scanty in 
population ; its buildings mostly wood ; some few of stone and brick ; 
10 or 15 ships of about 100 tons burthen each frequented the port 
in a year ; four of these being New York built." A trader worth 
$2,500 to $5,000 was "accompted a good substantial merchant ; a planter 
whose moveables were valued at half that sum was esteemed rich." 
Editor.] 

Wooley left England May 27th, 1678, on board the 
Blossom, Richard Martain, Master, and arrived in N. 
Y. the following August 7th. Although he spent con- 
siderable time in other parts of the country besides New 
York, we are only concerned with his sojourn here, as 
he records an actual Bear Hunt in the City of New York. 

"I was one with others that have had very good diversion and 
sport with them ; in an orchard of Mr. John Robinson's of New York, 
where we followed a Bear from Tree to Tree upon which he could 
swarm like a Cat ; and when he was got to his resting place perch'd 
upon a high branch, we despatch'd a youth after him with a Club 
to an opposite bough who knocking his Claws, he comes grumbling 
down backwards with a thump upon the ground, so we after him 
again." 

Note. — The John Robinson referred to above was a 
merchant in New York as early as 1676 and at the time of 
the incident above referred to, his orchard, as near as can 
now be judged, extended along Pearl Street just north 
of Pine. (N. Y. Book of Deeds, V, 113, VI, 208, 414.) Also 
Minutes of Common Council 1680. Resolved that water 
lots between John Robinson's and William Beekman's lands 
along the Smiths Valley be sold at auction to pay some 
public assessments. (Smiths Valley extended from Cedar 
nearly to Beekman St.) 

Mr. Robinson was a brother-in-law of Dirck Van der 
Cliff through whose farm the present Cliff St. runs. 

Nevertheless, James Riker in his excellent book 
"History of Harlem" disputes the location of this farm 
so far down town and gives excellent proof that it really 
was up town at about the foot of 75th to 80th Sts. In 
any event it seems to show beyond a doubt that Bears 
were hunted in the city. 

[189] 



New York's Great Universities 

New York is justly proud of her great educational institu- 
tions. In recent years the increase in the number of stu- 
dents has been phenomenal and New York may now claim to 
have the largest university in the world. Columbia a few years 
ago had only about 6,000 students — the latest report shows nearly 
16,000; and the others are growing at a corresponding rate. 
We have not space in this article to give a detailed account of 
their activities but we give in brief a synopsis of their work 
and the men who are responsible for them. 

Columbia University 

Morningside Heights 

Nicholas Murray Butler, Ph.D., Jur.D., LL.D., D.Litt., President 
The Schools and Colleges composing the University are Columbia 
College, the oldest part of the University ; Barnard College for Women ; 
the Graduate Schools ; the School of Law ; the College of Physicians 
and Surgeons ; the School of Mines ; the School of Engineering ; the 
School of Chemistry ; the School of Architecture ; the School of Jour- 
nalism ; Teachers College ; the College of Pharmacy. 

The University also maintains a Summer Session and a system of 
Extension Teaching. 

TRUSTEES: George L. Rives, Chairman; John B. Pine, Clerk; Gerard 
Beekman, Hermann H. Cammann, William Barclay Parsons, Fran- 
cis Sedgwick Bangs, Benjamin Aymar Sands, Nicholas Murray But- 
ler, T. Matlack Cheesman, Horace W. Carpentier, Marcellus Hartley 
Dodge, Rev. William T. Manning, Rt. Rev. David H. Greer, Ben- 
jamin B. Lawrence, Willard V. King, William Pellowes Morgan, 
Stephen Baker, James Duane Livingston, Frederic R. Coudert, 
William Douglas Sloane, Walter Mendelson, Charles F. Hoffman, 
George L. Ingraham, Ambrose D. Henry. 

The University Library, the central feature of the entire group 
of buildings, is the gift of Seth Low, LL.D., president of the Uni- 
versity from 1889 to 1901. 

St. Paul's Chapel was given by Olivia E. P. Stokes and Caroline 
Phelps Stokes in memory of their parents. 

Avery Library is the gift of Samuel P. Avery. 

Fayerweather Hall is the gift of Daniel B. Fayerweather. 

Schermerhorn Hall is the gift of William C. Schermerhorn. 

Havemeyer Hall is the gift of the family of Frederick Christian 
Havemeyer. 

Earl Hall is the gift of William Earl Dodge. 

School of Mines Building is the gift of Adolph Lewisohn. 

John Stewart Kennedy gave the University Hamilton Hall, the 
home of Columbia College, and the two residence halls, Hartley Hall 
and Livingston Hall. 

[190] 



Furnald Hall, the third residence hall, is the gift of Joseph 
Pulitzer. 

The South Building and the Middle Building of the Medical School 
at 59th St. between 9th and 10th Aves., are both the gift of William 
H. Vanderbilt. 

The North Building, the Institute of Anatomy and the Vanderbilt 
Clinic, also at 59th St., are the gifts of Cornelius, William K., Fred- 
erick W. and George W. Vanderbilt. 

The Sloane Maternity Hospital is the gift of Mr. and Mrs. William 
D. Sloane. 

UNIVERSITY COUNCIL: Nicholas Murray Butler, Ph.D., Jur.D., 
LL.D., D.Litt., President of the University; Frederick J. E. Wood- 
bridge, A.M., LL.D., Dean of the Faculties of Political Science, 
Philosophy, Pure Science; Frederick Paul Keppel, A.B., D.Litt., 
Dean of Columbia College; Frederick Arthus Goetze, M.Sc, Dean 
of the Faculty of Applied Science; Harlan S. Stone, A.M., LL.B., 
Dean of the Faculty of Law; Samuel W. Lambert, M.D., Dean of 
the Faculty of Medicine; Virginia C. Gildersleeve, Ph.D., Dean of 
Barnard College and Adviser of Women Graduate Students; James 
Earl Russell, Ph.D., LL.D., Dean of Teachers College; Henry H. 
Rusby, M.D., Dean of the College of Pharmacy; William H. Car- 
penter, Ph.D., Provost- of the University ; William T. Brewster, 
A.M., Provost of Barnard College; James C. Egbert, Ph.D., Di- 
rector of the Summer Session and of Extension Teaching; Talcott 
Williams, LL.D., L.H.D., D.Litt, Director of the School of Jour- 
nalism; Austin W. Lord, Director of the School of Architecture. 

TRUSTEES OF BARNARD COLLEGE : Slias B. Brownell, Chairman; 
Mrs. A. A. Anderson, V ice- Chairman ; Frederick B. Jennings, 
Clerk; George A. Plimpton, Treasurer ; Mrs. Joseph H. Choate, 
Mrs. Alfred Meyer, Mrs. James Talcott, Mrs. Henry Fairfield Os- 
born, Edward W. Sheldon, The Very Rev. William M. Grosvenor, 
Mrs. Henry N. Munn, President Butler, Albert G. Milbank, Miss 
Clara B. Spence, Howard Townsend, Mrs. Gino C. Speranza, John 
G. Milburn, George L. Rives, Miss Charlotte S. Baker, Horace W. 
Carpentier, Pierre Jay, Mrs. Charles Cary Rumsey, Mrs. Herbert 
Parsons, Mrs. Ogden Mills Reid. 

The munificent gift of $500,000 recently given by Jacob H. Schiff 
to Barnard College is for the purpose of erecting Students' Hall, which 
will serve as a center for the social, philanthropic and religious ac- 
tivities of all women in Columbia University. 

TRUSTEES OF TEACHERS COLLEGE : V. Everit Macy, Chairman; 
Frank R. Chambers, Y ice- Chair man; Newbold Morris, Secretary; 
Clark Williams, Treasurer; Arthur Turnbull, Assistant Treasurer; 
Peter B. Olney, B. Talbot B. Hyde, James Speyer, James E. Rus- 
sell, Mrs. Frederick F. Thompson, Nicholas Murray Butler, Mrs. 
Helen Hartley Jenkins, Arthur Iselin, Horace E. Andrews, Felix 
M. Warburg, William B. Osgood Field, Dunlevy J. Milbank, Philip 
A. Rollins, Richard M. Hoe, David Snedden. 

TRUSTEES OF COLLEGE OF PHARMACY: Nicholas Murray 
Butler, President; Charles F. Chandler, Vice-President ; William 
Jay Schieffelin, Vice-President; Albert Plaut, Vice-President; 
Clarence O. Bigelow, Treasurer; Thomas F. Main, Secretary; 
Edward W. Runyon, Assistant Secretary; W. B. Simpson, Clerk 
of the College. 

[191] 



The New York University 

University Heights 

Elmer Ellsworth Brown, Ph.D., LL.D., Chancellor 

The New York University offers instruction in nine schools and 
faculties offering degrees and in three divisions offering extension 
work : — University College, Law School, Medical College, School of 
Commerce, School of Pedagogy, Graduate School, School of Applied 
Science, Washington Square College, Veterinary College ; the Sum- 
mer School, the Extramural Division and Woman's Law Class. 

The Council of the University 

The Council of New York University, incorporated the 18th of 
April, 1831, is a self-perpetuating body, consisting of thirty-two mem- 
bers, each holding office for four years or until his successor is elected. 
One- fourth of the members go out of office each year on the fourth 
Monday of October, when their successors are elected by the council. 

OPPFICERS OF THE COUNCIL: George Alexander, D.D., President; 
Eugene Stevenson, Vice-President; George A. Strong, Secretary; 
William M. Kingsley, Treasurer. 

ROLL OF THE COUNCIL: William S. Opdyke, George Alexander, D.D., 
Henry M. MacCracken, D.D., LL.D., John P. Munn, M.D., Willis 
Fletcher Johnson, L.H.D., Thomas E. Greaeen, William M. Kings- 
ley, James G. Cannon, Clarence H. Kelsey, William H. Porter, 
John H. MacCracken, Ph.D., Eugene Stevenson, James Warren 
Lane, Frank A. Vanderlip, David A. Boody, Henry W. Hodge, 
George A. Strong, James Abbott, Henry M. Brown, D.D., Scott 
Foster, Cleland B. McAfee, Benjamin T. Fairchild, Alexander S. 
Lyman, Robert Mackenzie, D.D., LL.D., Elmer Ellsworth Brown, 
Ph.D., LL.D., Finley J. Shepard, William R. Willcox, LL.D. 

The Memorial Library at University Heights, one of the most 
notable library buildings in the United States, is the gift of Miss 
Helen Miller Gould (now Mrs. Finley J. Shepard). 

Gould Hall is also the gift of the same generous giver in memory 
of her parents. 

The Carnegie Laboratory, adjoining the College Building on E. 
26th St., is the gift of Andrew Carnegie. 

The Law Library has been very largely enriched by collections 
presented by Mrs. Elliot F. Shepard in memory of her husband. 



The Hall of Fame — New York University 

The Hall of Fame, which extends in semi-circular form just west 
of the Library, is unique among college buildings. The building is 
two stories in height, the first of which consists of a long corridor 
and six separate rooms which are finally to constitute the Museum of 
the Hall of Fame. The second story is the Colonnade, the exclusive 
use of which is to serve as "the Hall of Fame for Great Americans." 
Here are to be found the inscriptions of those who have been elected 
by vote of the One Hundred Electors of the Hall of Fame. Provi- 
sion is made for the commemoration of Americans of foreign nativity 
and of famous American women. Elections are held every five years. 
The following are the names of Famous Americans elected to the 
Hall of Fame : 



[192] 




> 

< 






o 
U 



Famous American Men 

1900 

George Washington 97 

John Adams 62 

John Quincy Adams 48 

Henry Clay 74 

Benjamin Franklin 94 

Andrew Jackson 48 

Thomas Jefferson 91 

Abraham Lincoln 96 

James Madison 49 

Daniel Webster 96 

Ralph Waldo Emerson 87 

Henry Wadsworth Longfellow 85 

Washington Irving 83 

Nathaniel Hawthorne 73 

James Russell Lowell 

John Greenleaf Whittier 

George Bancroft 

William Cullen Bryant 49 

James Fenimore Cooper 30 

Oliver Wendell Holmes 

John Lothrop Motley 41 

Edgar Allan Poe 38 

Horace Mann 67 

Jonathan Edwards 82 

Henry Ward Beecher 64 

William Ellery Channing 58 

Phillips Brooks 

Peter Cooper 69 

George Peabody 74 

John James Audubon 67 

Asa Gray 51 

Robert Fulton 86 

Samuel F. B. Morse 82 

Eli Whitney 69 

David Glascoe Farragut 79 

Ulysses Simpson Grant 93 

Robert E. Lee 68 

William Tecumseh Sherman 

James Kent 65 

John Marshall 91 

Joseph Story 64 

Gilbert Charles Stuart 52 

Mark Hopkins 48 

Francis Parkman » 

Louis Agassiz 

Elias Howe 47 

Rufus Choate 47 

Daniel Boone 

Joseph Henry 

Alexander Hamilton 



1905 



60 



46 



56 



59 
53 
40 
43 
43 
49 
47 
42 



49 



58 



1910 1915 



53 



53 
59 
62 
69 
51 
69 



60 



40 


45 


69 


47 


45 


68 
64 


29 


28 


61 


31 


28 


52 
52 
56 
70 



Famous American Women 

Frances E. Willard 

Mary Lyon 20 

Emma Willard 

Harriet Beecher Stowe 

Maria Mitchell 7 

[193] 



59 


oo 


50 






74 


48 





Fordham University 

Fordham Road 

Rev. JOSEPH A. MULRY, S.J., President 
Fordham University includes the following schools and colleges : 

ST. JOHN'S COLLEGE 

The Rev. Joseph A. Mulry, S.J., Principal 

The Rev. Robert H. Johnson, S.J., Vice -Principal and 

Prefect of Studies 
The Rev. Charles J. Mullaly, S.J., Prefect of Discipline 
The Rev. Joseph T. Keating, S.J., Treasurer 

SCHOOL OF MEDICINE 

William P. Healy, Ph.B., M.D., Dean 

COLLEGE OF PHARMACY 

William P. Healy, Ph.B., M.D., Dean 

SCHOOL OF LAW 

140 Nassau Street, New York 
John Whalen, LL.B., Dean 

College Life in 1849 

Dr. Lyman Abbott, in his reminiscences, says : 

In the New York University there was very little college 
life. There were compulsory college prayers, but, of course, no 
Sabbath services, and no religious organization comparable to 
a college church. There was no effective attempt to regulate 
conduct outside of college walls. 

We did not know where our professors lived; that they did 
not know where we lived I judged from the fact that I re- 
peatedly changed my residence during my four years of college 
life, and was never asked to report the change. We could eat 
and drink and amuse ourselves as we pleased, so long as we 
behaved ourselves with propriety in the three or four hours 
under the college roof. 



The Hispanic Society 

The Hispanic Society of America to which New York is under 
lasting obligations for the famous Sorolla Exhibition, has 
equalled this notable performance by the public display of the 
works of Cervantes. The Society possesses every known edition 
of Cervantes's work, including the first editions. Other notable 
works are also among the treasures of the Society — Don Quixote, 
Orlando Furioso, Amadis de Gaula, Reynald of Montalban, etc. 

[194] 






-3 



Cathedral of St. John the Divine 

The Cathedral of St. John the Divine, when com- 
pleted, will be the largest edifice for worship on this 
continent and the third largest in Christendom — a 
magnificent free temple for the people, seating 7,000 
worshippers. Its site on Morningside Heights, 125 feet 
above the level of the sea, is imposing and impressive 
and commends a far-reaching view of the city over whose 
inhabitants it is to have a molding and directing in- 
fluence for all time. The corner stone was laid on St. 
John the Evangelist's day, Dec. 27th, 1892 by Bishop 
Henry C. Potter assisted by Mr. J. Pierpont Morgan. 

The choir and crossing are completed and work 
is now proceeding on the nave and transepts, but it will 
be many years before this great structure stands forth 
in all its magnificent and imposing proportions. Com- 
pared with St. Peter's in Rome, the Cathedral of St. 
John the Divine will be a little less than half in area, 
and will almost equal the Cathedral of Seville, surpass- 
ing all other cathedrals of the world in area. The Duomo 
of Milan and the Cathedral of St. John the Divine are 
about equal in size, but the latter is a little larger, giv- 
ing it third place among the great temples of the world. 
Notre Dame, Westminster Abbey and all the great 
edifices of France and Germany and other lands will 
be dwarfed in comparison with the splendid and im- 
posing structure which is slowly rising on Morningside 
Heights. 

Among the most conspicuous and beautiful features 
of the choir are the two sections of exquisitely designed 
and carved choir stalls; the magnificent white marble 
reredos ; and the great organ. These were provided for 
out of the munificent gift of $750,000 made by Hon. 
Levi P. Morton and Mrs. Morton. The stately dignity 
of the architectural features of the interior, the wealth 
of color of the mosaic floor patterns, the splendor of 

[195] 



the long perspective terminating in the magnificent up- 
lift of the eight towering granite columns and showing 
glimpses of the Italian tapestries between, is a revela- 
tion of supreme beauty. 

The choir is enclosed by the Chapels of the Tongues, 
a semi-circle of seven chapels, planned to provide services 
for seven nationalities, that each might worship in 
its own tongue. The interiors of all the chapels are 
beautifully suggestive of the sacred purposes to which 
they have been dedicated. Five of these chapels are en- 
tirely finished and are constantly in use for worship ; the 
other two, at the respective ends of the semi-circle, are 
nearing completion. 

St. James' Chapel is erected in memory of Bishop 
Potter and is the gift of Mrs. Potter. St. Ambrose's 
is the gift of Mrs. Sara Whiting Rives; St. Martin of 
Tours was given by Miss Furniss in memory of her 
brother; St. Saviour's, beautiful in harmony and per- 
fection of detail, is the gift of Mr. August Belmont ; 
St. Colomba's is the gift of Mrs. Edward R. King; St. 
Boniface's was finished by Mrs. Julia Grinnell Bowdoin, 
and given in memory of her husband Mr. George Sulli- 
van Bowdoin; the Swedish chapel was given by Grace 
Church in memory of Dr. Huntington, long the rector 
of that famous church. 

New York may well be proud of this great building 
which places it in the first rank of the cathedral cities of 
the world. 



Easter Services in 1816 

Lent and its services were then very indifferently observed. 
The service on Easter Day in some of the Episcopal and Roman 
Catholic churches differed from the usual services only in the 
introduction of an anthem ; flowers were not displayed either 
in churches or private dwellings ; in fact, the contribution of all 
the florists, possibly two in number, would not have been equal 
to the usual display in any one church at this time. "Easter 
bonnets" and cards were unknown, and colored eggs were limited 
to schoolboys, who, with the aid of the cooks in their families, 
were enabled to produce some. 



[196] 




View of Trinity Church in 1848. The first drawing made after 
its reconstruction. Note the low lying buildings surrounding it. 



Famous Churches in New York 
Trinity 

New York has some very famous sacred edifices. 
Unquestionably the one which appeals most to strangers 
is the historic Gothic pile at the head of Wall Street on 
Broadway — old Trinity. Although it is now almost en- 
tirely surrounded by massive buildings, some of which 
tower far above the spire, the dignity and beauty of 
Trinity have in no wise been diminished. The contrast 
between its restful repose and the turmoil of Broadway 
is as grateful to-day as ever; and the open gate still as 
persuasively invites us to turn aside for a moment within 
the twilight of its aisles, or to stroll amid the headstones 
where so many thousands are sleeping the last long 
sleep. 

The present church building is the third one which has 
been erected on this site since 1697. The first one was 
burned in the great fire of 1776, which destroyed 500 
buildings, and the second one, built in 1788, having be- 
come unsafe, was pulled down to make way for the 
present edifice, which was completed in 1846. It is of 
brown sandstone and is regarded as a fine specimen of 
the Gothic style. In the belfry is the famous chime of 
bells, so familiarly and fondly known to all New York- 
ers. The thousands who throng Broadway on New 
Year's eve to hear the chimes of Trinity ringing out the 
old year and ringing in the new is a unique spectacle, 
and a wonderful tribute to the historic value of Trinity 
church in the life of New York. 

In the northern part of the ground near Broadway 
stands the handsome Gothic memorial commonly called 
the Martyrs' Monument. The inscription reads: 

Sacred to the memory of those brave and good men, 
who died whilst imprisoned in this City, for their devo- 
tion to the cause of America's Independence. 

On the left, as we enter at the lower Broadway gate, 

[197] 



is the monument, "In memory of Captain James Law- 
rence, of the United States Navy, who fell on the 1st day 
of June, 1813, in the 32d year of his age, in the action 
between the frigates Chesapeake and Shannon." The 
tribute on the pedestal reads : 

The heroic commander of the frigate C oeake, 
whose remains are here deposited, expressed Zi,.«h his 
expiring breath his devotion to his country. Neither the 
fury of battle, the anguish of a mortal wound, nor the 
horrors of approaching death could subdue his gallant 
spirit. His dying words were, "Don't give up the ship." 

Alexander Hamilton's tomb is marked by the con- 
spicuous white marble monument in the south grounds 
near the Rector street railing. The oldest tombstone is 
dated 1681 — the grave of a little child. 

It would be impossible in a work of this nature to 
mention all the interesting things about old Trinity. 
Suffice it to say that there are memorials in abundance, 
both in the church and in the grounds, to testify to the 
intimate and affectionate part this famous old church 
has taken in the life of the city from the beginning to 
the present day. 

The scholarly discourses of Dr. W. T. Manning, the 
Rector, have made him familiarly known to all New 
Yorkers. 

St. Paul's Chapel 

St. Paul's Chapel, on Broadway between Vesey 
and Fulton streets, is of sufficient historical interest to 
deserve a short chapter to itself. Curiously enough, 
the Broadway end of the building is the rear, for the 
church was built fronting on the river; and in the old 
days a pleasant lawn sloped down to the water's edge, 
which was then on the line of Greenwich street. One ef- 
fect of St. Paul's thus looking away from Broadway is 
to give us at the portal an increased sense of remoteness 
from the great thoroughfare and of isolation from its 
strenuous life, so that all the more readily we yield to 
the pervading spell of the churchyard's peaceful calm. 

St. Paul's is a cherished relic of Colonial days. Built 
in 1766 as a chapel of Trinity Parish, it is the only church 

[198] 



a- 5. 

o n 

to 

O 



5* c/5 




edifice which has been preserved from the pre-Revolu- 
tionary period. After the burning of Trinity in 1776, 
St. Pauls became the parish church; here worshipped 
Lord Howe and Major Andre and the English midship- 
man who was afterward King George IV. After his 
inauguration at Federal Hall in Wall street, President 
Washington and both houses of Congress came in sol- 
emn procession to St. Paul's, where service was con- 
ducted by Bishop Provost, Chaplain of the Senate, and 
a Te Deum was sung. Thereafter, so long as New York 
remained the Capital, the President was a regular attend- 
ant here; his diary for Sunday after Sunday contains 
the entry : "Went to St. Paul's Chapel in the forenoon." 
Washington's Pew remains to-day as it was then; it 
is midway of the church on the left aisle, and is marked 
by the Arms of the United States on the wall. Across 
the church is the pew which was reserved for the Gov- 
ernor of the State, and was occupied by Governor Clin- 
ton; above it are the State Arms. The pulpit canopy is 
ornamented with the gilded crest of the Prince of Wales, 
a crown surmounted by three ostrich feathers. It is the 
only emblem of royalty that escaped destruction at the 
hands of the Patriots when they came into possession of 
the city in 1783. 

In the wall of the Broadway portico, where it is seen 
from the street and is observed by innumerable eyes 
daily, is the Montgomery Monument, in memory of 
Major-General Richard Montgomery, of Revolutionary 
fame. It consists of a mural tablet bearing an urn upon 
a pedestal supported by military accoutrements. Gen- 
eral Montgomery commanded the expedition against 
Canada in 1775, and on December 31 of that year, in 
company with Colonel Benedict Arnold, led the assault 
upon Quebec. Just after the exclamation, "Men of New 
York, you will follow where your General leads !" he fell, 
mortally wounded. Aaron Burr bore his body from the 
field, and the Englishmen gave it soldier's burial in the 
city. Forty-three years later, in 1818, Canada sur- 
rendered the remains to the United States. 

The monument had been ordered by Congress as early 
as 1776. It was bought by Benjamin Franklin in Paris, 

[199] 



and was shipped to America on a privateer. A British 
gunboat captured the privateer, and in turn was taken 
by an American vessel, and so at last the monument 
reached its destination. The inscription reads: 

This Monument is erected by order of Congress, 25th 
Janry, 1776, to transmit to Posterity a grateful remem- 
brance of the patriotic conduct, enterprise and perse- 
verance of Major General Richard Montgomery, who 
after a series of successes amidst the most discouraging 
Difficulties Fell in the attack on Quebec Z\st Decbr, 1775. 
Aged 37 years. 

The State of New York caused the remains of Majr. 
Genl. Richard Montgomery to be conveyed from Quebec 
and deposited beneath this monument the Sth day of 
July, 1818. 

At that time Mrs. Montgomery, in the forty-third 
year of her widowhood, was living near Tarrytown on 
the Hudson. Governor Clinton had told her of the day 
when the steamboat "Richmond," bearing her husband's 
remains, would pass down the river ; and sitting alone on 
the piazza of her home, she watched for its coming. With 
what emotions she saw the pageant is told in a letter 
written to her niece : 

"At length they came by with all that remained of 
a beloved husband, who left me in the bloom of man- 
hood, a perfect being. Alas ! how did he return ? How- 
ever gratifying to my heart, yet to my feelings every 
pang I felt was renewed. The pomp with which it was 
conducted added to my woe ; when the steamboat passed 
with slow and solemn movement, stopping before my 
house, the troops under arms, the Dead March from the 
muffled drums, the mournful music, the splendid coffin 
canopied with crepe and crowned with plumes, you may 
conceive my anguish. I cannot describe it." 

The most conspicuous monuments in the churchyard 
near Broadway are those of Thomas Addis Emmet and 
Dr. William J. MacNevin, both of whom participated in 
the Irish rebellion of 1798, came to New York and 
achieved distinction, Emmet at the bar and MacNevin 
in medicine. The inscriptions are in English, Celtic and 
Latin. West of the church is the urn with flames issuing 

[200] 



from it, which marks the resting place of George Fred- 
erick Cooke, the distinguished tragedian; born in Eng- 
land 1756; died in New York 1812. The monument was 
erected in 1821 by the great English actor, Edmund 
Kean, and has been the subject of pious care by Charles 
Kean, who restored it in 1846, Edward A. Sothern in 
1874, and Edwin Booth in 1890. The epitaph is by Fitz- 
Greene Halleck: 

Three Kingdoms claim his birth, 

Both hemispheres pronounce his worth. 

St. Paul's is dear to the heart of every New Yorker 
and will ever so remain. 



St. Peter's 

A block or two from St. Paul's, on Barclay Street 
stands St. Peter's, the oldest Catholic church in the city. 
Established in 1786 and rebuilt in 1839, the church is 
still one of the most largely attended in New York. Al- 
though many of the old parishioners have followed the 
trend uptown, there is still an enormous Catholic popula- 
tion between Canal Street and the Battery to whom this 
church brings the ministry of peace and good will. St. 
Peter's has also had its influence in the civic life of 
New York. A tablet has recently been placed in this 
church to the memory of one of the early Governors 
of the State, Thomas Dongan, a devoted Catholic and 
the author of the Charter of Rights granting religious 
freedom to all. 

St. John's 

St. John's Chapel in Varick Street was at one time 
the center of the most beautiful and fashionable neigh- 
borhood in New York. To-day, although the church still 
preserves its former dignity and sacredness, the sur- 
roundings have degenerated into freight houses, storage 
warehouses and other business buildings, and the former 
glory of this renowned church has been dimmed. It is 
still the spiritual habitation of a remnant of people who 
are compelled to make their abode in this neighborhood, 

[201] 



but it is feared that this historic old church will soon 
disappear. Old New Yorkers will sorely regret its going 
and the city will surely lose a treasure long closely re- 
lated to its social and religious life. It is the third oldest 
church in Manhattan and was modelled after St. Mar- 
tin's in the Field in London. The interior is almost 
exactly as it was over a hundred years ago, and the bell 
is the same which was brought from London when the 
church was built in 1803. 

St. Mark's 

St. Mark's, Second Avenue and Eleventh Street, is 
the second oldest church building in Manhattan. This 
church was the center of the religious and social life of 
New York when society began to move uptown. Here 
is the tomb of Peter Stuyvesant, and the first burial 
place of the great New York merchant, A. T. Stewart, 
whose body was stolen from the grounds. 

St. George's 

St. George's Church, in Stuyvesant Square, is a large 
and handsome building, and is one of the most active 
and popular churches in the city. Many of our promi- 
nent business men worship here. The late Mr. J. P. 
Morgan was an active member and the leading vestry- 
man at the time of his death. He was regular in his 
attendance and unwearied in his labors in all the ac- 
tivities of the church. 



Madison Square Presbyterian 

This church is noted for the beauty and simplicity of 
its design. It is the work of the late Stanford White 
and one of his masterpieces. The interior is quiet and 
rather somber — the exterior conforms to the style of 
ancient Grecian architecture. Dr. Parkhurst, the pastor, 
is known far and wide for his work in uncovering the 
underworld of New York and exposing the methods and 

[202] 




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sources of graft from which unscrupulous politicians 
derived much of their wealth. Many notable men have 
been connected with the church, among them being the 
late Senator Piatt. 



Marble Collegiate Reformed Church 

This church, at Fifth Avenue and 29th Street, has 
descended to us from the "Church on the Fort," and can 
claim a continuous history contemporaneous with that 
of the city. The church has kept pace with the city also 
in its growing importance, and has a number of our 
prominent citizens in its membership. The collection 
of memorabilia is interesting and among them is the 
bell used by the old North Church in Fulton Street until 
it was razed. 



The Brick Presbyterian Church 

At the corner of Fifth Avenue and Thirty-seventh 
Street, is interesting as being a continuation of the 
church which stood in Park Row before the Revolution 
and was one of the most influential at that time. The 
building is a very interesting one to visit and contains 
a collection of historical portraits and other articles re- 
lating to the old church. 



Temple Emanuel 

This is the largest of the Jewish places of worship 
and is a fine specimen of Moorish art. Although not 
so impressive from an architectural point of view as 
some of its neighbors, it presents a quiet dignity and 
strength in keeping with the ancient faith of the He- 
brew people. It is always well attended and many of 
our leading bankers and brokers worship here. It was 
from this church the body of Charles Frohman, who 
was a victim of the Lusitania horror, was carried to its 
last resting place. The church is at Fifth Avenue and 
Forty-third Street. 

[203] 



St. Bartholomew's 

This church, on Madison Avenue at Forty- fourth 
Street, is justly famous for the beauty of its interior 
and for the sublimity of the mural painting which over- 
looks the altar. The magnificent bronze doors were a 
gift of Mr. Cornelius Vanderbilt. The church will soon 
move further uptown, a site having already been selected 
on Park Avenue. The choir of St. Bartholomew's is 
the finest in the city and its musical services are almost 
as celebrated as the scholarly discourses of Dr. Parks 
himself. 

Fifth Avenue Baptist Church 

Sometimes spoken of as Rockefeller's church, is an 
unpretentious building on Forty-sixth Street near Fifth 
Avenue. One of the things which has made this church 
a powerful influence for good in the community is the 
large Men's Class, and its fame has gone out to all 
sections of the country. The congregation is large, and 
of course the most conspicuous member is Mr. Rocke- 
feller, who is regular in his attendance. When the serv- 
ices are over he mingles with the congregation, taking 
a lively part in the conversation. There are no marks 
of great wealth about Mr. Rockefeller, and when listen- 
ing to him you would not think this genial, unpretentious 
and democratic gentleman was the money king of the 
world. Mr. Rockefeller's great wealth does not seem 
to have transformed or metamorphosed his nature at all. 

Collegiate Dutch Reformed Church 

This is another church descended from the "Church 
on the Fort" and retains something of the flavor of the 
Dutch period. It is situated at Fifth Avenue and Forty- 
eighth Street. It still possesses the bell which was made 
in Amsterdam in 1728 and bequeathed to the church by 
one of the De Peyster family when the church was in 
Nassau Street and known as the Middle Dutch Church. 
This latter building was used as the New York Post 

[204] 




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Office as late as the '70s. There is an interesting col- 
lection of pictures and books pertaining to the church 
and incidentally to the city to be seen here. 

St. Patrick's Cathedral 

The first look at St. Patrick's Cathedral carries us 
back in memory to the cathedrals of Europe, and the 
picture of the great Gothic pile at Cologne rises to mind. 
Although not so massive in its size as that edifice, nor 
perhaps so well situated to command interest, our first 
impulse is one of unqualified admiration for the sim- 
plicity and chasteness of the structure and of reverence 
for the spirit it exhales. This is one of the really great 
buildings of New York and is meant to be a permanent 
possession for the people in which all creeds and na- 
tionalities may take pride. We can understand what it 
means to our Catholic brethren when we see the constant 
flow of worshippers coming and going every Sabbath 
day. In the rear of the cathedral is the residence of 
Cardinal Farley. 

Fifth Avenue Presbyterian Church 

This is the largest church of the Presbyterian de- 
nomination in the world, and by far the most important. 
The congregation numbers among its members many of 
the best known and wealthiest men in the country. The 
influence of the church in religious and charitable work 
extends far beyond the city limits. Dr. Hall in his day 
was probably the most beloved pastor as well as the 
greatest preacher in New York, and now after about 
twenty years a successor has been found who amply fills 
his place. Dr. Jowett is a great preacher, a fine scholar 
and a splendid exponent of all that is best in Presby- 
terianism. As a friend and pastor he has won his way 
into the hearts of his people, as the large audience which 
gathers every Sunday testifies. 

[205] 



St. Thomas' 

Among Episcopal churches St. Thomas' may easily 
rank first as a perfect type of ecclesiastical architecture. 
Indeed, it may fitly be classed with our two magnificent 
cathedrals. To any one who sees in church architecture 
an expression of the spiritual ideals of man this church 
appeals with extraordinary power. And the interior 
is no less effective. Its atmosphere is restful and inspir- 
ing. It was in this church (the old building) that Con- 
suelo Vanderbilt was married to the Duke of Marl- 
borough, and here Ada Rehan, the star actress of Daly's 
Company and a first favorite of New York and Lon- 
don audiences, attended regularly every Sunday when 
in the city. 

"The Little Church Around the Corner" 

"The Little Church Around the Corner" is a 
familiar name for the Church of the Transfiguration, on 
East Twenty-ninth street, near Fifth avenue. The story 
goes that when in 1871 Joseph Jefferson endeavored to 
arrange for the funeral of George Holland, a brother 
actor, at a church on Madison avenue, the pastor said 
that he could not hold burial services over the body of 
an actor. "But," he added, "there is a little church 
around the corner you can go to." "Then all honor to the 
little church around the corner," replied Jefferson. "We 
will go there." From that time the church and its rec- 
tor, Rev. George H. Houghton (who died in 1897), were 
held in affectionate regard by the theatrical profession. 
Many actors have been buried from the church, among 
them Lester Wallack, Dion Boucicault and Edwin 
Booth. There is a memorial window given by The 
Players (the actors' club), in loving memory of Booth. 



[206] 




St. Patrick's Cathedral on Fifth Avenue, 50th and 51st Streets. 

The residence of His Eminence Cardinal John M. Parley, 

in the rear. 



Hospitals of New York 



A feature of the humanitarian work of the city is its hospitals. 
Although these institutions make a charge for treatment they also 
admit patients free. There are 76 hospitals in the city supported by 
endowments, bequests and contributions, of which we give below a list 
of the principal ones : 

St. Luke's Hospital 

Cathedral Heights, 113th St. and Amsterdam Ave. 
OFFICERS : George MacCulloch Miller, President; John B. Pine, 
Charles Howland Russell, Vice-Presidents; H. D. Babcock, Treas- 
urer; Hoffman Miller, Secretary. 
MANAGERS : Henry D. Babcock, Stephen Baker, George M. Miller, 
Rev. Henry Mottet, D.D., A. Gordon Norrie, Edmund M. B. Roche, 
Henry C. Swords, Rogers H. Bacon, Edmund L. Baylies, George 
Blagden, George F. Crane, William A. Greer, J. Van Vechten Olcott, 
John B. Pine, Percy R. Pyne, 2d, William E. Curtis, William 
C. Demorest, William Fahnestock, Anson W. Hard, William M. V. 
Hoffman, Alvin W. Krech, Hoffman Miller, Charles Howland 
Russell. 
MANAGERS APPOINTED BY ST. GEORGE'S SOCIETY OF NEW 

YORK: George Gray Ward, Edward F. Darrell. 
MANAGERS EX-OFFICIO : The Bishop of the Diocese of New York, 
The Mayor of the City of New York, The British Consul General, 
The President of the Medical Board, The President of the Board 
of Aldermen. 

Affords medical and surgical aid and nursing to the sick and dis- 
abled, suffering from acute curable, and non-contagious diseases, with- 
out distinction of race or creed. 

Supported by voluntary contributions and endowments. 

It maintains a Dispensary and Training School for Nurses. 

Presbyterian Hospital 

Madison Ave., bet. 70th and 71st Sts. 

OFFICERS : Frederick Sturges, President; William Sloane, Vice-Presi- 
dent; William V. S. Thome, Treasurer; Matthew C. Fleming, 
Secretary. 

MANAGERS : Henry S. Van Duzer, Simeon B. Chapin, William R. 
Willcox, William M. Kingsley, Moreau Delano, William Sloane 
Coffin, Stephen G. Williams, Cornelius R. Agnew, Ethan Allen, 
William V. S. Thome, Matthew C. Fleming, Eugene Delano, William 
Allen Butler, Phillip A. Rollins, Robert W. Carle, Johnston 
DeForest, Frederick Sturges, J. Cleveland Cady, Arthur P. Sturges, 
William Sloane, Henry W. DeForest, E. Parmalee Prentice, 
Thatcher M. Brown, C. Irving Fisher, M.D., Robert W. DeForest, 
Charles W. McAlpin, John J. Sinclair, David M. Look, Edward S. 
Harkness, James R. Sheffield, George Gibbs, William Williams ; 
Ex-Officio, Howard Duffield, D.D., Charles H. Parkhurst, D.D., 
David James Burrell, D.D., Robert Watson, D.D. 
For the establishment, support and management of an institution 

for the purpose of affording medical and surgical aid and nursing to 

sick disabled persons of every creed, nationality and color. Supported 

by voluntary contributions. No persons suffering from contagious or 

infectious diseases are admitted. 
The Hospital maintains an 
Out-Pateent Department, Visiting Nursing Department, and a 

Training School and Registry for Nurses. 

[207] 



St. Vincent's Hospital 

11th and 12th Sts., and Seventh Ave. 

DIRECTOR : His Eminence Cardinal John M. Parley, D.D., Archbishop 

of New York. 
ADVISORY BOARD : Thomas H. O'Connor, John Burke, Judge Morgan 
J. O'Brien, John D. Crimmins, Judge Joseph F. Daly, Clarence H. 
Mackay, Ernest Harvier, William E. Iselin, Thomas Hughes Kelly, 
Stephen Farrelly, Edward J. McGuire, Schuyler N. Warren, Daniel 
M. Brady. 
OFFICERS OF ADVISORY BOARD : Thomas Hughes Kelly, President; 
Hon. Joseph F. Daly, Vice-President; Thomas Hughes Kelly, Treas- 
urer; Ernest Harvier, Secretary. 

For the medical and surgical treatment of the destitute sick, with- 
out distinction of creed or nationality. 

Out-Door Department open daily, except Sunday, from 2 to 4 
p. m. Mother M. Dolores, President; Mother M. Josepha, Treasurer. 

Mt. Sinai Hospital 

100th and 101st Sts., between Madison and Fifth Aves. 

OFFICERS : George Blumenthal, President; Philip J. Goodhart, Vice- 
President; Leo Arnstein, Second Vice-President; S. S. Prince, 
Treasurer ; S. Herbert Wolfe, Secretary. 
A general hospital for the medical and surgical care of the sick 

admitted to its wards, of all creeds and classes, except those suffering 

from contagious diseases. 

The Society of the New York Hospital 

8 West 16th St. 

OFFICERS: George L. Rives, President; Howard Townsend, Vice- 
President; Edward W. Sheldon, Treasurer; Henry W. Crane, 
Secretary; G. Howard Wise, Assistant Secretary; United States 
Trust Company, Assistant Treasurer. 

GOVERNORS : George L. Rives, Howard Townsend, Edward W. Shel- 
don, Joseph H. Choate, Hermann H. Cammann, Waldron Post 
Brown, Henry W. DeForest, Edmund D. Randolph, Augustus D. 
Juilliard, Richard Trimble, George F. Baker, Henry A. C. Taylor, 
Augustine J. Smith, Charles S. Brown, Bronson Winthrop, Frank 
K. Sturgis, David B. Ogden, J. Woodward Haven, Henry G. Bar- 
bey, Cornelius N. Bliss, Jr., Paul Tuckerman, William Wood- 
ward, Arthur Iselin, Payne Whitney, G. Beekman Hoppin, Lewis 
Cass Ledyard, Jr. 
Maintains the New York Hospital (founded 1771), West 15th and 

16th Sts, near Fifth Ave. A general hospital for medical and surgical 

treatment of pay and free patients. 

Thomas Howell, M.D., Superintendent 

German Hospital and Dispensary 

East 76th and 77th Sts., Park and Lexington Aves. 
OFFICERS : Fritz Achelis, President; Julius A. Stursberg, First Vice- 
President; Heinrich Sandhagen, Second Vice-President; Edwin 
Henes, Treasurer; William A. Spies, Assistant Treasurer; Carl 
Heye, Secretary. 

TRUSTEES: Fritz Achelis, Adolf Kuttroff, Bernard H. Ridder, Anton 
H. Schefer, Daniel Schnakenberg, Richard Schuster, Julius A. 
Stursberg, William J. Amend, Bernard Greeff, Edwin Henes, George 
S. Runk, Jacob Ruppert, Jr., Heinrich Sandhagen, Rudolph J. 
Schaefer, O. L. Dommerich, Carl Heye, J. Christian, G. Hupfel, A. 
Henry Mosle, Edmund Pavenstedt, William A. Spies, Thomas F. 
Vietor. 

For the free medical and surgical treatment of the sick poor, 
regardless of creed or nationality. 

[208] 




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Sloane Hospital for Women, Columbia University 

447 West 59th St. 
OFFICERS : Dr. E. B. Cragin, President; Malcolm D. Sloane, Treas- 
urer; Dr. F. C. Wood, Secretary; Dr. Warren Hildreth, Resident 
Physician; Martha M. Russell, R.N., Superintendent. 
Endowed for the good of humanity and the advancement of 
medical education. The wards furnish 127 obstetrical and 28 gyne- 
cological beds. 

The Hospital is the gift of Mr. and Mrs. William D. Sloane. 

The Roosevelt Hospital 

58th and 59th Sts., and Ninth and Tenth Aves. 

OFFICERS : W. Emlen Roosevelt, President; W. Irving Clark, Vice- 
President; John Mason Knox, Secretary; Richard Trimble, Treas- 
urer. 

TRUSTEES : W. Irving Clark, Harry Harkness Flagler, W. Emlen 
Roosevelt, Guy Richards McLane, John Mason Knox, George E. 
Roosevelt; ex-officio, Howard Townsend, President of "The So- 
ciety of the New York Hospital"; Samuel W. Lambert, M.D., Dean 
of "The College of Physicians and Surgeons in the City of New 
York" ; Lispenard Stewart, President of "The New York Eye and 
Ear Infirmary" ; Frederic S. Wells, President of "The Demilt Dis- 
pensary" ; Howland Davis, President of "The New York Institution 
for the Blind." 
For the relief of sick and diseased persons. Capacity, 282. All 

the beds in wards are free to the poor. A reasonable rate is charged 

to such as can pay. Contagious diseases or chronic cases not admitted. 

Flower Hospital 

63rd, 64th Sts., and Ave. A. 

OFFICERS: Melbert B. Cary, President Board of Trustees; Theo. L. 
Bailey, Secretary; Henry L. Langhaar, Treasurer; Royal S. Cope- 
land, M.D., Dean of College; William Tod Helmuth, M.D., Presi- 
dent Medical Board; Nelson W. Thompson, M.D., Superintendent 
of Hospital. 
A general hospital for men, women and children desirous of 

receiving homoeopathic treatment in medicine and surgery. The 

poor are specially cared for. 

Society of the Lying-in Hospital 

Second Ave., 17th and 18th Sts. 
GOVERNORS : Lewis Cass Ledyard, President; Edmund L. Baylies, 

Secretary; Wm. Pierson Hamilton, Treasurer. 

For the relief and care, free of charge, at their homes or in the 
Hospital, of women unable to procure necessary medical attendance 
and nursing during the period of their confinement. Supported by 
voluntary contributions and endowment. 



Philanthropic Activities 



New York is immeasurably richer in philanthropic activities than 
any other city in the world. A few of the most notable are: 

The Carnegie Corporation 

This corporation was formed for the purpose of receiving and 
maintaining a fund or funds and applying the income thereof to pro- 
mote the advancement and diffusion of knowledge and understanding 
among the people of the United States, by aiding technical schools, 
institutions of higher learning, libraries, scientific research, hero funds, 
useful publications, and by such other agencies and means as shall from 
time to time be found appropriate therefor. 

[209] 



OFFICERS : Andrew Carnegie, President; Elihu Root, Vice-President; 

Robert A. Franks, Treasurer; James Bertram, Secretary, 
TRUSTEES: Andrew Carnegie, Elihu Root, Henry S. Pritchett, S. H. 

Church, Robert S. Woodward, Charles L. Taylor, Robert A. Franks 

and James Bertram. 

Mr. Carnegie transferred to the corporation, for its corporate pur- 
poses, $125,000,000. 

The business of founding and aiding libraries and educational in- 
stitutions, which was carried on by Mr. Carnegie as an individual for 
many years, was turned over to the corporation. 

The Rookefeller Foundation 

61 Broadway 

OFFICERS: John D. Rockefeller, Jr., President; L. G. Myers, Treas- 
urer; L. M. Dashiell, Assistant Treasurer; Jerome D. Greene, 
Secretary; Robert H. Kirk, Manager. 

To promote the well-being of mankind throughout the world. Dur- 
ing the first year after its incorporation the Rockefeller Foundation 
received from Mr. John D. Rockefeller funds aggregating $100,000,000. 

The Foundation has established as subsidiary organizations the 
following : 

International. Health Commission for the suppression of hook- 
worm and other diseases throughout the world. 

China Medical Board for the promotion of medical education and 
public health in China. 

Department for the Study of Industrial Relations 
Department for the Promotion of Mental Hygiene. 
War Relief Commission to recommend measures for the relief 
of non-combatants in the various war areas of Europe. 



Russell Sage Foundation 

130 East 22nd Street 

TRUSTEES : Mrs. Russell Sage, President; Robert W. de Forest, Vice- 
President; Cleveland H. Dodge, Treasurer; John H. Finley, Mrs. 
William B. Rice, Miss Louisa Lee Schuyler, Mrs. Finley J. Shep- 
ard, Alfred T. White ; John M. Glenn, Secretary. 
The endowment consists of the sum of $10,000,000, given by Mrs. 
Russell Sage. The purpose of the Foundation, as stated in its charter, 
is the improvement of social and living conditions in the United States 
of America. 

Among other activities it maintains the following: 
Charity Organization Department, Department of Child- 
Helping, Division of Education, Division of Statistics, Depart- 
ment of Recreation, Division of Remedial Loans, Department of 
Surveys and Exhibits, Committee on Women's Work, Library. 



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Concerning Prison Ships in the Revolution* 

James Lenox Banks 

The late Dr. John Fiske, in his essay on the "Old and 
New Ways of Treating History/' says : 

"The old-fashioned historian was usually satisfied 
with copying his predecessors and thus an error once 
started became perpetuated; but in our time no history 
written in such a way would command the respect of 
scholars." 

This criticism may well apply to many of the state- 
ments made in reference to the naval prisoners in the 
War of the Revolution, based as they were on un- 
proved charges of early writers and tradition founded 
on the bitter feeling of the day — and gossip sometimes 
masks as history. 

In Mr. Charles H. Haswell's Reminiscences the fol- 
lowing item appears: 

"In the war of the Revolution his (Robert Lenox) father 
was the keeper of the dreaded prison-ship at the Wallabout, 
Brooklyn, and Robert was the individual assistant to his father, 
enjoying the highly remunerative position of supplying the pris- 
oners with such articles as were not included in their meagre 
and ill-served rations." 

As Robert Lenox's father never came to this coun- 
try, this statement brought forth the admission from 
Mr. Haswell that he had no authority for it beyond 
"common report and tradition." This story possibly 
grew out of the fact that Mr. David Sproat, an uncle of 
Mr. Lenox, was appointed British Commissary General 
for Naval Prisoners in 1779 and Mr. Lenox was a clerk 
in his uncle's office; but that either of these received 
any money from the prisoners is not shown by a particle 
of evidence and this Mr. Haswell also admitted. In this 
connection, it is an interesting fact that the Continental 
Congress upon the recommendation of Robert Morris, 

* This article is based on searches made by and for the writer in 
this country and England. 

[211] 



then Superintendent of Finance, voted upwards of £550 
currency should be repaid to Mr. Sproat for moneys 
personally advanced by him for the relief of American 
naval prisoners. 

The principal difficulty in the matter of naval pris- 
oners was that of exchange. The men were privateers- 
men and not in the Continental service and under the 
rules of war could be exchanged only for seamen. 
Many of these American privateersmen upon capturing a 
ship neglected to turn their prisoners over to the proper 
authorities or landed them at insecure places permitting 
their escape — the result being that American seamen 
taken prisoners soon far outnumbered the British sailors 
held for exchange. This neglect and indifference to 
the freedom of their own countrymen was the cause of 
much correspondence between General Washington, Con- 
gress and the British authorities and many seamen were 
released by the British for whom no return was made 
at the time. 

How many men were confined on the ships during 
the War is not known but from the reports found, the 
statements since made are doubtless greatly exaggerated. 
In October, 1780, Admiral Rodney reported that during 
the past twelve months, while under Mr. Sproat's ad- 
ministration, some 3,000 prisoners had been exchanged 
and released and this number was never approached 
again. At the date of his report there were some 1,200 
prisoners, which number the American Commissary, the 
following year, stated had been reduced to "near 500." 

The Jersey, the most widely known of the prison 
ships, was formerly a 64-gun ship carrying a crew of 
some 400 men ; so dismantled and at anchor it was com- 
puted a thousand men need not have been exposed to 
hardships on board of her. She and the Good Hope, 
another ship, were heated and had separate quarters 
for officers and men and there were hospital ships which 
were covered with awnings. 

Many deaths occurred on the ships due, it was as- 
serted, to diseases, the want of proper clothing and the 
neglect of personal cleanliness of many of the prisoners. 
The difficulty of controlling these epidemics will be real- 

[212] 



ized when it is remembered that in time of peace, yellow 
fever claimed about 4,000 victims in Philadelphia in 
1793 and nearly 3,000 in this city during the next few 
years. 

In an early number of Valentine's Manual it is 
stated that the estimate of 10,600 deaths on the ships 
was made in 1783 by a "reckless newspaper writer and 
this baseless conjecture has gradually passed into sober 
history for a well-attested fact." How many did die 
is not known and the estimates made are without any 
foundation. In a letter from the American Commissary 
in June, 1782, he referred to the deaths on the prison 
ships as having been in the "hundreds," and this seems 
to be the only estimate in existence which was made by 
any one in authority. 

That the guards on these prison ships at times ex- 
ceeded their authority and abused the prisoners then, 
as guards do now, is more than probable but no instances 
have been found which show the officers in whose charge 
these prisoners were, used other than the best means 
obtainable to relieve their distress and promote their 
comfort. It is worthy of mention that the American 
Commissary should add to a rather censorious letter to 
Mr. Sproat, "I beg, sir, you will be pleased to con- 
sider this as addressed to you officially as the principal 
executive officer in the Department of Naval prisoners 
and not personally." 

There were complaints of ill treatment made on both 
sides and General Washington refers to them as "mu- 
tual" and "frequently urged on each part." The truth 
of many of them was denied and evidence was presented 
at the time in support of such denial. Part of this evi- 
dence took the form of reports, signed by the prisoners 
themselves as to their treatment and condition and 
urging that efforts be made to obtain their exchange. 
One report in particular, favorable to the British, was 
signed by twelve American captains and one surgeon and 
was published in the papers of this and neighboring 
states. • 

As the truth of this report was not denied by the 
American authorities, it would seem a mistake to ques- 

[213] 



tion its veracity now by attributing to these American 
captains base motives for their action. 

Surely time enough has elapsed for us to act impar- 
tially and do justice to those whom the misfortunes of 
war had made our opponents. 



Why Not? 

Why not clear City Hall Park of the Post Office at 
the southern end, and the dingy looking Court House on 
the north? 

Why not erect a statue to the memory of New York's 
First Citizen — Alexander Hamilton? 

Why not organize an Association to Acquire and 
Preserve the Home of John J. Audubon at 156th St., 
a New Yorker, and one of the world's greatest nat- 
uralists — now in danger of demolition? 

Why not photograph and place on record the dozens 
of old houses built before the Revolution and still stand- 
ing? 

Why not restore the statue of Wm. Pitt now in the 
custody of the New York Historical Society to its 
former position on the corner of Wall Street and 
William? 

Why not erect an Avenue of States on Pelham Park- 
way, conecting Bronx Park with Pelham? See article. 

Why not appoint a permanent committee to wait 
upon visiting delegations, conventions and other public 
meetings to extend the compliments and greetings of the 
City of New York to all the visitors ? 

Why not have a Society of Old New Yorkers made 
up mainly of former residents of this city now living 
elsewhere to keep them in touch with their old home ? 

Why not have an Old Home Week? 

Why not have some streets barred to motor trucks 
and business vehicles ? 

Why not build a replica of the old City Hall in Wall 
Street where Washington took the oath as first President 
of the United States ? It could be used for some public 
purpose. 

[214] 




a. 

c 









The Bronx 

Louis A. Risse, Former Chief Engineer of the Bronx 

Valentine's Manuals are a legacy to New York which 
will be more and more appreciated as time rolls by and 
a revival of the work adapted to present conditions 
would greatly aid history in filling the gap created by 
the discontinuance of the Manual of the Corporation 
of the City of New York since 1870. 

Since that time great changes have taken place. 
Greater New York was created by uniting the entire 
area of the present five boroughs into one municipality 
under the corporate name of the City of New York. 

This creation brought into existence the greatest 
system of municipal improvements the world has ever 
seen. 

One of these boroughs, the Bronx Borough, is, among 
the rest, one where tradition and history rank it with old 
Manhattan; and the material available for a publication 
somewhat on the lines of the manual would be ap- 
preciated as a fine contribution to the history of this 
city and would be of great value to libraries and his- 
torical societies. 

Maps and illustrations from the time of the first 
white settler, Jonas Bronck, in 1639, to and including the 
important part the Bronx has played in the making of 
this country's history and from then to the present 
time, would be even more interesting than the other divi- 
sions of New York. 

The Bronx in 1870 was a conglomeration of about 
60 villages and hamlets with a population of about 30,000. 
In 1890 it had increased to 80,000 and to-day the popu- 
lation is over 650,000 with 42 square miles of territory 
and 59 miles of water front. 

The real development of the Bronx dates from the 
completion of the final maps in 1895. Prior to 1891 
the improvements were slow, disconnected, without any 
fixed plans and ideas and subject to constant changes. 

[215] 



But after 1891 under the law creating a Commissioner of 
Street Improvements, and the completion of the new 
street lay-out, improvements took a new departure and 
from that time developments made such rapid strides 
that that part of New York became the wonder of the 
world, the population meanwhile increasing at the rate 
of 138 per cent. 

The foundations for a great city were laid. All 
these improvements necessitated the opening of new 
streets, new arteries of communications, new parks, the 
removal of fine old trees by the thousand, the obliteration 
of old land-marks, the remodeling of surroundings and 
the changing of perspectives, with only a few preserved 
of the original views. For want of these views and 
illustrations and the great changes taking place in so short 
a time, the historian of the future will find it difficult 
to obtain correct ideas of the obliterated old land-marks 
as originally existing, such as historical places, old Co- 
lonial homesteads, old forts, the old drives and road 
houses, the old race tracks, Jerome Park, Fleetwood 
Park, Morris Park, the rendezvous of New Yorkers and 
men of sporting inclinations. 

As far as possible, old records, views and illustra- 
tions, maps and lay-outs of the old villages should be 
recorded and preserved while the material is still avail- 
able, because at the rate the Bronx is developing it will 
not be long before the historian will find it difficult to 
reproduce that which made Valentine's Manual the de- 
light of the lovers of old New York. 



What an Eminent Englishman Thinks of Old 
New York 

From a recent private letter from Lord Northcliffe 
If I had to live anywhere else, I would prefer New York 
in the vicinity of Washington Square with a home on the Hud- 
son near a good golf course. 



[216] 



Governor's Island 

Some time ago there was a bill in Congress looking 
toward the purchase of Governor's Island by the City 
of New York for a Park. Unfortunately this delightful 
project was not adopted, but it serves to show that 
there are unknown possibilities in the Park line as yet 
undeveloped. As the Island is so close to New York and 
has so romantic a history, we think our readers will 
enjoy the following sketch. 

Its Indian name was Pagganck and the Dutch called 
it Noten, Nooten or Nutten Island, meaning Nut Island, 
on account of the chestnut, oak and hickory trees with 
which it once abounded. In "Aboriginal Place Names 
in New York," by W. M. Beauchamp, it is suggested 
that the aboriginal name is derived from pohk, meaning 
to break open, and the terminal locative, the whole sig- 
nifying place for cracking nuts. The earliest mention of 
the island by name is found in De Laet's "Nieuwe 
Wereldt," dated 1624 and published in 1625, in which, 
referring to the East River as Hellegat and the Hudson 
as the great river, he says: "The two currents of the 
great river and Hellegat meet one another near Noten 
Island." 

In the year before the permanent settlement of Man- 
hattan Island by the Dutch in 1626, the Dutch West 
India Company sent a ship load of cattle and some pas- 
sengers to New Netherland to sustain and strengthen 
the colony at Fort Orange (Albany). "These cattle," 
says Wassenaer's "Historisch Verhael," "were, on their 
arrival, first landed on Nut Island . . . where they re- 
mained a day or two. There being no means of pastur- 
ing them there, they were shipped in sloops and boats to 
the Manhattes, right opposite said island." 

The Buttermilk Channel, which separates Governor's 
Island from the Long Island shore, had not then and for 
many years after had not attained its present propor- 
tions. In the trial of the case of Israel Horsefield vs. 

[217] 



Hans Bergen in 1741, involving the boundaries to their 
farms in Brooklyn, Maritie Bevois, aged 84, testified that 
she had heard Jerome Remsen's mother say that there 
was only a small creek between Nutten Island and the 
shore and that a squaw carried Dame Remsen's sister 
over it in a tub. Jerome Remsen, aged 88, testified that 
he had heard his mother say the same thing. His 
mother's sister was born in 1624 or 1625. 

The Labadist travelers, Dankers and Sluyter, who 
had a faculty for picking up facts and gossip and writ- 
ing them down in their Journal in 1679, credit the island 
with having been "the first place the Hollanders ever 
occupied in this bay," but the statement in the sense of 
permanent occupation is questionable. 

Soon after the settlement of New Amsterdam in 
1626, a mill for sawing wood was erected on the island. 
In 1637, Governor Van Twiller bought the island from 
the Indians,' and when his tenure of office terminated, 
he had on the island, beside the saw-mill, a frame house 
and twenty-one pairs of goats, among other goods and 
chattels. Van Twiller is believed to have been the only 
private owner of the island. After his departure, it was 
claimed by the government and leased from time to time. 
In 1698, the Assembly set it aside as "part of the Denizen 
of his Majestie's Fort at New York, for the benefit 
and accommodation of His Majestie's Governours and 
Commanders-in-Chief for the time being." Since that 
time it has been known as Governor's Island. For years, 
however, the Governors rented the island for pasturage 
and agriculture and derived therefrom a convenient addi- 
tion to their incomes. In 1710, when a shipload of Pala- 
tines destined for a colony on the Hudson river arrived 
in the harbor, and it was found that they were affected 
with contagious diseases, they were quarantined on Gov- 
ernor's Island. Among these immigrants was John Peter 
Zenger, afterwards famous in the suit which established 
the freedom of the press in New York. 

In 1755, Sir Wm. Pepperel's regiment was encamped 
on the island. 

In 1774, it was proposed to erect a fortress on the 
island, but no fortifications were built until they were 

[218] 



undertaken by the Americans in 1776. By August of 
the latter year the patrols had strongly fortified the island 
with earthworks, defended by 2,000 men and forty pieces 
of cannon. After the battle of Long Island, August 27, 
1776, the Americans abandoned the island to the British 
and did not repossess it until 1783. 

In 1784, Governor's Island was assigned by the new 
Legislature to the uses of the Governors of the State 
until further orders. Four years later the Surveyor- 
General was authorized to lay the land out into lots for 
sale; but it is not known that any portion of it was 
disposed of. In 1790 the island was given to the Regents 
of the University, who were authorized to lease it and use 
the proceeds for educational purposes. Columbia Col- 
lege was intended to be one of the beneficiaries of this 
arrangement. In 1794, the Governor was authorized to 
appropriate the island for a quarantine station. How 
much it was used for this purpose we do not know. 

The records indicate that at this time the island was 
a well-established military post, for in 1794 complaints 
were made by both American and French naval officers 
that their vessels had not been properly saluted from the 
fort on that island. The fort, however, was merely 
an earthwork with two batteries, partly lined with brick. 
In 1797 it was named Fort Jay. In 1800, the island was 
ceded to the United States. In 1806, Fort Jay was pulled 
down and by 1809 a new work called Fort Columbus 
was built on its site, mounting fifty cannon. In the same 
year, the circular fort of masonry, named Castle Will- 
iams, was advanced sufficiently to receive its first tier of 
guns, but it was not completed until 1811. Castle Will- 
iams was named after Col. Jonathan Williams of the 
United States Engineers, who surveyed the harbor in 
1805 and made his report concerning defences to Con- 
gress in February, 1806. 

The island was a scene of great activity during the 
War of 1812. In 1821 the Federal military headquarters 
were transferred to it from the City. During the Civil 
War Castle Williams was used as a military prison, 
and is so used at the present time. During the Civil 

£219] 



War it is said that as many as 1,800 prisoners were con- 
fined there. 

There have been several executions on Governor's 
Island. On July 7, 1814, John Reid and Roger Wilson, 
privates in the artillery corps, were sentenced to be shot 
the next morning. Since 1852 there have been two ex- 
ecutions. One man was shot for desertion and bounty 
jumping. John Y. Beall, a Virginian, was hanged for 
attempting to seize a vessel to use against the Union. 

For several years the Government has been filling in 
the shore of the south side, partly with the muck dredged 
from the harbor channel, and the island is now fully 
twice as large as it used to be. From the filled-in por- 
tion, many successful aeroplane flights have started, and 
future developments justify the prediction that in another 
generation the present Island will be unrecognizable in 
the one that will have taken its place. 

4 'Old New York" in Moving Pictures 

For some time the editor of this Manual has col- 
lected many interesting views of our city, some of which 
he has had made into slides, using the material for a 
Stereopticon Lecture on the subject. He has appeared 
twice at the N. Y. Historical Society and once at the 
New York Genealogical and Biographical Society. Both 
Mr. Kelby and Mr. Bowen were kind enough to say 
that the entertainment was very acceptable. The in- 
terest in the subject seems to be growing as Mr. Brown 
has observed much larger audiences at each successive 
lecture. 

He now proposes to go a step further and add mo- 
tion pictures to the work, at the same time introducing 
a feature that seems of the greatest historic value — viz. 
reproducing some of the actual scenes enacted during 
the Revolution and at other vital periods in our city's 
history. 

A better idea of what is in his mind may perhaps 
be gained from a reading of a scenario recently sub- 

[220] 










<& 



2* 

II 

J3 



S 



mitted to a moving picture company at present consider- 
ing the matter. 

Mr. & Mrs. John Blake decide to travel a little. They have never 
seen the skyscrapers or any of the wonderful places for which New 
York is famous. 

The first scene shows them coming to New York. Leaving the 
hotel they take a Sight Seeing Car and as the car stops in front of 
any noted historical spot, the present day scene melts away and is 
replaced by the incident which made that location famous. For 
example. The car is supposed to have stopped in front of Fraunces' 
Tavern. The scene is of today. The man with the megaphone is 
telling the sight seers of Washington bidding farewell to his officers 
in that building when the present day scene melts away and in its 
place is the Tavern aod its surroundings as it was in 1784. Various 
officers are seen approaching from different directions. Finally Genl. 
Washington rides up, ties his horse to the post and disappears inside. 

The scene now changes to the interior of the Long Room. Grouped 
around in various knots are all the famous soldiers of the Revo- 
lution, greeting each new arrival and chatting among themselves. A 
hush falls over the room as the tall serious figure of the Commander- 
in-Chief appears at the entrance. 

At the conclusion of the ceremony, General Washington walks 
slowly and sadly from the room, descends the short stairway, mounts 
his horse and rides to the landing at foot of Whitehall street. Crowds 
line the roadway and the wharf. As Washington starts to descend the 
steps leading to the barge that is to convey him to the Jersey shore, 
he turns to the assembled crowd, raises his hat in salutation and dis- 
appears. 

Other scenes can be treated in the same way. "The 
Inauguration at Federal Hall," "Pulling Down the 
Statue of George III," "The First Trial Trip of the 
Clermont/' are all susceptible of the same treatment. 

It is time so popular a medium as moving pictures 
should be made to do some really educational work and 
in teaching history there is a vast field open. 

Readers of this Manual who are interested in such 
a lecture are invited to address the editor, who will be 
glad to hear from them on the subject. 



Commodore Vanderbilt's Ferry 

May 28, 1825, the steamboat Bellona, under command of Cor- 
nelius Vanderbilt (the late "Commodore"), commenced to run 
to Union Garden, Staten Island, for 12 y 2 cents each way. In 
illustration of the difference in the manner in which steamboats 
of that day were fitted, compared with the present mode, it 
will be interesting to learn that the pilot-house of the Bellona 
was immediately over the engine-room, and that instead of 
bells to signal to the engineer, one stroke of a cane on the 
floor was the signal to start or to slow, as the position of the 
engine admitted, and two strokes were the signal for backing. 



[221] 



Old-time Marriages Notices 

(Continued from page 22.) 

1790 — Saturday, April 24. Anthony Rutgers, of the Island of Cur- 
racoa, and Cornelia Gaine, daughter of Hugh Gaine, printer 
of this city, married Saturday last. 

1790 — Saturday, April 24. Dr. Benjamin Franklin, of the City of 
Philadelphia, in the 85th year of his age, died Saturday last. 

1790 — Saturday, April 24. Wright Nichols and Polly Clements, 
daughter of Daniel, of Flushing, L. I., married Wednesday last 
at Flushing. 

1790 — Saturday, May 1. Hugh M'Kenzie. Last evening was found 
in the Old Slip the body of, who has for several weeks been 
missing. 

1790 — Saturday, May 8. Hon. Joshua Seney, Representative in Con- 
gress from the State of Maryland, and Fanny Nicholson, daugh- 
ter of Commodore Nicholson, of this city, married Saturday 
last. 

1790 — Saturday, May 8. Tobias Lear, Secretary to the President of 
the United States, and Polly Xong, married at Portsmouth 
on the 22d ult. 

1790 — Saturday, May 8. Cornelia Remsen, eldest daughter of Henry, 
of this city, died Wednesday last. 

1790 — Saturday, May 8. Stephen Crossfield, Jr., a young gentle- 
man of great worth, died Wednesday. 

1790 — Saturday, May 8. John Foxcroft. Agent here for his Britanic 
Majesty's packets and before the revolution, joint post-master 
general with the late Benjamin Franklin, died Tuesday last. 

1790 — Saturday, May 8. Grove Bend, died yesterday. 

1790 — Saturday, May 22. Samuel Sterett, of Baltimore, and Rebecca 
iSears, daughter of the late Col. Isaac Sears, of this city, mar- 
ried Thursday last. 

1790 — Saturday, May 22. John Anthony and Sally Shaw, both of 
this city, married Thursday the 13th inst. 

1790 — Saturday, May 22. Deborah Denton, relect of Nehemiah Den- 
ton, in the 78th year of her age, died Saturday last at Ja- 
maica, L. I. 

1790 — Saturday, May 29. Henry Lawrence and Harriet Van Wyck, 
both of Flushing, L. I., married at Flushing, L. I., Wednesday 
last. 

1790 — Saturday, May 29. Henry Henson and Dolly Tyber, married 
Monday last. 

1790 — .Saturday, May 29. Miss Clow, daughter of Andrew Clow, mer- 
chant, of Philadelphia died Saturday last at Jamaica, L. I., 
buried First Presbyterian Church this city. 

1790 — Saturday, May 29. Elizabeth Borkinbine, wife of George Bork- 
inbine, printer, of this city, died Sunday last ; aged 25 years. 

1790 — Saturday, May 29. Elizabeth Ustick, daughter of the late 
Henry Ustick, of this city, died Monday last. 

1790 — Saturday, June 12. Dr. Wright Post and Miss Bailey, daugh- 
ter of Dr. Richard Bailey, of this city, married Thursday last. 

1790 — Saturday, June 12. Israel Putnam, Maj. Gen. of the Con- 
tinental Army, died Saturday, May 29th at Brooklyn, Conn., in 
the 73rd year of his age. 

1790 — Saturday, June 26. Rev. Mr. Bloomer, rector of the Episcopal 
Church of Jamaica, L. I., died Wednesday last. 

1790 — Saturday, July 31. Hay Stevenson and Miss Graham, both 
of this city, married Thursday. ^ T 

1790 — Saturday, July 31. William Livingston, Governor of New 
Jersey, died Sunday, the 25th, at his seat near Elizabethtown, 
N. J. 

1790 — Saturday, August 28. Gerard DePeyster, son of William De- 
Peyster, merchant in Queen Street, died Thursday, aged 21. 

1790 — Saturday, Sept. 11. Thomas Lowree and Polly Dusinbury, 
both of Flushing, L. I., married Sunday last at Flushing, L. I. 

1790 — Saturday, Sept. 11. Capt. John Armour, of the ship Grace, 
and Maria Hop son, daughter of George Hopson, of this city, 
married Tuesday last. 

[222] 




? 



3 



o 

u 



1790 — Saturday, September 25. Mrs. Mary Ogden, wife of Doctor 

Jacob Ogden and daughter of DePeyster, died at Jamaica, 

L. I., in the prime of life. 
1790 — Saturday, September 25. John Keating, merchant of this 

city, died Tuesday last in the 55th year of his age. Interment 

Trinity Church. 
1790 — Saturday, October 2. James Bailey and Catherine Brincker- 

hoff, daughter of Col. Abraham Brinckerhoff of Fishkill, mar- 
ried Monday last. 
1790 — Saturday, October 23. William Jones, son of Samuel Jones, 

attorney at law, and Keziah Youngs, married Thursday the 14th 

inst. at Oyster Bay, L. I. 
1790 — Saturday, October 23. Stephen Coles, distiller, and Mrs. 

Lawrence, both of this city, married last week. 
1790 — Saturday, October 30. Mrs. Ann Letts, a native of New York, 

died at South River, N. J., on the 4th inst. Aged 107 years. 
1790 — Saturday, November 6. Philip Kissick, died at Bloomingdale, 

Thursday last, in his 78th year. 
1790 — Saturday, November 6. Thomas Streatfteld Clarkson and 

Eliza Van Horne, daughter of Augustus Van Home, married 

Saturday last. 
1790 — Saturday, November 20. Mrs. Butler, wife of Hon. Pierre But- 
ler, South Carolina Senator, died Saturday last. 
1790 — Saturday, November 20. Daniel Cromellne Verplanck and 

Anne Walton, daughter of William Walton, married Wednes- 
day last. 
1790 — Saturday, November 27. Andrew Norwood and Elizabeth 

Roe, both of this city, married Saturday last. 
1790 — Saturday, November 27. Prosper Wetmore and Catherine 

McEuen, both of this city, married last Saturday. 
1790 — Saturday, November 27. Hon. John Vining, Congressman from 

Delaware, and Miss Seton, daughter of William Seton, of this 

city, married Wednesday last. 
1790 — Saturday, November 27. John Ball, merchant, and Rachel 

Sutton, daughter of Caleb Sutton, merchant, of this city, mar- 
ried 

1790 — Saturday, December 4. Joseph Bogart and Jane Finck, mar- 
ried on the 25th inst. 
1790 — Saturday, December 4. Joseph Williams and Anne Fisher, 

both of this city, married Sunday last. 
1790 — Saturday, December 4. Eliphalet Wickes and Martha Her- 

riman, both of Jamaica, L. I., married Sunday last at Jamaica, 

L. I. 
1790 — Saturday, December 4. James Huxe and Sarah Blaact, mar- 
ried Saturday last. 
1790 — Saturday, December 25. Matthew M. Clarkson, merchant, 

and Belinda Smith, both of this city, married Saturday last. 
1790 — Saturday, December 25. Leonard Lispenard and Nancy Bache, 

daughter of Theophelict, married Saturday last. 
1791 — Saturday, April 23. Joseph Beezly, Innkeeper, and Catherine 

Roe, daughter of Ezekiel Roe, both of Flushing, L. I., married 

Tuesday last at Flushing. 
1791 — Saturday, April 23. John Burger, Jr., and Sarah Tout, both 

of this city, married Saturday last. 
1791 — Saturday, April 30. Robert Crommeline, died on Thursday 

last at his seat near Flushing, L. I., in the 75th year of 

his age. 
1791 — Saturday, April 30. Sampson Fleming, died on Sunday at his 

house on Broadway. 
1791 — Saturday, April 30. John Griffin, merchant, of Horse Neck, 

Conn., and Polly Thomas, of Bedford, married Sunday last. 
1791 — Saturday, May 21. Polydore B. Wisner, attorney at law, and 

Maria Blydenburgh, of Smithtown, L. I. Married last Sunday 

at Smithtown, L. I. 
1791 — Saturday, May 21 Thomas Hunt and Ruth Rook, both of this 

city, married Saturday last. 
1791 — Saturday, May 28. Bartholomew Fisher and Orpha Forker, 

both of this city, married Wednesday last at Burlington, N. J. 
1791 — Saturday, June 4. David Peffer and Nelly Johnston, both 

of this city, married Tuesday last. 

[223] 



1791 — Saturday, June 4. Matthias Crane, of Newark, and Jane 
Ferris, of this city, married Sunday last. 

1791 — Saturday, June 4. William Smith, Jr., son of William Smith, 
of the Manor of St. George, and Hannah Smith, only daugh- 
ter of Philetus Smith, of Smithtown, L. I., married Wednesday 
the 25th ult. at Smithtown, L. I. 

1791 — Saturday, June 4. Dr. David Woodhull and Irene Wetmore, 
eldest daughter of Rev. Noah Wetmore, of Brookhaven, L. I., 
married Monday the 9th ult. at Brookhaven. 

1791 — Saturday, June 11. Charles Ammenhuyser and Elizabeth 
Kelly, both of this city, married Sunday last. 

1791 — Saturday, June 18. Neidas Halsey and Polly Brower, both 
of this city, married Tuesday last. 

1791 — Saturday, June 25. Paul Richard Place, of Bermuda, and 
Miss Jauncey, eldest daughter of the late Capt. Joseph Jauncey, 
of this city, married Thursday last. 

1791 — Saturday, June 25. Anthony Ogilvie and Elizabeth Cow- 
drey, daughter of Jonathan Cowdrey, both of this city, married 
Wednesday last. 

1791 — Saturday, June 25. Isaac Livesay, druggist, and Jane Law- 
rence, daughter of John Lawrence, merchant, both of this city, 
married Sunday last. 

1791 — Saturday, June 25. Alexander Anderson and Cretia Wright, 
both of this city, married Saturday. 

1791 — Saturday, June 25. Daniel Cotton, Jr., merchant, and Eliza 
Watson, both of this city, married at Stamford, Conn. 

1791 — Saturday, June 25. William Cross and Catherine Sly, both 
of Ulster County, married Thursday the 16th inst. 

1791 — Saturday, June 25. Eliphalet Brush, of Demarara, and Sally 
Grennel, of this city, married Wednesday the 15th inst. 

1791 — Saturday, June 25. Gilbert Aspinwall and Ann Sowers, both 
of this city, married Wednesday the 15th inst. 

1791 — Saturday, June 25. Robert Roberts, died Saturday last at 
Philadelphia, aged 48. 

1791 — Saturday, July 2. Caleb Boyle and Eliza Stanton, daugh- 
ter of George Stanton, both of this city, married Thursday 
last. 

1791 — Saturday, July 2. Jacob Morton and Catharine Ludlow, 
daughter of Cary Ludlow, both of this city, married Saturday 
25th inst. 

1791 — Saturday, July 9. Thomas Johnson, of this city, and Cor- 
nelia Stonehouse, of Newark, married at Newark on Mon- 
day. 

1791 — Saturday, July 9. Rev. MR. Elijah Rattoon, of the Epis- 
copal Church at Brooklyn, and Miss Bache, daughter of the 
Rev. Dr. Bache, of this city, married at Brunswick, N. J. f 
June 30th. 

1791 — Saturday, July 9. Mrs. Maria Barclay, widow of James Bar- 
clay, died on the 5th inst. in her 44th year. Interment Trinity 
Church. 

1791 — Saturday, July 16. Mr. Mackey, of New Jersey, and Eliza 
Micheau, of Staten Island, married Saturday last at Staten 
Island. 

1791 — Saturday, July 16. John Richey and Johanna Denton, mar- 
ried Monday last. 

1791 — Saturday, July 16. Alexander Macomb and Mrs. Rucker, 
widow of John Rucker, married Monday last. 

1791 — Saturday, August 6. Mr. Simmond, merchant, and Miss 
Wilkes, daughter of Israel Wilkes, all of this city, married 
Saturday last. 

1791 — Saturday, August 6. William Rhodes, merchant, and Sophia 
Roorabach, both of this city, married Friday the 25th. 

1791 — Saturday, August 13. Capt. Thomas S. Strong, eldest son 
of Hon. Selah Strong, and Hannah Brewster, daughter of 
Joseph Brewster, married at Brook Haven, L. I., Sunday the 
7th. 

1791 — Saturday, August 20. James M'Cready and Mary Wool, both 
of this city, married Saturday last. 

[224] 



1791 — Saturday, August 20. Mrs. Alice Armstrong, relict of James 

Armstrong, of this city, died Wednesday, aged 94. Interment 

Brick Meeting House burying ground. 
1791 — Saturday, September 3. William Malcolm, Brig. -Gen. in the 

militia, died Thursday last. Interment New Presbyterian bury- 
ing ground. 
1791 — Saturday, September 10. Miss Anne Jay, died Sunday, aged 

54, at her brother Peter Jay's seat at Rye. 
1791 — Saturday, September 10. Miles Hitchcock and Sarah Hop- 
son, both of this city, married Saturday last. 
1791 — Saturday, October 1. Capt. Samuel Armour, of this city, and 

Catharine Provoost, late from Amsterdam, married Thursday 

last. 
1791 — Saturday, October 8. Miss Mary V. Wagenen, died Saturday 

last in her 23rd year. 
1791 — Saturday, October 8. Cornelius Crygier, of this city, and 

Hannah Parker, of Shrewsbury, married Saturday the 17th. 
1791 — Saturday, October 8. James Anderson, of South Carolina, and 

Miss Webb, of this city, married Monday last. 
1791 — Saturday, October 8. Francis - Lynch, counsellor at law, and 

Maria Rose, both of this city, married Sunday last. 
1791 — Saturday, October 15. Thomas Greenleaf, Editor New York 

Journal, and Nancy Quackenbos, both of this city, married 

Thursday last. 
1791 — Saturday, October 22. Magdalena Middagh, eldest daughter 

of John Middagh, of Brooklyn, L. I., died Thursday last at 

Brooklyn. 
1791 — Saturday, October 22. Rev. William Hammel, of Jamaica, L. 

I., and Mrs. Catharine Pevee, of this city, married Monday 

last. 
1791 — Saturday, October 29. Margaret Jay, wife of Frederick Jay, 

of this city, died yesterday. 
1791 — Saturday, October 29. James Everitt, attorney, of Goshen, 

N. Y., and Miss Tallman, of this city, married Wednesday. 
1791 — Saturday, October 29. William Grant, of St. Augustine, and 

Anne Sample, of this city, married Sunday the 16th. 
1791 — Saturday, November 12. Josias Byles, upholsterer, of this 

city, formerly of Boston, died Saturday last. Interment Old 

Presbyterian burial ground. 
1791 — Saturday, November 12. Jesse Wilkins, of Goshen, and Miss 

Patty Denton, of Jamaica, married Thursday last at Jamaica, 

L. I. 
1791 — Saturday, November 12. Jacob De La Montagnie, attorney, 

and Polly Armour, married Monday last. 
1791 — Saturday, November 12. Capt. Stephen Miner, and Betsey 

Rice, both of this city, married Sunday last. 
1791 — Saturday, November 12. John Ditmas and Catharine John- 
son, both of Jamaica, L. I., married Saturday last at Jamaica. 
1791 — Saturday, November 19. Henry Aborn, of New York, and 

Abigail Baker, married Friday the 11th. 
1791 — Saturday, November 19. Dr. Charles M'Knight, of Columbia 

College, died Wednesday. 
1791 — Saturday, November 26. Nathan Furman, of this city, and 

Phoebe Person, of Morristown, N. J., married Thursday the 

10th at Morristown. 
1791 — Saturday, November 26. James Black, cabinet maker, and 

Mary Rote, both of this city, married Saturday last. 
1791 — Saturday, November 26. Peter Mesier, Jr., of Dutchess 

County, and Miss Stewart, daughter of James Stewart, mer- 
chant of this city, married Wednesday. 
1791 — Saturday, December 3. John Shaw, of Fauquier County, Vir- 
ginia, aged 19, and Mrs. Mary Hitt, of same county, aged 55, 

married in Virginia, November 3rd. 
1791 — Saturday, December 3. Joseph Dunkly and Betsey Leonard, 

daughter of Jacob Leonard, both of this city, married Wednes- 
day last. 
1791 — Saturday, December 3. Major Henry Gilbert Livingston and 

Ann Nutter, daughter of Valentine Nutter, bookseller of this 

city, married Saturday last. 

[225] 



1791 — Saturday, December 10. Charles Cornell, of Long Island, 
and Catharine Rodman, of this city, married Wednesday last. 

1791 — Saturday, December 10. Robert Hamilton, of this city, and 
Dorcas Conger, of New Jersey, married Sunday last. 

1791 — Saturday, December 24. Shepard Havens, son of Benjamin 
Havens, of Bedford, L. I., died at Baltimore, the 29th ult., 
aged 22. 

1791 — Saturday, December 24. Mrs Deborah Smith, wife of Capt. 
John Smith, of this city, died Tuesday last, aged 23. 

1791 — Saturday, December 24. Samuel Burling, of this city, and 
Sally Elmslie, daughter of John Elmslie, of Philadelphia, mar- 
ried Tuesday the 13th at Philadelphia. 

1791 — Saturday, December 24. Andrew Meyers and Mrs. Catharine 
Hill, both of this city, married Saturday last. 

1791 — .Saturday, December 24. James Weeks and Emelia Doughty, 
both of this city, married Saturday the 10th. 

1791 — Saturday, December 31. Peter P. Van Dervoort and Anna 
Boroughs, both of Newtown, L. I., married at Newtown, L. I. 

1792 — Saturday, January 7. John Douglas, of Boston, and Sarah 
Cannon, of Corlaers-Hook, married Friday the 30th ult. 

1792 — Saturday, January 7. Peter Repalje, of New Lotts, and 
Bridget Ditmas, of Jamaica, married Thursday the 29th at 
Jamaica, L. I. 

1792 — Saturday, January 7. Lawrence Burrows, of this city, and 
Elizabeth Deane, of Tarrytown, N. Y., married Thursday the 
29th. 

1792 — Saturday, January 21. John Wynkoop and Margaret Jansen, 
married Thursday the 12th at Kingston, N. Y., after a court- 
ship of 45 years. 

1792 — Saturday, January 21. Charles Sharp and Grace Roberts, 
married Sunday last. 

1792 — Saturday, January 21. David Titus and Mrs. Wilson, both 
of that place, Newtown, L. I., married Tuesday the 3rd at 
Newtown, L. I. 

1792 — Saturday, January 28. Timothy Smith, of North Hempstead, 
and Polly Scidmore, of South Hempstead, married Saturday 
last on Long Island. 

1792 — Saturday, January 28. Capt. Oliver Ketchum and Elizabeth 
Scidmore, married Thursday the 19th at Huntington, L. I. 

1792 — Saturday, January 28. David Bryant and Ruth Bryant, mar- 
ried Wednesday the 18th at Huntington, L. I. 

1792 — Saturday, January 28. Elkanah Bunce and Lavinia Jarvis, 
married , at Huntington, L. I. 

1792 — Saturday, January 28. Nathaniel Scidmore and Esther 
Sopers, married Monday the 16th at Huntington, L. I. 

1792 — Saturday, January 28. Robert Rogers and Elizabeth Bryant, ^f 
married Sunday the 15th at Huntington, L. I. 

1792 — Saturday, February 4. William Maximillian Stewart and 
Magdalene Van Nostrand, married Monday last at Oyster Bay, 
L. I., both of that place. 

1792 — Saturday, February 4. James R. Hutchens, printer at Wind- 
sor, Vt, and Marianne Thomas, daughter of Isaiah Thomas, 
printer of Worcester, Mass., married . 

1792 — Saturday, February 4. Jacob LeRoy and Miss Banyer, daugh- 
ter of Goldsborough Banyer, married at Albany, . 

1792 — Saturday, February 4. Daniel Bennum, of Flatbush, and Nelly 
Johnson, daughter of Barent Johnson, married Wednesday, Jan- 
uary 25th, at Flatlands, L. I. 

1792 — Saturday, February 11. Jane Reed, wife of Major Jacob Reed, 
of this city, died Monday. 

1792 — Saturday, February 11. Earl of Effingham, Governor of Ja- 
maica, died the 19th of last month. 

1792 — Saturday, February 11. John Taylor, Jr., of this city, died 
lately at Falmouth, England. 

1792 — Saturday, February 11. William Maxwell, of this city, died 
Wednesday. 

1792 — Saturday, February 11. James Pray, of this place, and Mar- 
garet Richardson, of Flatbush, L. I., married Sunday last. 

1226] 



1792 — Saturday, February 11. Benjamin Strong, merchant, and 

Sally Weeks, both of this city, married Saturday the 4th. 
1792 — Saturday, February 11. John Van Awler and Mary Green, 

both of this city, married Sunday, January 28th. 
1792 — Saturday, February 18. Edward Lunagan and Maria Siggers, 

married Thursday last. 
1792 — Saturday, February 18. Garrit Cosine, of New Lots, and 

Miss Van Brunt, daughter of Isaac Van Brunt, married Wednes- 
day last at New Utrecht, L. I. 
1792 — Saturday, February 18. Samuel Terry, merchant, and Anne 

Leake Carr, both of this place, married Thursday the 9th. 
1792 — Saturday, February 18. Captain Patrick O'Brien and Nancy 

Carr, both of this city, married Thursday the 9th. 
1792 — Saturday, February 18. Alexander Frazier, of this city, and 

Hulday Wilkinson, of Morristown, N. J., married Sunday 

the 5th. 
1792 — Saturday, February 18. Noah Whitmore, son of Rev. Mr. 

Whitmore, and Winifred Smith, daughter of Joel Smith, mar- 
ried Tuesday at Long Swamp, Huntington, L. I. 
1792 — Saturday, February 18. General Matthew Clarkson, of this 

city, and Sally Cornell, daughter of the late S. Cornell, of 

Newbern, N. C, married Thursday last. 
1792 — Saturday, February 25. Isaac L. Kip, attorney, and Sally 

Smith, daughter of Colonel Jacamiah Smith, of Powles Hook, 

married Wednesday last. 
1792 — Saturday, March 3 Jacob German and Mrs. Elizabeth Barber, 

both of this city, married Saturday last. 
1792 — Saturday, March 10. John Quackenbos and Mrs. Elizabeth 

Merckler, both of this city, married Tuesday last at the seat 

of Mr. Mangle Minthorn, Bowery. 
1792 — Saturday, March 10. Enoch Baldwin, of Jerusalem, and Lydia 

Pidgeon, of same place, married Sunday last. 
1792 — Saturday, March 10. Joseph Sealy, of the Little Plains, and 

Bonnella Welling, of Jamaica South, married Thursday the 1st 

at Jamaica, L. I. 
1792 — Saturday, March 10. Robert H. Livingston, Clerk of the Court 

of Common Pleas, Dutchess County, and Caty Tappen, eldest 

daughter of Hon. Judge Tappen, of Poughkeepsie, married 

Wednesdav 
1792 — Saturday, March 17. Captain Benjamin North and Sally 

Wicks, both of this city, married Thursday last. 
1792 — Saturday, March 17. Ambrose Parish and Deborah Wheeler, 

both of Oyster Bay, L. I., married Tuesday last at Oyster Bay. 
1792 — Saturday, March 17. Peter Cortenius, Jr., and Ann Remsen, 

both of this city, married Wednesday the 7th. 
1792 — Saturday, March 24. William Bussing, of this city, and Su- 
sannah Odall, of Philip's Manor, married Sunday last. 
1792 — Saturday, March 24. Captain Jeremiah Shattuck, aged ninety, 

and Mrs. Ruth Bixby, aged seventy-five, married at Pepperel. 
1792 — Saturday, March 24. James Seton, merchant, of this city, and 

Mary Gillou Hoffman, daughter of Nicholas Hoffman, also 

of this city, married Tuesday last. 
1792 — Saturday, March 24. Isaac Brewster, son of Joseph Brewster, 

and Temperance Brewster, daughter of Captain William 

Brewster, married at Brookhaven, L. I., Sunday last. 
1792 — Saturday, March 24. Thomas Furdun and Margaret Hamer, 

both of this city, married Saturday last. 
1792 — Saturday, March 24. John Mowatt, Jr., and Charlotte Rod- 
man, both of this city, married Wednesday the 14th. 
1792 — Saturday, March 31. • Elizabeth Shaw, daughter of the late 

Captain Daniel Shaw, died Monday the 19th. 
1792 — Saturday, March 31. James Van Dyne and Sally Branson, 

both of this city, married Thursday last. 
1792 — Saturday, March 31. Willet Seaman and Deborah Hally, 

both of this city, married Thursday last. 
1792 — Saturday, March 31. Thomas Hanes and Jane King, both of 

this city, married Monday last. 
1792 — Saturday, March 31. Peter Thompson and Rachel Sloo, both 

of this city, married Saturday last. 

[227] 



1792 — Saturday, March 31. Joseph Strong, attorney at law, and 
Margaret Strong, daughter of Hon. Selah Strong, both of 
Brookhaven, married at Brookhaven Saturday the 24th. 

1792 — Saturday, March 31. Wheeler Foster and Miss Patty Grif- 
fin, both of this city, married Tuesday the 20th. 

1792 — Saturday, April 7. George Kirk and Nancy Wright, married 
Thursday last: 

1792 — Saturday, April 7. James Briton and Violetta Disosway, 
both of Staten Island, married Wednesday the 28th. 

1792 — Saturday, April 7. William Boyd and Miss Purman, both of 
this city, married Sunday, March 25th. 

1792 — Saturday, April 14. Thomas Cooper, of this city, and Cather- 
ine Colden, daughter of David Colden, deceased, married Sat- 
urday last. 

1792 — Saturday, April 14. Zebulon Robbins and Sally Newman, 
both of Huntington, L. I., married at Huntington, L. I. 

1792 — Saturday, April 14. Dr. John Howard and Fanny Howell, 
daughter of David Howell, married at Moriches, L. I., Wednes- 
day the 4th. 

1792 — Saturday, April 14. William W. Woolsey, merchant, of New 
York, and Elizabeth Dwight, of Northampton, Mass., mar- 
ried at Greenfield, Conn., Monday the 2d. 

1792 — Saturday, April 21. Robert M'Mennomy and Elizabeth Salter, 
only daughter of Manasseth Salter, merchant, of this city, mar- 
ried Thursday last. 

1792 — Saturday, April 21. Captain Drew, of the British Navy, and 
Lydia Watkins, of this city, married Monday last. 

1792 — Saturday, April 21. William Hornblower and Margaretta 
Kingsland, daughter of Edmund William Kingsland, of New 
Barbades, N. J., married Friday the 13th. 

1792 — Saturday, April 21. Nicholas Dennis and Mrs. Beekman, 
both of this city, married Thursday the 12th. 

1792 — Saturday, April 21. Daniel Hulick and Gitty Ammerman, 
both of this city, married Thursday the 12th. 

1792 — Saturday, April 21. James Dunlap Bissett, cabinet maker, 
and Lizetta Black, both of this city, married Thursday the 
12th. 

1792 — Saturday, April 21. Monson Hoyt and Lucretia Hammersley, 
married Tuesday the 10th at the seat of Mr. Christopher Smith 
in Jamaica, L. I. 

1792 — Saturday, April 21. Cadwallader D. Colden, only son of the 
late David Colden, of Long Island, and Maria Provoost, daugh- 
ter of Right Reverend Dr. Provoost, Bishop of New York, mar- 
ried Sunday the 8th. 

1792 — Saturday, April 21. Rev. Dr. John Mason, minister of the 
Scotch Presbyterian Church of this city, died Thursday last in 
his fifty-eighth year. 

1792 — Saturday, May 5. Dr. R. Henderson and Maria Journeay, 
of Staten Island, married on Staten Island Sunday last. 

1792 — Saturday, May 5. David S. Bogart and Elizabeth Platt, 
married Sunday last. 

1792 — Saturday, May 12. Hugh Maglone and Polly White, married 
Saturday last. 

1792 — Saturday, May 12. Thomas Ross and Ann Lions, daughter of 
William Lions, deceased, all of this city, married Wednesday 
last. 

1792 — Saturday, May 12. Willet Hicks and Mary Matlack, daugh- 
ter of White Matlack, of this city, married Wednesday last at 
the Friends' Meeting House. 

1792 — Saturday, May 12. Robert Giles and Margery Woolsey, both 
of this city, married Sunday last. 

1792 — Saturday, May 12. Captain Jonathan Rowland and Cornelia 
Warner, both of this city, married Saturday last. 

1792 — Saturday, May 19. James Taylor and Catherine Wendele, of 
this city, married Sunday. 

1792 — Saturday, May 19. Ebenezer Young, of this city, and Sally 
Weeber, of Boston, married Sunday at Haerlem. 

1792 — Saturday, May 19. Thomas Lawrence, of Flushing, and Eliza 
Stratton, of the same place, married Saturday last. 

[228] 



1792 — Saturday, May 19. John Young and Catherine Creamer, 
of this city, married Saturday last. 

1792 — Saturday, May 19. James Genkins and Miss Shatzel, daugh- 
ter of Michael Shatzel, of Water Street, married Saturday 
the 5th. 

1792 — Saturday, May 19. Alexander Ogsbury, Jr., and Catharine 
Ellis, daughter of the Widow Ellis, of this city, married Satur- 
day the 5th. 

1792 — Saturday, May 19. Abraham Forbes, silversmith, Broadway, 
and Rebecca Curser, married Thursday the 3d. 

1792 — Saturday, May 26. John Chikin, aged sixty-one, and Mrs. 
Lackey, aged seventy-one, both of Kent County, Delaware, mar- 
ried last month. 

1792 — Saturday, May 26. Joseph Griffiths, merchant, and Mrs. 
Ann Taylor, both of this city, married Thursday last. 

1792 — Saturday, May 26. John Johnston and S. Bard, daughter of 
Samuel Bard, of this city, married Wednesday last. 

1792 — Saturday, May 26. P. C. Waterbury and Lydia Curtis, daugh- 
ter of Charles Curtis, of this city, married Thursday the 17th. 

1792 — Saturday, May 26. Captain John H. Shackerly and Eliza- 
beth Kumbel, daughter of William Kumbel, of this city, mar- 
ried Monday the 14th. 

1792 — Saturday, May 26. John Woolsey, formerly of Tappan, and 
Sally Tyler, of Brookhaven, L. I., married Sunday the 13th. 

1792 — Saturday, May 26. Peter Amerman, of this city, and Selina 
Coffin, of that place (Newbergh), married Sunday the 6th 
at Newbergh. 

1792 — Saturday, May 26. Mr. Balding and Mary Dodge, of this city, 
married Saturday the 5th. 

1792 — Saturday, May 26. James Cottle and Sarah Carpenter, 
married Saturday, April 28th. 

1792 — Saturday, June 2. George Rierson, son of Cornelius Rierson, 
of Flushing, L. I., died September 5th last at New Orleans. 

1792 — Saturday, June 2. Stephen Herriman died at Jamaica, L. I., 
Saturday last. 

1792 — Saturday, June 2. Abraham Brower, of this city, died Friday 
the 25th, aged seventy-five. 

1792 — Saturday, June 2. Nathaniel Stockwell and Betsey Moffat, 
both of this city, married Thursday last. 

1792 — Saturday, June 2. John Meldrom and Peggy Gurvin, both of 
this city, married Wednesday last. 

1792 — Saturday, June 2. John Ten Eyck, of this city, and Mary 
Fowler, daughter of David Fowler, deceased, late of Flushing, 
L. I., married Monday last. 

1792 — Saturday, June 2. Joshua Werts and Catharine Crolius, both 
of this city, married Sunday last. 

1792 — Saturday, June 2. Captain Jonathan Provoost, of Bushwick, 
L. I., and Mrs. Ann Dayton, of this city, married Saturday 
last. 

1792 — Saturday, June 2. Christian Baehr and Catharine Moore, 
daughter of Blase Moore, of this city, married Saturday last. 

1792 — Saturday, June 9. John Buchanan and Nancy Lucy Turner, 
both of this city, married Monday last. 

1792 — Saturday, June 16. Catherine Dodge, wife of Ezekiel Dodge, 
of this city, died Thursday last. 

1792 — Saturday, June 16. James Blanton, aged sixty-five, and Mar- 
tha Smith, aged twelve, married in Marlborough County, 
Cheraw, S. C. 

1792 — Saturday, June 16. Benjamin Gilmore and Polly Prentice, 
both of this city, married Thursday last. 

1792 — Saturday, June 16. Ralph Patchan, of Brooklyn, L. I., and 
Fanny Yorkison, of the same place, married Wednesday last 
in this city. 

1792 — Saturday, June 1-6. William Bruce, merchant, and Peggy 
Allen, both of this city, married Monday last. 

1792 — Saturday, June 23. Richard Hartshorne, merchant, of this 
city, and Miss Ustick, daughter of William Ustick, of Flushing, 
L. I., married Thursday the 14th. 

1792 — Saturday, June 23. Elizabeth Nesbit, daughter of Dr. Samuel 
Nesbit, died Tuesday last, aged 17. 

[229] 



1792 — Saturday, June 30. William Ramagb and Miss Mary Mel- 
vin, both of this city, married Saturday the 16th. 

1792 — Saturday, June 30. Dr. Isaac Davis, of New Haven, and 
Noma Tuttle, daughter of Daniel Tuttle, of this city, married 
June 28, 1792, Thursday last. 

1792 — Saturday, June 30. Mrs. Denmark, of this city, died Wednes- 
day. 

1792 — Saturday, July 7. William V. Wagenen, merchant, and Cor- 
nelia Quackenbos, both of this city, married last evening. 

1792 — Saturday, July 14. Enos Veal and Eleanor Garribront, both 
of this city, married Wednesday last. 

1792 — Saturday, July 28. Dr. Peter Paugeres and Margaret Bleeck- 
er, daughter of John Bleecker, of this city, married . 

1792 — Saturday, July 28. Philip Minthorn and Sophia Waldron, 
of this city, married Saturday last. 

1792 — Saturday, July 28. Col. John Smart and Mrs. Stevens, both 
of this city, married Saturday last. 

1792 — Saturday, July 28. Robert Seaman, merchant, and Nancy 
M'Ready, all of this city, married . 

1792 — Saturday, July 28. Fisher Ames, member of Congress, and 
Frances Worthington, daughter of Hon. John Worthington, 
of Springfield, Mass., married at Springfield, . 

1792 — Saturday, August 4. Robert Tolfrey and Charlotte Porter, 
both of this city, married Saturday last. 

1792 — Saturday, August 4. John Bruen and Sally Morris, both of 
this city, married Tuesday the 24th. 

1792 — Saturday, August 11. Robert Wilson, Commander of the 
ship Three Sisters (in the Jamaica trade) and Johanna H. 
Pike, of St. Lucia, Island of Jamaica, married Thursday last. 

1792 — Saturday, August 11. Abraham Corey and Elizabeth Has- 
well, both of this city, married Saturday last. 

1792 — Saturday, August 18. William Waldron Ten Brook, eldest 
son of Henry Ten Brook, merchant, of this city, died Wednes- 
day last in his 16th year. Interment Brethren's Chapel burying 
ground in Fair Street. 

1792 — Saturday, August 18. Benjamin Benson, died Monday last at 
Haerlem in his eighty-third year. 

1792 — Saturday, August 18. Jonathan Post, Jr., and Helena Blatjw, 
both of this city, married Saturday last. 

1792 — Saturday, August 18. Robert Cuddy and Eleanor Grant, both 
of this city, married Monday last. 

1792 — Saturday, August 18. Simeon Alexander Bayley and Cath- 
arine Bicker, both of this city, married Saturday last. 

1792 — Saturday, August 18. John Bokey and Eleanor Van Brunt, 
of Brooklyn, L. I., married on the 27th at Brooklyn, L. I. 

1792 — Saturday, August 25. Anna Maria Seton, wife of William 
Seton, died Tuesday last in her 36th year. 

1792 — Saturday, September 1. Peter Keteltas, merchant of this 
city, died Monday last in his seventy-second year. 

1792 — Saturday, September 1. William Backhouse, merchant of this 
city, died Saturday last. 

1792 — Saturday, September 1. Jacob Mott and Mary Smith, daugh- 
ter of Thomas Smith, of this city, married Wednesday last. 

1792 — Saturday, September 1. John C. Freick, merchant of this 
city, and Martha Stilwell, of Gravesend, L. I., married Sun- 
day last at Gravesend, L. I. 

1792 — Saturday, September 1. John Van Devanter and Maria Low, 
both of this city, married Sunday last at Newtown, L. I. 

1792 — Saturday, September 1. Capt. Archibald Maxwell, of Wash- 
ington, N. C, and Mrs. Hester C. Cullen, of this city, married 
Thursday the 23d 

1792 — Saturday, September 8. Erasmus Lewis and Hannah White- 
field, both of this city, married Thursday the 6th inst. 

1792 — Saturday, September 8. Carlisle Pollock and Sophia Yates, 
daughter of Richard Yates, merchant of this city, married Sat- 
urday last. 

1792 — Saturday, September 15. Capt. John McPherson, of Phil- 
adelphia, died Thursday the 6th. 

[ 230 ] 



1792 — Saturday, September 15. Mrs. Smith, wife of Hon. William 

Smith, member of Congress of South Carolina, died in Phil- 
adelphia, . 

1792 — Saturday, September 15. Capt. Joseph Smith and Jane 

Pierce, of this city, married Thursday last. 
1792 — Saturday, September 15. William Parsells and Polly Ser- 

ron, both of this city, married Monday last. 
1792 — Saturday, September 15. Lewis Wells and Rhode Manning, 

both of this city, married Monday last. 
1792 — Saturday, September 15. Stephen De Hart, of Elizabeth 

Town, and Margaret Ryerss, daughter of Judge Ryerss, of 

Staten Island, married Thursday the 6th inst. 
1792 — Saturday, September 22. Francis Bloodgood, of Albany, and 

Eliza Cobham, of this city, married Saturday last. 
1792 — Saturday, September 22. Benjamin Wooley and Sally Hicks, 

both of North Hempstead, married Sunday the 16th at Jamaica, 

L. I. 
1792 — Saturday, September 22. Peter Teachernell and Nancy 

Thornton, both of this city, married Sunday the 16th. 
1792 — Saturday, September 22. John Laroas, of New Jersey, and 

Jahilah Thompson, both of this city, married Saturday the 

15th. 
1792 — Saturday, September 22. Albert Ryckman, of this city, and 

Sally B. Jarvis, daughter of Samuel Jarvis, of Stamford, mar- 
ried at Stamford, Conn. 
1792 — Saturday, September 29. Vincent Tilyou, of this city, aged 

64, and Mrs. Margaret Wood, of Stoningtown, aged 25. 
1792 — Saturday, September 29. John Willey, Alderman of the Sixth 

Ward, of this city, died Friday the 21st. 
1792 — Saturday, October 13. James Harper, of this city, and Susan- 
nah Furman, daughter of Jonathan Furman, of Newtown, L. I., 

married Monday last. 
1792 — Saturday, October 13. John Johnson and Elizabeth Shever, 

both of this city, married Tuesday the 2d. 
1792 — Saturday, October 13. Isaac Bogart, formerly of Flatbush, 

and Susannah Whetten, of New York, married Sunday the 30th 

at Second River. 
1792 — Saturday, October 13. James Thompson and Elizabeth Mon- 

taynee, daughter of the Rev. Mr. Montaynie, both of this city, 

married Wednesday last. 
1792 — Saturday, October 13. Stephen Drake, of this city, died Tues- 
day the 2d at Hunt's Point, Westchester. 
1792 — Saturday, October 13. Archibald Blair, formerly of this city, 

died at Augusta, Georgia, last month. 
1792 — Saturday, October 20. Catharine Lasher, wife of Col. John 

Lasher, of this city, died Saturday last. 
1792 — Saturday, October 20. Gulian Ludlow and Maria Ludlow, 

both of this city, married Monday last. 
1792 — Saturday, October 20. Thomas Whey and Hannah Bugby, 

both of Newtown, L. I., married Sunday last at Newtown, L. I. 
1792 — Saturday, October 27. Benjamin Seaman, of Huntington, L. 

I., and Ruth Ketchum, daughter of Capt. Zebulon Ketchum, 

of same place, married Sunday last. 
1792 — Saturday, October 27. John B. Due and Mary Cunningham, 

both of this city, married Saturday last. 
1792 — Saturday, October 27. Reuben Price and Rhoda Titus, both 

of this city, married Saturday last. 
1792 — Saturday, October 27. William Fosbrook and Mrs. Smith, 

widow of Thomas Smith, both of this city, married . 

1792 — Saturday, November 3. Paul R. Bache and Helen Lispen- 

ard, eldest daughter of Anthony Lispenard, of this city, mar- 
ried Thursday last. 
1792 — Saturday, November 3. Thomas Whitlock and Margaret 

Richey, both of this city, married Tuesday last. 
1792 — Saturday, November 3. Benjamin Sands, late of Boston, anf 

Peggy Michaels, of this city, married Sunday last. 
1792 — Saturday, November 3. John Conner, of this city, and Jen- 
net Searse, formerly of Woodbridge, N. J., but late of this city, 

married Saturday last. 

[231] 



1792 — Saturday, November 3. John Royse, of this city, and Lydia 
Bull, of Hartford, married Saturday last. 

1792 — Saturday, November 3. David Sherwood, of New-Cornwall, 
and Eliza Smith, daughter of John Smith, of this city, mar- 
ried Thursday the 25th. 

1792 — Saturday, November 3. James Gray, died Monday last, aged 
73 years. 

1792 — Saturday, November 10. John O'Neill and Elizabeth Heyer, 
both of this city, married Monday last. 

1792 — Saturday, November 10. James C. Roosevelt and Catharine 
Byvanck, only daughter of Evert Byvanck, both of this city, 
married Monday last. 

1792 — Saturday, November 10. John Beekman, son of James Beek- 
man, and Mary Elizabeth Goad Bedlow, only daughter of 
William Bedlow, both of this city, married Saturday last. 

1792 — Saturday, November 17. Joshua Farrington and Nelly 
Brower, daughter of Jacob B rower, both of this city, married 
Sunday last. 

1792 — Saturday, November 17. Charles Platt Rogers and Sally- 
Rogers, both of this city, married Saturday last. 

1792 — Saturday, November 17. Peter Bussing and Catharine 
Welden, both of this city, married Saturday last. 

1792 — Saturday, November 17. Cornelius Buys, of Gravesend, and 
Jane Cozine, of New Lotts, married Monday the 5th at Plat- 
lands, L. I. 

1792 — Saturday, November 24. Dr. James Cogswell, of this city, died 
Thursday. 

1792 — Saturday, November 24. Frederick Schmelzel, died Monday. 

1792 — Saturday, November 24. Gertrude Brinkerhoff, daughter of 
Dirick Brinkerhoff, deceased, of this city, died Sunday last. 

1792 — Saturday, November 24. Miss Margaret Lowry, of this city, 
died Saturday last in her 18th year. 

1792 — Saturday, November 24. Robert Mount and Lydia Myer, 
daughter of Isaac Myer, of Newark, married Saturday last at 
Newark. 

1792 — Saturday, November 24. John C. Williamson and Margaret 
Grace, both of this city, married at Elizabeth Town . 

1792 — Saturday, November 24. Hugh Dougall and Letta Hedden, 
married Saturday last. 

1792 — Saturday, November 24. Thomas Hertell and Barbara Amelia 
Neely, both of this city, married Wednesday last. 

1792 — Saturday, November 24. William Humphries and Effe 
Varick, both of this city, married Sunday last. 

1792 — Saturday, November 24. Townsend Cock and Margaret Far- 
ley, daughter of Capt. James Farley, married Tuesday Novem- 
ber 13th, at Oyster Bay, L. I., all of Oyster Bay. 

1792 — Saturday, November 24. Zebulon Frost and Elizabeth Far- 
ley, daughter of Capt. James Farley, married Tuesday, No- 
vember 13th, at Oyster Bay, L. I., all of Oyster Bay. 

1792 — Saturday, December 1. Patrick M'Davitt, of this city, died 
Tuesday last in his fifty-sixth year. 

1792 — Saturday, December 1. Mrs. Margaret Cunningham, wife 
of Richard Cunningham, currier of this city, died Tuesday in 
her twenty-sixth year. Interment Trinity Churchyard. 

1792 — Saturday, December 1. Doctor John Romayne Campbell and 
Jane Waldron, both of Hackensack, N. J., married Wednesday 
last. 

1792 — Saturday, December 1. George Saliment and Mrs. Biddle, 
both of this city, married Tuesday last. 

1792 — Saturday, December 1. William Youle, of Corlaer's Hook, 
and Elizabeth Miller, of same place, married Friday last. 

1792 — Saturday, December 8. Francis Cooper and Nancy Paul, both 
of this city, married Sunday, November 4th. 

1792 — Saturday, December 8. Major Edgar and Sarah Clarke, 
daughter of Hon. Abraham Clarke, married Saturday last at 
Elizabeth-Town. 

1792 — Saturday, December 8. Epenetus Smith and Mrs. Elizabeth 
Smith, daughter of Capt. Epenetus Smith, both of Huntington, 
L. I., married Thursday, November 29, at Huntington. 

[232] 



1792 — Saturday, December 8. William Hannas and Eve De Witt, 
both of Flushing, married Sunday the 11th November at Ja- 
maica, L. I. 

1792 — Saturday, December 15. Sarah Payne, died Wednesday the 5th 
in her 14th year. 

1792 — Saturday, December 15. Joseph Dean, of Norwalk, and Mary 
Walker, of this city, married Saturday last. 

1792 — Saturday, December 15. Abraham Ditmas, of Jamaica, L. I., 
and Mrs. Harriet Doughty, of same place, married Thursday 
last. 

1792 — Saturday, December 15. Andrew Brott and Lucritia Tooker, 
both of this city, married Sunday last. 

1792 — Saturday, December 22. Peter Westerfield and Eliza Wolfe, 
both of this city, married Saturday last. 

1792 — Saturday, December 29. Peter Stymes and Mary Thompson, 
both of this city, married Sunday the 23rd. 

1793 — Saturday, January 5. Solomon Mark and Hetty Cohen, both 
of this city, married Wednesday last. 

1793 — Saturday, January 5. Townsend Underhill and Elizabeth 
Thompson, daughter of Capt. Thompson, all of this city, married 
Saturday, December 22. 

1793 — Saturday, January 5. Thomas Hicks and Hannah Creed, both 
of Jamaica, L. I., married Saturday, December 22, at Jamaica. 

1793 — Saturday, January 12. Jacob LeRoy, merchant of this city, 
died Thursday, the 3rd, in his sixty-fifth year. 

1793 — Saturday, January 12. Joseph Hitchcock and Sally Van- 
Deuser, daughter of Isaac Van Deuser, both of this city, mar- 
ried Thursday last. 

1793 — Saturday, January 12. Edward Meeks and Eliza Heyer, both 
of this city, married Wednesday last. 

1793 — Saturday, January 12. John Pray, of this city, and Sally 
Crane, of Newark, married Tuesday last at Newark. 

1793 — Saturday, January 12. John Townsend and Rebecca Frank- 
lin, daughter of John Franklin, merchant of this city, married 
Monday last. 

1793 — Saturday, January 12. Archibald Thompson, of New Bruns- 
wick, and Kitty Applegate, of this city, married Sunday last. 

1793 — Saturday, January 12. John Campbell and Sally Guest, both 
of this city, married Saturday last. 

1793 — Saturday, January 12. Matthew Bunce, of this city, and 
Rebecca Smith, of Huntington, married Friday the 4th at Hunt- 
ington, L. I. 

1793 — Saturday, January 19. Lewis Hewlett, son of Capt. Charles 
Hewlett, and Eliza Woolley, daughter of Henry Woolley, of 
Success, married Wednesday the 2d at Success, L. I. 

1793 — Saturday, January 19. Lewis Hallam (one of the Managers 
of the Old American Company) and Eliza Tuke, married Mon- 
day last at Philadelphia. 

1793 — Saturday, January 19. James Byrd and Eliza Pearsall, 
daughter of Thomas Pearsall, all of this city, married Wednesday 
the 11th in the Friend's Meeting House this city. 

1793 — Saturday, January 19. Paul Green and Elizabeth Ryer, both 
of this city, married Tuesday the 8th. 

1793 — Saturday, January 26. George King, aged 66, and Sally King, 
aged 12 years and 2 months, married at Patchog. "A Dead 
Match." 

1793 — Saturday, January 26. James Hulet and Sarah Ingraham, 
both of Providence, R. I., married Sunday. 

1793 — Saturday, January 26. Daniel Tooker, Jr., and Nancy Bailey, 
daughter of John Bailey, all of this city, married Saturday 
last. 

1793 — Saturday, February 2. Mrs. Sarah Noble, died at Brook- 
field, Mass., December 30, 102 years old. Descended from 
Drakes of East Chester. 

1793 — Saturday, February 9. Thomas Bartow, merchant of Phil- 
adelphia, died at Philadelphia the 20th in the fifty-sixth year of 
his age. 

1793 — Saturday, February 9. Miss Mary M'Leod, died Sunday last 
at Mr. John Turner's, Broadway, in her fifty-fifth year. 

[233] 



1793 — Saturday, February 9. James Scott, merchant, and Eliza- 
beth Crommelin Sowers, granddaughter to John R. Myer, of 
this city, married Tuesday last. 

1793 — Saturday, February 16. Tobias Van Zant, Jr., and Maria 
Moore, both of this city, married Thursday last. 

1793 — Saturday, February 23. Jacob Boerum, merchant of this city, 
and Hannah Thorne, of that place, married at Hackensack, 
N. J., Sunday the 3rd. 

1793 — Saturday, February 23. C. Shong and Johanna Housman, 
married on Staten Island. 

1793 — Saturday, February 23. Timothy Jarvis and Jane Patterson, 
both of this city, married Sunday last. 

1793 — Saturday, February 23. Samuel Boyd, of this city, and Bet- 
sey Pierson, of that place, married Saturday last, Newark, 
N. J. 

1793 — Saturday, February 23. Samuel Nesbitt, Jr., and Agnes N. 
Jauncey, daughter of the late Capt. Joseph Jauncey, both of 
this city, married the 14th. 

1793 — Saturday, February 23. Robert Bartow, of Westchester, and 
Susanna Duncan, from Georgia, niece to John Russel, of the 
Bahamas, married Wednesday the 13th. 

1793 — Saturday, March 2. Mrs. Hunt, wife of Davis Hunt, of this 
city, died Thursday last in an advanced age. 

1793 — Saturday, March 2. Peter Byvanck, merchant of this city, 
died Thursday last. 

1793 — Saturday, March 2. John Philip Miller, of this city, died 
Saturday last, February 23d. 

1793 — Saturday, March 2. John McGowan and Fanny Weldon, both 
of this city, married Saturday last. 

1793 — Saturday, March 30. Mr. Baxter, died on board brig "Hope," 
bound from South Sea to New York. 

1793 — Saturday, March 30. James J. Roosevelt, merchant of this 
city, and Maria Van Schaak, daughter of Cornelius Van Schaak, 
of Kinderhook, married in Columbia County. 

1793 — Saturday, March 16. Keneth King and Catharine White- 
field, both of this city, married Thursday last by Rev. Mr. 
Beach. 

1793 — Saturday, March 16. Richard Cunningham and Ann Law- 
rence, niece of the late Mr. Kisick, of this city, married Wednes- 
day last. 

1793 — Saturday, March 16. Capt. Thomas Burton and Polly Earl, 
married Wednesday last. 

1793 — Saturday, March 16. Andrew M'Ready and Jane Campbell, 
both of this city, married Wednesday last. 

1793 — Saturday, March 16. Rutger Bleecker, Jr., and Johanah 
Vanranst, both of this city, married Sunday last. 

1793 — Saturday, April 6. Tredwell Kissam and Mary Platt, both 
of Long Island, married Wednesday last on Long Island. 

1793 — Saturday, April 6. Lott Onderdonk and Susan Schenck, both 
of Long Island, married Tuesday last on Long Island. 

1793 — Saturday, April 6. Miner Onderdonk and Catharine Schenck, 
both of Long Island, married Tuesday last on Long Island. 

1793 — Saturday, April 6. Richard Willis and Sally Carpenter, ^ 
daughter to Capt. Thomas Carpenter, of Harrisons Purchase, < 
married Monday last at New Rochel. 

1793 — Saturday, April 6. Abraham Ackerman and Margaret Bart, 
married Monday last at Hackinsack, N. J. 

1793 — Saturday, April 6. Dr. Charles Buxton and Cornelia Hen- 
shaw, both of this city, married Sunday last. 

1793 — Saturday, April 13. Levy Cohan, many years a resident of 
Maryland, died at Corlears Hook, Thursday the 5th. 

1793 — Saturday, April 13. John Russel, printer, and Eliza Milne, 
of Philadelphia, married at Philadelphia. 

1793 — Saturday, April 13. George Bement and Aletta Gale, daugh- 
ter of widow Gale, both of this city, married Sunday last. 

1793 — Saturday, April 13. Frederick M'Donald and Elizabeth Bur- 
ger, both of this city, married Monday the 1st. 

1793 — Saturday, April 13. Thomas Cooper and Polly Johnston. 
both of this city, married Thursday the 28th. 

[234] 



1793 — Saturday, April 13. Capt. Moses Tulon and Hannah Mott, 

both of this city, married Friday the 5th. 
1793 — Saturday, May 4. William Ustick and Rebecca Montanyea, 

both of this city, married Friday last. 
1793 — Saturday, May 4. John Kortwright and Catherine Seaman, 

eldest daughter of Edmund Seaman, both of this city, married 

Thursday last. 
1793 — Saturday, May 4. Joseph Hawkins and Eleanor Hoogland, 

both of this city, married Wednesday last. 
1793 — Saturday, May 4. James Smith Vance and Elizabeth Parker, 

both of Philadelphia, married Tuesday last. 
1793 — Saturday, May 4. Robert Johnston and Ann Buchanan, 

daughter of John Buchanan, both of this city, married Sunday 

last. 
1793 — Saturday, May 11. Asa Jones Whiteacher and Luca Avory, 

both of this city, married Tuesday last. 
1793 — Saturday, May 11. John Storm, of Fishkills, and Susan 

Brinckerhoff, of Long Island, eldest daughter of Mr. Brincker- 

hoff, of that place, married Tuesday last. 
1793 — Saturday, May 11. John Cameron, merchant, and Jane Ed- 
wards, both of this city, married Monday last. 
1793 — Saturday, May 18. Francis Barretto and Mary Shaw, both 

of this city, married last evening. 
1793 — Saturday, May 18. Capt. William Story and Polly M'Neal, 

both of this city, married Wednesday last. 
1793 — Saturday, May 18. Henry Pope and Mrs. M'Kay, relict of 

Alexander M'Kay, both of this city, married Saturday last. 
1793 — Saturday, May 18. Cornelius Sebring and Ann Couenhoyen, 

both of this city, married Monday the 22d at Tarrytown. 
1793 — Saturday, May 18. Henry Sickles and Sally Faiow, both 

of this city, married Saturday last. 
1793 — Saturday, May 18. John Johnston and Hannah Crow, both 

of this city, married Saturday last. 
1793 — Saturday, May 18. Cornelius Rauton and Hetty Falow, both 

of this city, married Monday the 29th April. 
1793 — Saturday, May 18. John Rapllje and Maria Lawrence, daugh- 
ter of Colonel Daniel Lawrence, both of New Town, married 

Friday the 3rd. 
1793 — Saturday, May 18. Rev. John Mason, pastor of the Scotch 

Presbyterian Church this city, and Anne Lefferts, daughter 

of late Mr. Lefferts, of this city, married Friday the 3rd. 
1793 — Saturday, May 25. Willlam Cargel and Phebe Hunt, both 

of this city, married Wednesday last. 
1793 — Saturday, May 25 Joseph Cutler, of Westchester, and Mrs. 

Rachel Ball, of this city, married last week. 
1793 — Saturday, May 25. Dr. Ewart and Mrs. Patty Hawkins, 

widow of John Hawkins, both of this city, married Saturday 

the 11th. 
1793 — Saturday, May 25 John Ball and Mary De Forest, both of 

this city, married April 7th. 
1793 — Saturday, June 1. Mrs. Xixen, wife of Elias Xixen, merchant 

in this city, died yesterday. 
1793 — Saturday, June 1. John McLaren, merchant, and Margaret 

Basset, daughter of Frederick Basset, both of this city. 
1793 — Saturday, June 1. William King and Miss Brett, both of 

our Theatre, married Thursday last at Mr. Hodgkinson's in Ann 

Street. 
1793 — Saturday, June 1. Henry Philips and Charlotte Shafer, 

both of this city, married Sunday last. 
1793 — Saturday, June 1. Joseph Hudson and Jane M'Munaglll, both 

of Brooklyn Ferry, married Sunday last. 
1793 — Saturday, June 1. Thomas Marshal, of Paterson, N. J., and 

Eliza Cummings, daughter of George Cummings, of this city, 

married Sunday last. 
1793 — Saturday, June 1. Jacob Mudge, of Long Island, and Eliza 

Baker, daughter of William Baker, of White Plains, married 

Thursday the 23rd. 
1793 — Saturday, June 1. Henry Tar and Miss Myers, both of this 

city, married last week. 

[235] 



1793 — Saturday, June 8. Samuel Willson and Theodosia Mackay, 
both of thib city, married Monday last. 

1793 — Saturday, June 8. Frederick Van Horn, of this Society, and 
Elizabeth Colden Antill, granddaughter to Cadwaladar Colden, 
married Monday the 27th at Coldingham, Ulster County, New 
York. 

1793 — Saturday, June 15. Thomas Franklin, Jr., and Mary Heav- 
iland, both of this city, married Wednesday last at the Friends 
Meeting House. 

1793 — Saturday, June 15. Abraham Baudouine and Rachel Robins, 
both of this city, married Thursday last. 

1793 — Saturday, June 15. Benedick Bergman and Mrs. Harriet 
Whitehead, both of this city, married Saturday last. 

1793 — Saturday, June 15. Bilious Ward Osborne, of New Haven, 
Conn., and Bridget Turner, daughter of John Turner, of this 
city, married Sunday last. 

1793 — Saturday, June 22. John Betts and Deborah Carew, both of 
this city, married Saturday the 8th. 

1793 — Saturday, June 22. Enos Smith and Elizabeth Bunce, of 
Huntington, L. I., married Monday last. 

1793 — Saturday, June 22. Augustus Jarvis and Charity Plat, 
daughter of Joseph Plat, both of Huntington, L. I., married 
Sunday last. 

1793 — Saturday, June 22. Jeremiah Wood and Elenor Whiteman, 
of this city, married Saturday last. 

1793 — Saturday, June 22. Jacob Wilkies and Ann Rapalye, daugh- 
ter of Garret Rapalye, both of this city, married Sunday the 9th 
at Bloomsbury, N. J. 

1793 — Saturday, July 6. Mrs. Tappen, mother-in-law to his Ex- 
cellency the Governor, aged 83 years, died Sunday last at the 
Government House. 

1793 — Saturday, July 6. William Desbrosses, eldest son of James 
Desbrosses, of this city, died Friday the 28th. 

1793 — Saturday, July 6. Bart Coffie, of this city, and Mrs. Cath- 
erine Carne, of South Carolina, married lately at Lebanon 
Springs. 

1793 — Saturday, July 6. Palmer Bertbee and Mary Ridman, of 
Brooklyn Ferry, married Wednesday last at Brooklyn Ferry. 

1793 — Saturday, July 6. Jacob Wilkins, Jr., of this city, and Abigail 
Sebring, of Bedford, L. I., married Sunday last. 

1793 — Saturday, July 13. Samuel Maghee, of this city, died Tuesday 
last, aged 57 years and 6 months. 

1793 — Saturday, July 13 James Hallett, Jr., and Phebb Cornell, 
both of this city, married Wednesday last at the Friends Meet- 
ing House. 

1793 — Saturday, July 13. Freeborn Garrettson and Catharine Liv- 
ingston, of this city, married on the 30th near New Rochelle. 

1793 — Saturday, July 13. Benjamin Holmes and Phebe Jarvis, mar- 
ried on the 30th. 

1793 — Saturday, July 13. Samuel Bonsal and Mary Ann Stewart, 
married on the 27th at Second River. 

1793 — Saturday, August 3. William Torry and Margaret Nichols, 
daughter of late Lewis Nichols, married Tuesday last. 

1793 — Saturday, August 3. William Cogswell, merchant of this 
city, and Eliza Crommelin, daughter of Charles Crommelin, 
of that place, married Sunday last at Hempstead Plains, L. I. 

1793 — Saturday, August 3. Isaac Dean and Sally Lane, both of this 
city, married Wednesday the 24th. 

1793 — Saturday, August 10. Catharine Seaman, wife of Thomas Sea- 
man, died Saturday last at Staten Island. 

1793 — Saturday, August 10. James M. Vandle, printer, formerly of 
this city, died at "Charleston on the 25th." 

1793 — Saturday, August 10. Benjamin Ogden and Elizabeth Keyser, 
both of this city, married Tuesday last. 

1793 — Saturday, August 24. John Hopper and Eunice Russel, both 
of this city, married Saturday last. 

1793 — Saturday, August 24. James Abbot and Ann Stoutenburgh, 
daughter of Alderman Stoutenburgh, of this city, married Sat- 
urday last. 

[236] 



1793 — Saturday, August 24. James Fakgay and Jane Canon, both 

of this city, married Saturday, August 3rd. 
1793 — Saturday, August 31. Capt. John O'Brian and Jane Riker, 
daughter of Henry Riker, of this city, married Saturday last. 

1793 — Saturday, September 7. Orange Webb, merchant, and Eliza 
Cebra, both of this city, married Thursday last. 

1793 — Saturday, September 7. Capt. Charles Gilbert and Eliza 
Ann Banks, daughter of John Banks, of this city, married Sat- 
urday last. 

1793 — Saturday, September 14. Thomas Beckly and Ann Lawrence, 
daughter of John Lawrence, of this city, married Wednesday last 
at Friends Meeting House. 

1793 — Saturday, September 14. Levy Phillips and Hetty Hays, 
daughter of Michael Hays, of this city, married Wednesday 
last (Contradicted Sept. 21 and 28, 1793.) 

1793 — Saturday, September 14. Timothy Burr, of Hartford, and 
Susan Maria Hurtin, of this city, married Sunday last. 

1793 — Saturday, September 14. John Swartwout and Maria Smith, 
both of this city, married Saturday last. 

1793 — Saturday, September 14. James Hill, aged 75 years, and 
Mrs. Sarah Rogers, widow of Jacamiah Rogers, married Wednes- 
day the 4th. 

1793 — Saturday, September 14. Solomon Powell, of North Hemp- 
stead, and Susannah Smith, of South Hempstead, L. I., mar- 
ried Sunday the 1st. 

1793 — Saturday, September 7. Abr. Fowler and Maria Kumble, 
daughter of William Kumble, of this city, married Thursday 
the 29th. 

1793 — Saturday, September 21. Robert Hunter and Mrs. Bradford, 
married Sunday last. 

1793 — Saturday, October 5. David Lydig, merchant of this city, and 
Maria Mesier, daughter of Peter Mesier, of . Fishkill, married 
Tuesday the 24th at Poughkeepsie. 

1793 — Saturday, October 5. Marinus Willett and Susannah Vardle, 
both of this city, married Thursday the 3rd. 

1793 — Saturday, October 12. Clarkson Crolius and Elizabeth 
Myers, both of this city, married Tuesday last. 

1793 — Saturday, October 12. Samuel Henshaw, of this city, and Sally 
Place, of the Island of Bermuda, married Saturday last. 

1793 — Saturday, October 12. Capt. William Armstrong and Mar- 
garet Marshall, both of this city, married Saturday. 

1793 — Saturday, October 19. John Hancock, died Tuesday, aged 57. 

1793 — Saturday, October 19. Marquis Precre and Catharine Living 
ston, eldest daughter of Colonel Robert G. Livingston, late of 
Rhinebeck, married Friday the 11th. 

1793 — Saturday, October 26. Thomas Seaman and Polly Jackson, 
both of this city, married Wednesday last. 

1793 — Saturday, October 26. Isaac Hatfield, of New Jersey, and 
Christianna Rodett, of this city, married Wednesday last. 

1793 — Saturday, October 26. John Le Fort, of St. Malo in Britany, 
and Elizabeth O'Bryan, of this city, married Wednesday even- 
ing last. 

1793 — Saturday, October 26. Lynde Catlin, First Teller to the Bank 
of the United States, and Helena Margaret Kip, of this city, 
married SELturd&v last 

1793 — Saturday, October 26.* John Clark, M. D., and Maria Law- 
rence, both of this city, married Saturday last. 

1793 — Saturday, October 26. George Strebeck, late of Maryland, 
and Jarushe Mott, of this city, married Friday the 18th. 

1793 — Saturday, October 26. Capt. George Farmer, of this city, 
and Gertrude Gojeman, of that place, married Wednesday the 
9th at New Brunswick. 

1793 — Saturday, October 26. George Courtney and Mrs. Hannah 
Crosfield, relict of the late Mr. Stephen Crosfield, of this city, 
married "a short time since." 

1793 — Saturday, October 26. Benjamin Douglass, Jr., and Deborah 
Post, daughter of John Post, of this city, married Thursday 
last. 

1793 — Saturday, November 2. James Ricker and Miss Turner, both 
of this city, married Saturday last. 

[237] 



1793 — Saturday, November 2. David Stebbens and Sally Cowdry, 
both of this city, married Tuesday last. 

1793 — Saturday, November 9. Alexander MacDonald, late of this 
city, died October 24 at Albany. 

1793 — Saturday, November 9. William Irving, Jr., and Julia 
Paulding, of Greenburgh, married Thursday last. 

1793 — Saturday, November . 9. Gurdon Saltonstall Mumford and 
Ann Van Zandt, daughter of Tobias Van Zandt, both of this 
city, married Saturday last. 

1793 — Saturday, November 9. John Prentiss and Elizabeth Rapp, 
both of this city, married Thursday the 31st. 

1793 — Saturday, November 16. James Watson, Jr., and Mary Rat- 
toone, daughter of John Rattoone, of Perth Amboy, married 
Thursday last. 

1793 — Saturday, November 16. Peter William Livingston, of Manor 
of Livingston, and Eliza Beekman, daughter of Gerard Wil- 
liam Beekman, of this city, married Wednesday last. 

1793 — Saturday, November 16. Albert Gallaten and Miss Nichol- 
son, daughter of James Nicholson, married Monday last. 

1793 — Saturday, November 16. William Osborne and Polly Hyde, 
married Sunday last. 

1793 — Saturday, November 16. John Fleurvelin and Esther Thorne, 
married Thursday the 7th. 

1793 — Saturday, November 16. Abraham Tomlinson, of Milford, 
Conn., and Amelia Green, of New Castle, N. Y., married 
Wednesday the 6th. 

1793 — Saturday, November 23. John Kane and Maria Codwise, both 
of this city, married Wednesday last. 

1793 — Saturday, November 23. James Mackarel, Jr., and Margaret 
Smith, both of Jamaica, married Wednesday the 13th at 
Jamaica. 

1793 — Saturday, November 30. James Bushnell, of Norfolk, Va., 
and Susan Johnson, of this city, married Thursday last. 

1793 — Saturday, November 30. William Ash and Diana Targe, 
daughter of John Targe, of this city, married Thursday last. 

1793 — Saturday, November 30. James Bradish, of this city, mer- 
chant, and Margaret Thompson, of Staten Island, married 
Wednesday last. 

1793 — Saturday, November 30. Benjamin Benson and Eliza Leg- 
gett, both of this city, married Wednesday last. 

1793 — Saturday, November 30. John E. Avery, son of Rev. Ephraim 
Avery, and Sally Fairchild, married Saturday the 16th. 

1793 — Saturday, November 30. Rev. Andrew Harpending and Maria 
Hammond, married lately. 

1793 — Saturday, December 7. Peggy Rhinelander, daughter of 
Frederic Rhinelander, merchant of this city, died Monday. 

1793 — Saturday, December 7. Oliver Goodwin, druggist, and Sophia 
Sacket, daughter of Samuel Sacket, of this city, married 
Wednesday last. 

1793 — Saturday, December 7. William Edgar and Ann Van Horne, 
daughter of David Van Horne, married Monday. 

1793 — Saturday, December 14. Mr. Haydock and Peggy Pearsall, 
both of this city, married Wednesday last at the Friends Meet- 
ing House. 

1793 — Saturday, December 14. Newall Narine and Elizabeth 
Peters, both of this city, married Tuesday last. 

1793 — Saturday, December 14. Samuel Underhill, of Oyster Bay, 
L. I., and Abigail Keen, of Huntington, married Sunday last. 

1793 — Saturday, December 14. John Ewin and Sally Tuttle, daugh- 
ter of Daniel Tuttle, both of this city, married Saturday last. 

1793 — Saturday, December 14. John Tiebout, printer, and Miss Todd, 
both of this city, married Saturday last. 

1793 — Saturday, December 14. Mr. Mitchell, of Ireland, and Cor- 
nelia Anderson, of this city, married Saturday last. 

1793 — Saturday, December 14. Willet Coles and Elizabeth Elliot, 
both of this city, married Saturday last. 

1793 — Saturday, December 21. John Ackerman, of Shelburne, and 
Mary Arnt, of this city, married Wednesday last. 

[238] 



1793 — Saturday, December 21. William Wells and Damaris Con- 

rey, daughter of William Conrey, both of this city, married 

Wednesday last. 
1793 — Saturday, December 21. Henry Franklin and Sarah Ackerly, 

married Wednesday last. 
1793 — Saturday, December 21. Peter Vanderhoff and Nancy Coe. 

both of this city, married Thursday the 12th inst. 
1793 — Saturday, December 21. William Low, aged 25, and Mrs. 

Rachel Bryen, aged 69, married Thursday last. 
1793 — Saturday, December 28. Capt. Jacobs and Catharine De- 
wight (sic), of this city, married Thursday last. 
1794 — Saturday, January 4. Mary Duryee, wife of Charles Duryee, 

of this city, died Monday last. 
1794 — Saturday, January 4. Henry Rodgers, merchant, and Francis 

Moore, both of this city, married Thursday last. 
1794 — Saturday, January 4. John Smith, merchant, and Mrs. Agness 

Wetzell, eldest daughter of General William Malcolm, both of 

this city, married Sunday last. 
1794 — Saturday, January 4. Andrew Smyth, merchant of this city, 

and Maria Parker, daughter of James Parker, of Amboy, mar- 
ried Sunday last at Amboy. 
1794 — Saturday, January 11. Peter Massonneau, of St. Domingo, 

and Susanna Neilson, daughter of William Neilson, merchant 

of this city, married Wednesday last. 
1794 — Saturday, January 11. John Delancy, of the island of St. 

Croix, and Mrs. Hannah Pearce, widow of Samuel Pierce, mer- 
chant of London, married Monday last. 
1794 — Saturday, January 11. Samuel Borrowe and Eliza Ball, both 

of this city, married Saturday last. 
1794 — Saturday, January 11. John Lowerrie and Phebe Seaman, 

both of this city, married Thursday, December 26. 
1794 — Saturday, January 18. Harmin Duryea, of Jamaica, L. I., 

and Sally Ann Angevtne, married Tuesday last. 
1794 — Saturday, January 18. Daniel Kingsland, of this city, and 

Maria Sill, of Cow Neck, L. I., married at Hempstead Mon- 
day last. 
1794 — Saturday, January 18. Robert H. Towt and Ann Waldron, 

both of this city, married Saturday last. 
1794 — Saturday, January 25. Capt. William Wheaton and Sally 

Norwood, both of this city, married Thursday last. 
1794 — Saturday, February 1. Ezekial Hart, of Canada, and Frances 

Lazarus, niece of Mr. Ephraim Hart, merchant, Wall Street, 

married Wednesday last. 
1794 — Saturday, February 1. John Taylor and Rachel Meldrum, 

both of this city, married Tuesday last. 
1794 — Saturday, February 1. William M. Seton and Eliza Anne 

Bailey, both of this city, married Sunday last. 
1794 — Saturday, February 1. Augustine Williams and Susan Hil- 

drith, both of North Hempstead, married Sunday last at Cow 

Neck, L. I. 
1794 — Saturday, February 1. Andrew Harper and Elizabeth Shirks, 

both of this city, married Monday the 20th. 
1794 — Saturday, February 1. Jonathan Randall and Catharine 

Waldron, both of Haerlem, married Sunday the 19th. 
1794 — Saturday, February 15. Mrs. Rebecca Miller, died Monday 

last, aged 92. 
1794 — Saturday, February 15. Mrs. Hacker, wife of Capt. Hoisted 

Hacker, died Sunday last. 
1794 — Saturday, February 15. Samuel Todd, of this city, and Eu- 

phemia Fowler, of East Chester, married Sunday last. 
1794 — Saturday, February 15. Staats Morris Dyckman and Miss 

Kenneday, granddaughter of Peter Come, married Saturday 

last. 
1794 — Saturday, February 15. Stephen Hicks and Polly Carpen- 
ter, daughter of Benjamin Carpenter, both of Jamaica, L. I., 

married Wednesday the 5th at Jamaica. 
1794 — Saturday, February 22. Mrs. Hannah Ackerly, died Sat- 
urday the 8th at Huntington, L. I., in the ninety-fourth year 

of her age. 

[239] 



1794 — Saturday, February 22. Dr. Henry Moore Van Solingen and 

Lettice Suydam, daughter of Rinier Suydam, merchant of this 

city, married Tuesday last. 
1794 — Saturday, February 22. Dr. Joseph Youle and Jane Byvanck, 

both of this city, married Monday last. 
1794 — Saturday, February 22. Isaac Jefferson, of Maryland, and 

Mary Kissick, of this city, married Sunday last. 
1794 — Saturday, February 22. Matthew Bunce and Ann Coulthard, 

both of this city, married Saturday last. 
1794 — Saturday, March 1. Rinier Suydam and Mrs. Schuyler, both 

of this city, married , by Dr. Livingston. 

1794 — Saturday, March 1. John Cornelius Vander Heuvel and 

Charlotte Apthorpe, daughter of Charles Ward Apthorpe, mar- 
ried, by Bishop Provost. 
1794 — Saturday, March 1. Marinus Gale and Mary Gilbert, both 

of this city, married Sunday last. 
1794 — Saturday, March 1. James Ker Degree and Ann Penny, both 

of this city, married Saturday last. 
1794 — Saturday, March 1. Robert LeRoy, of this city, and Miss 

Cuyler, daughter of Henry Cuyler, of Greenbush, married 

Tuesday the 11th. 
1794 — Saturday, March 8. Peter B. Ustick, of this city, merchant, 

died Tuesday last. 
1794 — Saturday, March 8. Charles M'Lean, died Tuesday last, burial 

Trinity Church Yard. 
1794 — Saturday, March 15. Thomas Hicks and M. Buchanan, daugh- 
ter of Thomas Buchanan, married Monday last. 
1794 — Saturday, March 22. John Roosevelt VanRanst and Jane 

Scilman, daughter of Capt. John Scilman, of Bushwick, L. I., 

married Thursday the 6th at Bushwick, L. I. 
1794 — Saturday, March 29. James Teller, Jr., and Sally Bleecker, 

both of this city, married Thursday last. 
1794 — Saturday, March 29. Hon. Don Joseph DeJaudenes, Min- 
ister from Court of Spain, and Matilda Stoughten, of this 

city, married Tuesday last. 
1794 — Saturday, March 29. Joseph Wilson, aged 68, and Susannah 

Wilson, aged 23, both of Rye, married Monday the 17th at 

Rye. 
1794 — Saturday, April 5. John Wardell and Jane Dodge, daughter 

of Samuel Dodge, both of this city, married Thursday last. 
1794 — Saturday, April 5. James Cunning, merchant of Second River, 

and Catharine Paulsa, of Barbadoes Neck, married Wednesday 

last. 
1794 — Saturday, April 5. Robert Crommelin and Ann Reed De- 

Peyster, granddaughter of James DePeyster, of Jamaica, L. I., 

married Tuesday last. 
1794 — Saturday, April 5. Charles M'Carty and Deborah Hutchins, 

both of this city, married Sunday last. 
1794 — Saturday, April 5. John G. Warren, of this city, and Miss 

Kerney, of New Jersey, married Sunday last. 
1794 — Saturday, April 5. Albert Cooper and Polly Ackerman, both 

of Hackinsack, married at Hackinsack. 
1794 — Saturday, April 12. Benjamin Foster and Patty Bingham, 

daughter to John Bingham, of this city, married Wednesday 

last. 
1794 — Saturday, April 12. James Drake and Sally Dodge, both of 

this city, married Wednesday last. 
1794 — Saturday, April 12. James Culbertson and Hannah Cook, 

both of the city, married Sunday last. 
1794 — Saturday, April 12. Thomas Johnson, of Philadelphia, and 

Catherine Anderson, of this city, married Sunday last. 
1794 — Saturday, April 12. Bartholomew Skaats and Deborah Evers, 

both of this city, married Saturday last. 
1794 — Saturday, April 12. "Citizen William" Cogdell and Mary 

Peck, both of this city, married Sunday the 30th. 
1794 — Saturday, April 19. Henry Mitchell, of this city, and Miss 

Townsend, of Long Island, married Tuesday last. 
1794 — Saturday, April 19. John Dyckman, of this city, and Rebecca 

Randall, daughter of Jonathan Randall, of Haerlem, married 

Monday last at Haerlem. 

[240] 



1794 — Saturday April 19. Abraham Davis and Mrs. Maria Collins, 

widow of Edward Collins, both of this city, married Sunday 

last. 
1794 — Saturday, April 19. Thomas R. Smith, of this city, and Han- 
nah Holly, of Stamford, married at Stamford Saturday last. 
1794 — Saturday, April 19. Nathaniel Hauxhurst and Phebe Frank- 
lin, both of this city, married Thursday the 10th. 
1794 — Saturday, April 19. Gerret Gilbert, of this city, and Maria 

Varick, of Hackinsack, married at Hackinsack. 
1794 — Saturday, April 19. Miss Sarah Roosevelt, second daughter 

of Nicholas Roosevelt, late of this city, deceased, died Friday 

the 11th at the seat of Daniel Hall, in Chester, near Goshen, 

Orange County. 
1794 — Saturday, April 26. Isaac Heyer, merchant, of this city, and 

Jane Suydam, daughter of Henry Suydam, of Hallet's Cove, L. I. 

married at Hallet's Cove Thursday last. 
1794 — Saturday, April 26. Edward John Ball and Susan Halsted, 

of Perth Amboy, N. J., married Sunday last. 
1794 — Saturday, April 26. Daniel Rodman, of this city, and Polly 

Story, of Jamaica, married at Jamaica Thursday the 17th. 
1794 — Saturday, April 26. John Treadwell Halsted and Catharine 

Van Cortlandt Johnston, of Perth Amboy, N. J., married 

Thursday the 17th. 
1794 — Saturday, May 3. Samuel Abbot and Jemima Moore, both of 

this city, married Wednesday the 23d. 
1794 — Saturday, May 3. Benjamin G. Minturn and Maria Brown, 

both of this city, married Monday last. 
1794 — Saturday, May 3. Captain John O'Connor and Susannah 

O' Casey, niece to Barnabas O'Kelly, of this city, married 

Wednesday last. 
1794 — Saturday, May 3. Thomas Butler, merchant, of this city, and 

Margaret Cooper, daughter of A. Cooper, merchant, of Augusta, 

married at Augusta April 3d. 
1794 — Saturday, May 10. Francis Blanchard and Phebe Jarolo- 

men, both of this city, married Thursday last. 
1794 — Saturday, May 10. Captain Stephen R. Harding and Sally 

Durfee, both of this city, married Saturday last. 
1794 — Saturday, May 17. Thomas Newcomb, of Dutchess County, and 

Rachel Hopper, daughter of Andrew Hopper, merchant, of this 

city, married Thursday last. 
1794 — Saturday, May 17. David Morgan and Margaret Burns, both 

of this city, married Thursday last. 
1794 — Saturday, May 17. Richard Coenrad Ham, of this city, and 

Elizabeth Cowenhoven, of Brooklyn, L. I., married Thursday 

last. 
1794 — Saturday, May 17. John Van Norder and Margaret Young, 

both of this city, married Saturday last. 
1794 — Saturday, May 17. Stanton Latham, of this city, and Anne 

Carmichael, of Morristown, married Sunday the 5th. 
1794 — Saturday, May 24. James B. Kortright and Elizabeth War- 
ner, both of this city, married Wednesday last. 
1794 — Saturday, May 24. William Betts and Margaret Post, both of 

this city, married Sunday last. 
1794 — Saturday, May 24. John Wedge and Polly Marston, both 

of this city, married Sunday last. 
1794 — Saturday, May 24. Zephaniah Rodgers and Rebecca Ben- 
net, both of Huntington, married at Huntington Saturday last. 
1794 — Saturday, May 24. Vincent Tilyou and Mrs. Gray, both of 

this city, married Tuesday the 13th. 
1794 — Saturday, May 31. John Slidell, Jr., and Margery M'Kenzie, 

both of this city, married Saturday last. 
1794 — Saturday, May 31. Thomas Foote and Mrs. Newman, widow 

of Peter Newman, of this city, married Saturday last. 
1794 — Saturday, May 31. Henry Mead, M.D., and Eliza Beekman. 

both of this city, married Saturday the 17th. 
1794 — Saturday, June 7. Francis Dominick and Philander Barnes, 

both of this city, married Sunday last. 
1794 — Saturday, June 7. Samuel Burden and Polly Ryer, both 

of this city, married Sunday last. 

[241] 



1794 — Saturday, June 7. William Hutchings and Mrs. Wool, relict 

of John Wool, both of this city, married Sunday last. 
1794 — Saturday, June 7. Mr. Roote and Hannah George, both of 

this city, married Saturday last. 
1794 — Saturday, June 7. David Dunham, merchant, and Mary 

Shackerly, both of this city, married Saturday last. 
1794 — Saturday, June 7. William Tabele and Patty Bogart, both 

of this city, married Friday last. 
1794 — Saturday, June 7. George Brinkerhoff and Elizabeth Palmer, 

married Thursday the 29th at Newtown, L. I. 
1794 — Saturday, June 14. Abraham Richardson and Marian Arri- 

bine, both of this city, married Wednesday last. 
1794 — Saturday, June 14. James Lowerre and Abby West, both of 

this city, married Sunday last. 
1794 — Saturday, June 14. Cary Lockwood and Maria Quackenbos, 

both of this city, married Sunday last. 
1794 — Saturday, June 21. Thomas M'Euen, of this city, and Hannah 

Parey, of Philadelphia, married Sunday last at Philadelphia. 
• 1794 — Saturday, June 28. John Weller, of Charleston, and Maria 

Ten Eyck, daughter of Richard Ten Eyck, of this city, married 

Thursday last. 
1794 — Saturday, June 28. Lewis Smith and Polly North, married 

Sunday the 15th. 
1794 — Saturday, June 28. Neil M'Kenzie and Mrs. Jane Loudon. 

relict of John Loudon, married Wednesday the 12th. 
1794 — Saturday, June 28. Dr. Benjamin Hicks and Miss Ellison. 

both of this city, married Thursday last. 
1794 — Saturday, June 28. David Davis, of New-Ark, and Elizabeth 

Hargrave, of this city, married Thursday last. 
1794 — Saturday, July 5. John Taylor and Polly Adeer, both of 

this city, married Tuesday last. 
1794 — Saturday, July 5. James Always, of this city, and Phebe 

Meeker, both of this city, married Sunday last. 
1794 — Saturday, July 5. Nathaniel Birdsall, printer, and Clarissa 

Whittemore, both of this city, married Saturday last. 
1794 — Saturday, July 5. Nicholas Anthony and Mrs. Mary John- 
ston, both of this city, married Thursday the 26th. 
1794 — Saturday, July 5. Thomas Smith and Hetty Russel, daugh- 
ter of Abraham Russel, of this city, married Thursday the 26th. 
1794 — Saturday, July 5. Henry Brewerton and Mary Swords, both 

of this city, married Wednesday the 25th. 
1794 — Saturday, July 12. Tobias Van Zandt died Tuesday last, 

aged sixty-one. 
1794 — Saturday, July 12. Richard Thomas and Sally Parker, both 

of this city, married Thursday last. 
1794 — Saturday, July 12. Jeremiah Hallett, merchant, of this city, 

and Edney Clark, of that place (Springfield, N. J.), married 

at Springfield, N. J., Monday last. 
1794 — Saturday, July 19. Miss Ann Leonard, of this city, died Satur- 
day last, aged seventeen. Buried in Trinity Churchyard. 
1794 — Saturday, July 19. Patrick Wilson and Clarissa Thields, 

both of this city, married Thursday the 3d. 
1794 — Saturday, July 26. John R. Harrington and Mrs. Catharine 

Perrine, both of this city, married Tuesday last. 
1794 — Saturday, July 26. Owen Plannagan, of New York, grocer, 

and Mary M'Curtin, late of Philadelphia, married Sunday last. 
1794 — Saturday, July 26. Daniel M'Fall, of Ireland, and Rebecca 

Jackson, of this city, married Friday the 18th. 
1794 — Saturday, August 9. Isaac Larkin, printer and Junior Editor 

of the Independent Chronicle, and Nabby Clark, married at 

Boston. 
1794 — Saturday, August 9. George F. Dominick and Martha Weay, 

of Newtown, L. I., married Saturday last. 
1794 — Saturday, August 16. John Alger and Eliza DuBois, both 

of this city, married Sunday last. 
1794 — Saturday, August 23. George Campbell, merchant of this 

city, and Jennet Hay, of Harvestraw, married Wednesday last 

at Harvestraw. 

[242] 



1794 — Saturday, August 23. Walter W. Hyer, merchant of this 
city, and Phoebe Smith, daughter of Jacamiah Smith, of 
Elizabethtown, married Saturday last. 

1794 — Saturday, August 30. James Campbell, of this city, died Fri- 
day 22d, aged 22. 

1794 — Saturday, August 30. Matthew Dikeman and Miss Jemtmah 
Horne, both of this city, married Thursday last. 

DL794 — Saturday, August 30. James Brown and Polly De La Mon- 
tanye, both of this city, married Wednesday last. 

3.794 — Saturday, August 30. John Roach, of St. Croix, and Sally 
T. Halsted, of this city, married Tuesday last. 

1794 — Saturday, August 30. Hercules Heron and Miss Bingham, 
both of this city, married Saturday last. 

1794 — Saturday, September 6. Robert C. Livingston, died 23d at 
Hudson, aged 53. 

1794 — Saturday, September 6. Morris Fosdick, of Far Rockaway, 
and Jane Doughty, of same place, married Saturday last at 
Jamaica, L. I. 

1794 — Saturday, September 6. Frederick Babcock, merchant, and 
Peggy Arden, daughter of Thomas Arden, all of this city, mar- 
ried Saturday last. 

1794 — Saturday, September 13. Mrs. Clarry Howard, daughter of 
William Clark, of Dutchess County, and Citizen Bussy, chan- 
cellor to the consulate in this city, married Thursday last. 

1794 — Saturday, September 20. John Smith and Mrs. Cannon, both 
of this city, married . 

1794 — Saturday, September 20. Hiram Gardner and Jane Randal, 
both of this city, married Saturday last at Elizabethtown. 

1794 — Saturday, September 20. Peter Stephen DuPonceau, of Phil- 
adelphia, and Anne La Touche, of this city, married Friday 
last. 

1794 — Saturday, September 27. James Swords, printer, and Rachel 
Buskirk, both of this city, married . 

1794 — Saturday, October 4. John Penier and Phebe Woods, both of 
this city, married Sunday last at Newark. 

1794 — Saturday, October 4. Ruben Clauson and Ann Lake, both 
of Staten Island, married Thursday the 25th at Staten Island. 

1794 — Saturday, October 4. Mrs. Hannah Harrison, wife of Capt. 
Charles Harrison, of this city, died Thursday last, aged 61. 

1794 — Saturday, October 11. Jane Elting, daughter of Peter Elting, 
of this city, died Tuesday last, aged 19. 

1794 — Saturday, October 11. Henry Wells and Mrs. Patty Smith, 
daughter of John Woods, all of this city, married Sunday last 
at "Norwhich, L. I." 

1794 — Saturday, October 11. Rev. James Coe, of Troy, and Betsey 
Miller, daughter of Dr. Miller, of this city, married Satur- 
day, 27th. 

1794— Saturday, October 18. Mrs. Jane Wardell, died Monday 
last. 

1794 — Saturday, October 18. Isaac Roosevelt, late merchant of 
this city, aged 68, died Monday, October 13. 

1794 — Saturday, October 18. William I. Nott and Ann Harris, 
both of this city, married Thursday last. 

1794 — Saturday, October 18. John G. Bogert and Maria Corbet 
Ludlow, daughter of Gabriel Ludlow, deceased, married Wednes- 
day last. 

1794 — Saturday, October 18. Capt. Samuel Thompson and Judith 
Mowatt, daughter of John Mowatt, merchant of this city, mar- 
ried Wednesday last. 

1794 — Saturday, October 18. Adolph L. Degrove and Catharine 
Gallow, both of this city, married Wednesday last. 

1794 — Saturday, October 18. William Nisbitt and Mary Vander- 
waters, both of Flushing, married Sunday last at Jamaica. 

1794 — Saturday, October 18. James Simmington and Frances Payne, 
both of this city, married Thursday the 9th at Mrs. Evans in 
White Hall Street. 

1794 — Saturday, October 25. Samuel Myers, merchant of Peters- 
burg, Va., and Sally Judah, daughter of Samuel Judah, mar- 
ried Wednesday last. 

[243] 



1794 — Saturday, October 25. George Forman, printer, and Jane 
Brower, both of this city, married Wednesday last. 

1794 — Saturday, October 25. David Melles and Mrs. Riker, both 
of this city, married Monday last. 

1794 — Saturday, November 1. Samuel Burtis and Hanhah An- 
derson, both of this city, married Thursday last. 

1794 — Saturday, November 1. William Mead and Jane Dillingham, 
both of this city, married Sunday the 19th. 

1794 — Saturday, November 1. Capt. Thomas Ogilvte, of the ship 
Cheesman, and Margaret Ford, of this city, married Thursday 
last. 

1794 — Saturday, November 8. Mrs. Elizabeth Leaycraft, died 
Thursday last, aged 75. 

1794 — Saturday, November 8. James B. Clarke and Hellenor 
Fisher, both of this city, married Thursday last. 

1794 — Saturday, November 8. Edmund Charles Genet, late Min- 
ister from the Republic of France, and Cornelia Tappen Clin- 
ton, daughter of George Clinton, Governor State of New York, 
married Thursday last. 

1794 — Saturday, November 8. Michael Syce, of this city, and Cath- 
arine Hobert, of Flatlands, L. I., married Tuesday last. 

1794 — Saturday, November 8. William Denning, Jr., and Catharine 
L. Smith, daughter of Thomas Smith, all of this city, married 
Tuesday last. 

1794 — Saturday, November 8. Richard Everitt, of Brooklyn, and 
Sally Latham, of this city, married Monday last. 

1794 — Saturday, November 8. Capt. Thomas Geer, of Connecticut, 
and Mary Sherwood, of this city, married Sunday last. 

1794 — Saturday, November 8. Isaac Van Tasell and Nancy Gordon, 
both of this city, married Sunday last. 

1794 — Saturday, November 8. Jacob Snow and Sally Swain, both 
of this city, married Saturday last. 

1794 — Saturday, November 8. Mr. Wilson and Miss Mills, both of 
this city, married Thursday, October 30. 

1794 — Saturday, November 8. Philip Arnold, of this city, and 
Mary Crane, of Springfield, N. J., married Saturday, October 
18. 

1794 — Saturday, November 15. Benjamin Shaw, of Boston, and 
Charity Smith, of this city, married Saturday, the 1st inst. 

1794 — Saturday, November 15. David Campbell, of Schenectady, and 
Fanny Bowers, daughter of Henry Bowers, of this city, mar- 
ried Thursday, October 23. 

1794 — Saturday, November 22. Mrs. Agness Vater, died Thursday 
the 15th, in her ninety-first year. 

1794 — Saturday, November 22. Mrs. Hannah Keech, died Monday 

i last, aged 71 years. 

1794 — Saturday, November 22. John Swaine, late printer and pub- 
lisher of the Daily Advertiser, died Monday last at Philadelphia, 
in his thirty-second year. 

1794 — Saturday, November 29. Anthony Lamb, son of John Lamb, 
of this city, Collector of Customs of the United States for 
District of New York, and Mary Treat, daughter of Dr. Sam- 
uel Treat, of Burlington, N. J., married at Burlington, N. J., 
Saturday the 8th. 

1794 — Saturday, November 29. John Murry and Hellen DeBois, 
both of this city, married Wednesday last. 

1794 — Saturday, November 29. Mr. Durkin, of the ship Astrea, 
and Sally Goodwin, of this city, married Sunday last. 

1794 — Saturday, December 6. James Cock and Catharine Ackerly, 
daughter of Samuel Ackerly, all of this city, married Thurs- 
day last. 

1794 — Saturday, December 6. Elkanah Conklin and Rebecca 
Smith, both of Huntington, L. I., married Sunday last. 

1794 — Saturday, December 6. Capt. Asa Rodgers Lapham, of Bos- 
ton, and Mary Dwight, of this city, married Saturday last. 

1794 — Saturday, December 6. William Cunning, printer, of this 
city, and Maria Hand, of Morristown, N. J., married Saturday 
last. 

[244] 



1794 — Saturday, December 13. John Cross, Jr., and Sally Coult- 

hard, daughter of Isaac Coulthard, of this city, married Sat- 
urday last. 
1794 — Saturday, December 27. George Hendrickson, merchant of 

this city, and Mary Smith, of Jamaica, L. I., married Wednes- 
day last at Hempstead, L. I. 
1794 — Saturday, December 27. Archibald Robertson and Eliza 

Abrams, married Tuesday last. 
1794 — Saturday, December 27. William Prince, Jr., and Mary 

Stratton, daughter of Eliphalet Stratton, all of that place, mar- 
ried Monday lat>t at Flushing, L. I. 
1794 — Saturday, December 27. William Ogden and Mary Mott, both 

of this city, married Sunday the 14th. 
1795 — Saturday, January 3. Francis Bernard Maximilian Menie and 

Abigail Stout, daughter of Benjamin Stout, married Monday 

last. 
1795 — Saturday, January 3. James Marsh, of South Amboy, and 

Eliza Meeks, daughter of John Meeks, of this city, married 

Friday the 26th. 
1795 — Saturday, January 3. Tunis Schenk, Jr., of Bushwick, and 

Gitty Cornell, of Jamaica, married Thursday, the 18th, on 

Long Island. 
1795 — Saturday, January 10. Oliver Hicks and Susannah Ver- 

millia, both of this city, married Thursday last. 
1795 — Saturday, January 10. David King, of Boston, and Elizabeth 

Bell, of this city, married Tuesday last. 
1795 — Saturday, January 10. George Arnold and Elenor Ramsay, 

daughter of John Ramsay, of this city, married Tuesday, the 

30th. 
1795 — Saturday, January 10. James Smith and Jane Sell, both 

of that place (Cow Neck) married Tuesday, the 30th, at Cow 

Neck. 
1795 — Saturday, January 10. Elbert Rosevelt, of this city, and 

Jane Curtenius, daughter of Peter T. Curtenius, Auditor of 

State of New York, married Monday, the 29th. 
1795 — Saturday, January 10. Job Haines, of Elizabethtown, and 

Margaret Smith, of Princeton, married Saturday, the 27th. 
1795 — Saturday, January 10. Thomas Cornwell and Elizabeth 

Ackerman, both of this city, married Sunday, the 21st. 
1795 — Saturday, January 10. Mrs. Elizabeth Cogswell, consort of 

William Cogswell, died Wednesday last, aged 20. 
1795 — Saturday, January 10. Harriet Banyer, daughter of Golsbrow 

Banyer, died Tuesday last, aged 21. 
1795 — Saturday, January 10. Capt. John Palmer, died Monday last, 

aged 61. Buried Trinity Church Yard. 
1795 — Saturday, January 17. Richard Solomons and Betsey Bur- 

ris, both of this city, married Sunday last. 
1795 — Saturday, January 17. John Fowler and Jane Smith, both 

of this city, married Sunday last. 
1795 — Saturday, January 17. William Lord and Ann Cook, both 

of Fairfield, Conn., married Saturday last. 
1795 — Saturday, January 17. Rev. Joseph Pilmore, Rector of Christ 

Church, this city, and Mrs. Wood, of Philadelphia, married 

Saturday, the 10th, at St. Paul's Church, Philadelphia. 
1795 — Saturday, January 24. Peter Kemble and Eliza Nesbit, both 

of this city, married Thursday last. 
1795 — Saturday, January 24. John Wright and Hannah Goodballet, 

both of this city, married Sunday last. 
1795 — Saturday, January 24. Joseph Thomas, of Barbadoes, and 

Flora Lancaster, of this city, married Saturday last. 
1795 — Saturday, January 24. Daniel Strickland and Elizabeth 

Rowe, both from England, married Saturday last. 
1795 — Saturday, January 31. Richard Creed and Abigail Hendrick- 
son, both of Jamaica, married Saturday last at Jamaica, L. I. 
1795 — Saturday, February 7. Mr. Tydgatt, late of Rotterdam, and 

Margaret Mahany, late of Bearhaven, Ireland, married Fri- 
day last. 
1795 — Saturday, February 7. Mr. Triple and Margaret Menzies, both 

of this city, married Wednesday last. 

[245] 



1795 — Saturday, February 7. Lawrence Yates and Matilda Caro- 
line Cruger, eldest daughter of Henry Cruger, married Mon- 
day last. 

1795 — Saturday, February 7. Nicholas W. Stuyvesant and Cath- 
arine Read, daughter of John Read, of Red Hook, married Sat- 
urday last. 

1795 — Saturday, February 14. Daniel Oakley and Mary Baldwin, 
both of Huntington, married Wednesday last at Huntington. 

1795 — Saturday, February 14. Capt. Samuel B. Lewis, of this city, 
and Patty Welling, of Jamaica, married Wednesday last at 
Jamaica. 

1795 — Saturday, February 14. William Man, of Canada, and Eliza 
Shopman, of this city, married Wednesday last. 

1795 — Saturday, February 14. Ebenezer Chichester and Hannah 
Ketchum, both of Huntington, L. I., married Sunday last. 

1795 — Saturday, February 14. Silas Whitman and Hannah Ket- 
chum, both of Huntington, L. I., married Sunday last. 

1795 — Saturday, February 14. Henry Onderdonk, of Hempstead 
Harbour, and Sally Van Kleeck, of Poughkeepsie, married 
Saturday last at Poughkeepsie. 

1795 — Saturday, February 14. Jacob S. Mott, printer, and Ann 
Hinton, both of this city, married Saturday last. 

1795 — Saturday, February 14. Abraham Collins, of this city, and 
Mrs. Zebriskie, of New Jersey, married Sunday the 1st. 

1795 — Saturday, February 21. Joze Roiz Silva, merchant, and Mrs. 

Anna Dumont, both of this city, married . St. Peter's 

Church, New York City. 

1795 — Saturday, February 21. John Elsworth and Sally Hinton, 
both of this city, married Saturday last. 

1795 — Saturday, February 28. Jeremiah Mann, aged 88, and Miss 
Dexter, aged 22, both of Wrentham, married at Wrentham, 
Mass. 

1795 — Saturday, February 28. Tobias Miller and Elizabeth Arcu- 
larius, both of this city, married Tuesday last. 

1795 — Saturday, February 28. Abraham VanRanst, Jr., of Long 
Island, and Elizabeth M'Dole, of Albany, married Saturday 
last at Albany. 

1795 — Saturday, March 7. Ann Thomas,, daughter of General 
Thomas, died Friday, 27th, at Harrison's Purchase in West- 
chester County. 

1795 — Saturday, March 7. David Willson, of Fort Washington, 
and Margaret Kenny, late from Ireland, married. By Rev. 
Mr. Beach. 

1795 — Saturday, March 7. Charles Crommelin, Jr., of Hempstead 
Plains, L. I., and Ann Cogswell, of Charlestown, near Boston, 
married Tuesday last. 

1795 — Saturday, March 7. Peter Hegeman, merchant of this city, 
and Rozette Crooker, of Cedar Swamp, L. I., married Monday 
last at Cedar Swamp, L. I. 

1795 — Saturday, March 7. Robert C. Degrove, of this city, and 
Miss Smith, of Smithtown, L. I., married Saturday last at 
Smithtown, L. I. 

1795 — Saturday, March 14. Capt. William Tapp, of this city, died 
Thursday last. 

1795 — Saturday, March 14. Richard Webb, aged 79 years, 41 months, 
19 days, died Saturday last at Staten Island. 

1795 — Saturday, March 14. Adrian Kissam and Mrs. Elizabeth 
Bayard, daughter of Rev. Dr. Rodgers, married Thursday last. 

1795 — Saturday, March 14. James Berrian, of Hell Gate, L. I., 
and Charlotte Cooper, both of this city, married Wednesday 
last. 

1795 — Saturday, March 14. Jeremiam Jessop and Elizabeth Bruff. 
of this city, married Tuesday last. 

1795 — Saturday, March 14. Elisha Hart, of this city, and Polly 
Dickter, of Greensburgh, married Sunday last at Greens- 
burgh. 

1795 — Saturday, March 14. Joseph Towers and Mrs. Ann Camp* 
bell, both of this city, married Saturday last. 

[246] 



1795 — Saturday, March 14. Henry I. Wykoff and Phbbe Suydam, 

daughter of Ferdinand Suydam, of Brooklyn, N. Y., married 

Thursday the 5th at Brooklyn, N. Y. 
1795 — Saturday, March 14. Edward Higgins and Susannah Hig- 

gins, both of this city, married Tuesday the 3rd. 
1795 — Saturday, March 14. Dr. James Tredwell, of Patterson, and 

Mary Van Winkle, of that place, married Wednesday the 25th 

at Aquackononk. 
1795 — Saturday, March 21. Daniel Hall and Mrs. Elizabeth Bell, 

both of this city, married Thursday last. 
1795 — Saturday, March 21. Jasper Ward and Ann Egbert, daugh- 
ter of Benjamin Egbert, all of this city, married Wednesday 

last. 
1795 — Saturday, March 21. Robert Annan, of this city, and Maria 

Hutchin, daughter of Amos Hutchin, married Monday last. 
1795 — Saturday, March 21. Richard Lewis and Amelia Maghee, both 

of this city, married Sunday last. 
1795 — Saturday, March 21. John Ackerman, of this city, and Lydia 

Powles, of Tappan, married Saturday last. 
1795 — Saturday, March 21. William Heyer and Maria Menzies, both 

of this city, married Wednesday the 11th. 
1795 — Saturday, March 21. Capt. James Mott and Sally Mudge, 

both of that place, married Tuesday, the 10th, at Hempstead 

Harbour. 
1795 — Saturday, March 21. Jonathan Tilton and Mary Madden, 

both of Middletown, N. J., married Wednesday the 4th. 
1795 — Saturday, April 4. Hon. Peter Van Gaasbeek and Sally 

Dumond, both of Kingston, N. Y., married at Kingston (Esopus). 
1795 — Saturday, April 4. Adrian Bogart and Maria Bartholf, both 

of this city, married Thursday last. 
1795 — Saturday, April 4. Israel Hunt and Peggy Johnson, both 

of this city, married Sunday last. 
1795 — Saturday, April 4. Winant Debevois and Elizabeth Kelly, 

both of Long Island, married Sunday last. 
1795 — Saturday, April 4. John Marley, merchant of this city, and 

Mary Schuyler, daughter of John Schuyler, of Barbadoes Neck, 

N. J., married Saturday last. 
1795 — Saturday, April 4. Cornelius Hertell and Grace Riker, both 

of this city, married Saturday last. 
1795 — Saturday, April 4. Joseph Clemhorn and Maria Grimstead, 

both of this city, married Monday the 23rd. 
1795 — Saturday, April 4. Isaac Blydenburg and Susannah Smith, 

stepdaughter of Isaac Smith, of Smithtown, L. I., married Sat- 
urday the 21st. 
1795 — Saturday, April 11. John Peters, of England, and Maria 

Bell, of this city, married Thursday last. 
1795 — Saturday, April 11. Rev. Charles Layhatt and Mrs. Sally 

Hallett, both of this city, married Wednesday last. 
1795 — Saturday, April 11. James Lee, merchant, and Miss Crook- 
shanks, both of this city, married Sunday the 29th. 
1795 — Saturday, April 18. Joseph Byrnes, merchant, and Rebecca 

P. Clark, both of this city, married Wednesday last at the 

Friend's Meeting House. 
1795 — Saturday, April 18. James Hopson and Mary Forbes, both of 

this city, married Monday last. 
1795 — Saturday, April 18. Capt. J. Walton, of Upper Canada, and 

Margaret Ann Thatcher, daughter of Capt. Thatcher, of 

Trenton, N. J., married Saturday last at Staten Island. 
1795 — Saturday, April 18. Hugh Pollock, of this city, and Miss 

Anthony, daughter of Joseph Anthony, of Philadelphia, married 

Thursday the 9th at Philadelphia. 
1795 — Saturday, April 18. M. Marseiles, merchant of Albany, and 

Catharine Mildenberger, of this city, married Tuesday the 

7th. 
1795 — Saturday, April 18. Noah Sayer and Esther Crane, both 

of Elizabeth-Town, married Saturday the 4th at Elizabeth- 
Town. 
1795 — Saturday, April 18. Lucius Cary, printer, and Elizabeth 

Closs, daughter of Rev. Mr. Closs, all of New Burgh, married 

at New Burgh. 

[247] 



1795 — Saturday, April 25. John Mitchell and Sally Degrove, both 
of this city, married Thursday last. 

1795 — Saturday, April 25. Glooder Requaw, of Mt. Pleasant, and 
Judith Comb, of Greenburgh, married Wednesday last. 

1795 — Saturday, April 25. Thomas Stoutenburgh and Eliza Linn, 
daughter of James Linn, of New Jersey, married Wednesday 
last. 

1795 — Saturday, April 25. Gerard Rutgers and Margaret Bayard, 
daughter of Nicholas Bayard, all of this city, married Wednes- 
day last. 

1795 — Saturday, April 25. Jacob Odle, of West Chester, and Mrs. 
Ann Brevoort, formerly merchant of this city, married Mon- 
day last. 

1795 — Saturday, April 25. William Carpenter and Lucy Grant, 
both of Brooklyn, L. I., married Thursday the 16th. 

1795 — Saturday, April 25. Andrew Commerdinger, printer, and Mrs. 
Bloom, both of this city, married Thursday the 16th. 

1795 — Saturday, April 25. Allen Clap, merchant of this city, and 
Peggy Redmond, of Philadelphia, married Tuesday the 14th at 
Philadelphia. 

1795 — Saturday, May 2. John Hatfield, of Elizabethtown, and Eliza- 
beth Marks, of this city, married Thursday last. 

1795 — Saturday, May 2. Robert Mott, merchant, and Lydia P. 
Stansbury, daughter of Joseph Stansbury, both of this city, 
married Wednesday last. 

1795 — Saturday, May 2. John Tillou and Maria Reed, both of this 
city, married Sunday last. 

1795 — Saturday, May 2. Lewis D. Flinn, of this city, and Sarah 
Crawford, daughter of Col. John Crawford, of Philadelphia, 
married Sunday last. 

1795 — Saturday, May 2. Thomas Bloodgood, merchant of this city, 
and Anna Lawrence, daughter of Col. Daniel Lawrence, of 
New Town, L. I., married Saturday last at New Town. 

1795 — Saturday, May 2. Horace Johnson, merchant, and Cath- 
arine Thorn, both of this city, married Saturday last at the 
seat of Mr. Stuyvesant in the Bowery. 

1795 — Saturday, May 2. Isaac Stagg and Catharine Lincoln, both 
of this city, married Saturday last. 

1795 — Saturday, May 9. David Jacobs and Margaret Amar, both 
of this city, married Saturday the 18th. 

1795 — Saturday, May 9. John P. Haff, of this city, and Sally 
Haff, daughter of Lawrence Haff, of New Hackensack, married 
Sunday the 12th at New Hackensack. 

1795 — Saturday, May 16. George Furman and Rachel Clark, both 
of this city, married Wednesday the 15th. 

1795 — Saturday, May 16. John M. Dunham, printer, and Emily 
Burt, married Monday, February 16, at Longmeadow, Mass. 

1795 — Saturday, May 16. Joseph Board and Margaret Shierman, 
both of this city, married Wednesday last. 

1795 — Saturday, May 16. Jacob Varian and Hester Murphy, both 
of this city, married Sunday last. 

1795 — Saturday May 23. Frederick Gervis and Elizabeth Cun- 
ning, both of this city, married Saturday last. 

1795 — Saturday, May 23. George Gervis and Nancy Andes, both of 
this city, married Saturday night. 

1795 — Saturday, May 23. Dr. Adam J. Doll and Christiana Bau- 
man, daughter of Col. Sebastian Bauman, of this city, married 
Thursday the 14th. 

1795 — Saturday, May 23. Capt. Keese and Sally Carlton, married 
in this city. 

1795 — Saturday, May 23. Thomas French and Nancy English, mar- 
ried at Boston. 

1795 — Saturday, May 30. Mrs. Susan Barr Mesier, consort of Peter 
Mesier, Jr., of this city, died Friday the 22d, buried New Pres- 
byterian burying ground. 

1795 — Saturday, May 30. John Chisholm and Barbara M'Donald, 
both of this city, married Saturday last. 

X795 — Saturday, May 30. Alexander Black and Jane Eason, both 
of Edinburgh, married Friday 22d. 

[248] 



1795 — Saturday, May 30. George Stacy, of this city, and Tact 
Beaven, daughter of Davis Beaven, of Chester, married Thurs- 
day the 21st at Chester. 

1795 — Saturday, June 6. George Hicks and Eliza Casey, both of 
Brooklyn, married Wednesday last at Flatbush, L. I. 

1795 — Saturday, June 6. John Reiser, Sr., and Mrs. Simmerman, 
both of this city, married Tuesday last. 

1795 — Saturday, June 6. Anthony Ernest and Miss Atwood, daugh- 
ter of Thomas B. Bridgen (sic), married Monday last at Belle- 
ponte, near this city. 

1795 — Saturday, June 6. Stephen Wright and Elizabeth Wright, 
daughter of Nicholas Wright, all of this city, married Sun- 
day last. 

1795 — Saturday, June 13. John Cock, merchant, and Rosetta Lewis, 
both of this city, married Thursday last. 

1795 — Saturday, June 13. Mr. Penprost, of Long Island, and Mary 
Deusenbury, of this city, married Wednesday last at the Friends 
Meeting-House. 

1795 — Saturday, June 20. His Royal Highness Prince of Wales, 
and Princess Caroline, of Brunswick, remarried in London 
by the Archbishop of Canterbury and Bishop of London. 

1795 — Saturday, June 20. George Youle and Sally Neill, both of 
this city, married Monday last. 

1795 — Saturday, June 20. William Hartshorne, Jr., merchant of 
this city, and Jane Ustick, of Flushing, L. I., married Thurs- 
day the 11th, at Flushing, L. I. 

1795 — Saturday, June 27. Peter Duston, merchant, and Sarah 
Gidney, both of this city, married Wednesday last. 

1795 — Saturday, June 27. Peter Delabigarie and Margaret Beek- 
man, daughter of Gerard William Beekman, all of this city, mar- 
ried Tuesday last. 

1795 — Saturday, June 27. Capt. Ebenezer Rosseter and Mrs. Nancy 
King, both of this city, married Monday last. 

1795 — Saturday, June 27. Augustus Sackett, of this city, and 
Minerva Camp, daughter of the late Doctor Elisha Camp, of 
Catts-Kill, married Friday the 19th at Catts-Kill. 

1795 — Saturday, June 27. Bash. J. Bartow and Eliza A. Honey- 
well, both of West Chester, married Sunday the 14th at New- 
Town. 

1795 — Saturday, July 4. Alexander Campbell and Mary Duryee, 
both of this city, married Thursday last. 

1795 — Saturday, July 4. Divie Bethume, merchant, and Joannah 
Graham, both of this city, married Wednesday last. 

1795 — Saturday, July 4. William Weeks and Jane Peck, daughter 
of George Peck, all of this city, married Saturday last. 

1795 — Saturday, July 4. Nevin Willson, of this city, and Cath- 
arine Boylan, daughter of the late John Boylan, of New Jer- 
sey, married Sunday last. 

1795 — Saturday, July 4. Edward Coop and Mary Marling, both of 
that place, married Sunday last at Brooklyn, N. Y. 

1795 — Saturday, July 4. Thomas Whitlock and Eleanor Burger, 
both of this city, married Wednesday the 24th. 

1795 — Saturday, July 4. Peter Joseph Hareubel, of Harve de 
Grace, and Eliza Tillin, of this city, married Tuesday the 
23rd. 

1795 — Saturday, July 4. John Hegeman and Martha Craft, both 
of Cow Neck, L. I., married at Jamaica the 9th (Tuesday). 

1795 — Saturday, July 11. Henry Palmer and Laney Itland, both 
of this city, married Thursday the 2d. 

1795 — Saturday, July 11. John Burger, "of the Two Brothers," 
and Mrs. Low, of New Jersey, married Wednesday the 8th. 

1795 — Saturday, July 11. James Morrison and Polly Mills, both 
of this city, married Sunday last. 

1795 — Saturday, July 11. Jacob Hoops, of Philadelphia, and Cath- 
arine Doty, of that place, married Thursday the 2d at Oyster 
Bay, L. I. 

1795 — Saturday, July 18. James Glean and Mrs. Mary Ogden, 
both of this city. 

[249] 



1795 — Saturday, July 18. Rev. Dr. William Linn, minister of 
the Reformed Church of this city, and Mrs. Moore, widow 
of Dr. John Moore, married Wednesday last. 

1795 — Saturday, July 18. Isaac Governeur, of this city, and Al- 
lh>a Governeur, daughter of Herman Governeur, deceased, 
married Tuesday the 7th at Claverack. 

1795 — Saturday, July 18. Mrs. Ann Dash, consort of Mr. John 
B. Dash, Jr., of this city, died Sunday last. 

1795 — Saturday, July 25. Mrs. Sebra, sister of Mrs. James Riving- 
ton, died Saturday last. 

1795 — Saturday, July 25. Mrs. Elizabeth Rivington, wife of James 
Rivington, died Saturday last. 

1795 — Saturday, July 25. Samuel Allen and Catharine Conrey, 
daughter of William Conry, both of this city, married Wednes- 
day last. 

1795 — Saturday, July 25. Matthew Galloway and Jane Peltreau, 
both of this city, married Thursday the 16th. 

1795 — Saturday, August 1. Thomas B. Saltonstall, of New London, 
died in the West Indies. 

1795 — Saturday, August 1. Capt. Gurdon Saltonstall, of New Lon- 
don, died in the West Indies. 

1795 — Saturday, August 1. Dr. Malachi Treat, health officer, of 
this city, died Wednesday last. 

1795 — Saturday, August 1. Capt. John Clough, of Salem, Mass., 
and Kitty Turner, daughter of John Turner, of this city, mar- 
ried Thursday last. 

1795— Saturday, August 1. James Manning and Eliza Storm, daugh- 
ter of Thomas Storm, merchant, of this city, married Sunday 
last. 

1795 — Saturday, August 1. John Whichurch and Jane Freelon, 
both of this city, married Saturday the 18th. 

1795 — Saturday, August 8. Capt. William Swinburn and Susan 
Davis, both of this city, married a few days ago. 

1795 — Saturday, August 8. Mrs. Hay Stevenson, died Tuesday last, 
buried Old Presbyterian Church Yard. 

1795 — Saturday, August 8. Mrs. Elizabeth Leaycraft, wife of 
Willet Leaycraft, merchant, of this city, died Monday last, aged 
23, buried Trinity Church Yard. 

1795 — Saturday, August 8. Isaac Andrews and Sarah Nicholson, 
married Sunday last. 

1795 — Saturday, August 8. Henry Overing, of New Port, R. I., and 
Charlotte Desbrosses, daughter of James Desbrosses, of this 
city, married Saturday last. 

1795 — Saturday, August 8. William Davis and Margaret Wilson, 
daughter of David Wilson, of Kingsbridge, married Wednesday 
the 29th. 

1795 — Saturday, August 15. John Gorkill and Polly Denmark, 
married a few days ago in this city by Dr. Kuntzie. 

1795 — Saturday, August 15. Tobias Lear and Mrs. Fanny Washing- 
ton, of Mt. Vernon, married. 

1795 — Saturday, August 15. Richard Taterson and Betsey Rogers, 
of Cow Neck, married the 6th at South Hempstead, L. I. 

1795 — Saturday, August 22. Joseph Strang and Nancy Theall, 
both of Rye, married at Rye, Thursday the 13th. 

1795 — Saturday, August 22. Thomas Parcells, Jr., and Mary 
Hurst, both of this city, married Saturday the 8th. 

1795 — Saturday, August 22. Capt. Francis Young and Sally Buck- 
master, both of this city, married a few evenings since by Dr. 
M'Knight. 

1795 — Saturday, August 22. William Lowe, died Sunday the 9th. 

1795 — Saturday, August 22. Stephen Purdy, died Friday last at 
Jamaica, L. I., aged 28. 

1795 — Saturday, August 22. John Butler and Miss Curtis., married 
Saturday last. 

[250] 



1795 — Saturday, August 29. Peter Houseman, son of Aurte House- 
man, died Tuesday last, buried New Dutch Church Yard. 
1795 — Saturday, August 29. Michael Varian, merchant, of this city, 

died Tuesday last, aged 21. 
1795 — Saturday, August 29. Mrs. Jane Post, wife of John Post, 

Jr., of this city, died Monday last, aged 24. 
1795 — Saturday, August 29. Alexander Whylley and Sally Coe, 

both of this city, married Thursday last. 
1795 — Saturday, August 29. William Needham and Catharine Van 

Vart, both of this city, married Saturday last. 
1795 — Saturday, August 29. Isaac Sniffin and Mrs. Jerusha Webb, 

both of Cow Neck, married Saturday the 15th. 
1795 — Saturday, September 5. Daniel Nostrand, of Oyster Bay, 

L. I., and Miss Duryee, of South Hempstead, married Sunday 

last. 
1795 — Saturday, September 5. Charles Adams and Sally Smith, 

both of this city, married Saturday last. 
1795 — Saturday, September 5. Felix de St. Hilaire and Margaret 

Smith, both of this city, married Saturday last. 
1795 — Saturday, September 5. John Kohlevagen, of Surinam, and 

Miss Van Hagen, of this city, married Saturday last. 
7195 — Saturday, September 5. Charleston Johnson and Catharine 

Bayard, daughter of Nicholas Bayard, all of this city, married 

Thursday the 27th. 
1795 — Saturday, September 5. David Simons, of Petersburgh, Va., 

and Deborah Abrams, of this city, married Wednesday the 

26th. 
1795 — Saturday, September 12. William Ledyard, son of Col. Led- 

yard, of Groton, Conn., died yesterday at Col. Stevens', aged 

18. 
1795 — Saturday, September 12. Abraham Brower, printer, of this 

city, died Tuesday last, aged 23. 
1795 — Saturday, September 12. Abraham Skinner, Jr., died Sunday 

last, aged 19. 
1795 — Saturday, September 12. Peter Bonett and Jane Blake, both 

of this city, married Thursday last. 
1795 — Saturday, September 12. Joseph Norton and Mary Murphy, 

both of this city, married Monday last. 
1795 — Saturday, September 12. John Scoles and Eliza Sandys, 

daughter of Rev. J. Sandys, all of this city, married Saturday 

last. 
1795 — Saturday, September 12. John A. Chapman and Sally Leland, 

daughter of Thomas Leland, all of this city, married Saturday 

last. 
1795 — Saturday, September 12. Jacob Schetsel and Maria Heiser, 

daughter of Jacob Heiser, all of this city, married Thursday 

the 3rd. 
1795 — Saturday, September 19. Samuel Loudon, Jr., Editor of the 

Diary, died Thursday last. 
1795 — Saturday, September 19. Daniel Stanbury died Wednesday 

last, aged 35. 
1795 — Saturday, September 19. Michael Fitzsimmons and Phoebe 

Hyer, daughter of Walter Hyer, married Friday the 11th. 
1795 — Saturday, September 19. John I. Ketchum, of Bermuda, and 

Susannah Jauncy, of this city, married Sunday the 6th. 
1795 — Saturday, November 14. John Morgan and Miss Bunyan, 

married. 
1795 — Saturday, November 14. Alexander Mowatt and Eliza Post, 

married at Flushing, L. I. 
1795 — Saturday, November 14. Louis H. Guerlain and S. Fowler, 

married at Westchester. 
1795 — Saturday, November 14. Henry Rich and Phoebe Van Gelder, 

daughter of Abraham Van Gelder, both of this city, married 

Saturday the 31st. 

[251] 



1795 — Saturday, November 14. James Smith and Ann Ross, married 
at Flushing, L. I. 

1795 — Saturday, November 21. James Davis and Ann Turner, both 
of this city, married Thursday last. 

1795 — Saturday, November 21. Levi Dodge, High Sheriff of Ulster 
County, and Mrs. Kemmana, widow of Dr. Kemmana, of this 
city, married Sunday last. 

1795 — Saturday, November 21. George Jewenson and Polly Ellis, 
both of this city, married Sunday last. 

1795 — Saturday, November 21. William Hervey, Jr., and Cath- 
arine Van Allen, both of this city, married Thursday last. 

1795 — Saturday, November 21. James Raney, of Newtown, L. I., 
and Elizabeth Nichols, of this city, married Thursday the 
12th. 

1795 — Saturday, November 21. John Drake and Magdaline Guion, 
daughter of Elias Guion, of New Rochelle, married October 31 
at New Rochelle. 

1795 — Saturday, November 28. John Mackay, Jr., of Stanwich, and 
Eliza H. Knap, of Horse Neck, married Sunday the 8th at 
Horse Neck. 

1795 — Saturday, November 28. Mrs. Patty Crook, wife of Joseph 
Crook, died Wednesday last, aged 33. 

1795 — Saturday, November 28. Lawrence Embree, of the Society of 
Friends, died in this city, buried Tuesday last. 

1795 — Saturday, November 28. Charlotte Mackay, daughter of Wil- 
liam Mackay, of New York, died at Philadelphia, on the 5th. 

1795 — Saturday, November 28. George Alexander Caesar Augustus 
William Henry Frederick Pinchbeck and Mrs. Catherine 
Rudolph, married Tuesday the 10th. 

1795 — Saturday, November 28. Citizen Dubcourt and Margaret 
Bancker, daughter of Col. Chris. Bancker, of this city, married 
Saturday the 14th. 

1795 — Saturday, November 28. Herman G. Rutgers and Sally Gaine, 
married Saturday last. 

1795 — Saturday, November 28. Abraham G. Claypool, merchant, 
of Trenton, and Elizabeth Steele, of this city, married Mon- 
day last. 

1795 — Saturday, November 28. Samuel Smith and Miss M'Knight, 
daughter of Charles M'Knight, deceased, married Monday last. 

1795 — Saturday, November 28. Joseph Conkling, merchant, of this 
city, and Eliza Dawson, daughter of Capt. Henry Dawson, of 
Brooklyn, L. I., married Tuesday last. 

1795 — Saturday, November 28. Abraham Freelon and Eve Wal- 
dron, daughter of John Waldron, both of this city, married 
Thursday last. 

1795 — Saturday, December 19. Thomas Warren, of this city, and 
Elizabeth Gilmore, late from England, married Wednesday 
the 25th. 

1795 — Saturday, December 19. Samuel De Motte, of Hempstead, 
South, and Polly Hewlett, daughter of William Hewlett, of 
Rockaway, married Saturday the 5th at Rockaway. 

1795 — Saturday, December 19. William Wiggens, of Little Brit- 
ain, Orange County, and Phebe Hewlett, daughter of Wil- 
liam Hewlett, of Rockaway, married Saturday the 5th at Rock- 
away. 

1795 — Saturday, December 19. Thomas J. Waldron and Amelia 
Wheeler, both of Cold Spring, L. I., married Friday the 11th. 

1795 — Saturday, December 19. James Hegeman and Catharine 
Onderdonk, both of Cow Neck, L. I., married Saturday last at 
Cow Neck, L. I. 

1795 — Saturday, December 19. Anthony Steenbeck and Sally 
Snyder, both of this city, married Thursday last. 

1795 — Saturday, December 19. John Stilwell and Ann Cumming, 
both of this city, married Saturday last. 

[252] 



1795 — Saturday, December 26. George Buckmaster and Eleanor 
Whitfield, both of this city, married Thursday the 17th. 

1795 — Saturday, December 26. Catharine Arunderous (formerly 
Provost), died on the 15th at New Town, L. I., aged 102 
years. 

1795 — Saturday, December 26. Mrs. Elizabeth Ogilvte, widow of 
Anthony Ogilvie, died Thursday last, aged 19. 

1795 — Saturday, December 26. Robert Brown and Sally Cox, both 
of this city, married Thursday last. 

1795 — Saturday, December 26. Henry Whitfield and Hetty Can- 
dell, both of this city, married Sunday last. 

1796 — Saturday, January 9. Jeremiah Schurman, of New Rochell, 
and Susanna Bailey, eldest daughter of William Bailey, mar- 
ried December 31st at Pelham. 

1796 — Saturday, January 9. Robert Ross and Elizabeth Litch- 
field, daughter of John Litchfield, married Saturday last. 

1796 — Saturday, January 9. Capt. Jonathan Reynolds and Nancy 
Burger, both of this city, married Saturday last. 

1796 — Saturday, January 9. William Lang, of Portsmouth, N. H., 
and Maria Bailey, daughter of John Bailey, of this city, mar- 
ried Sunday last. 

1796 — Saturday, January 9. William Waters and Mrs. Margaret 
Snyder, both of this city, married Tuesday last. 

1796 — Saturday, January 9. James Cumberland and Mrs. Burn- 
ham, widow of Robert Burnham, of this city, coppersmith, mar- 
ried Thursday last. 

1796 — Saturday, January 16. Capt. Daniel Tingley and Eliza 
Sacket, daughter of Dr. Sacket, of this city, married Thurs- 
day the 7th. 

1796 — Saturday, January 16. Samuel Huntington, died January 
5th at Norwich, Conn. Governor of Connecticut. 

1796 — Saturday, January 16. William Bleecker, of this city, and 
Elizabeth Robinson, daughter of Col. Joseph Robinson, of 
that place, married Thursday the 7th at Jamaica, L. I. 

1796 — Saturday, January 23. Thomas Service, merchant, and Sarah 
Tinney, daughter of William Tinney, both of this city, married 
Saturday last. 

1796 — Saturday, January 23. Capt. Jacob Stout, of this city, and 
Fanny Carpenter, of Brooklyn, L. I., married Wednesday the 
14th. 

1796 — Saturday, January 23. Henry Eagle, late of Limerick, and 
Christiana Bull, daughter of Jones Bull, of Waterford, Ire- 
land, married Sunday the 10th. 

1796 — Saturday, January 23. Abraham De Sart and Magdalen 
Eagles, married. 

1796 — Saturday, January 30. John Randiker and Maria Hilliker, 
bot hof this city, married Saturday the 26th December, 1795. 

1796 — Saturday, January 30. Isaac Dreamer and Hetty Hilliker, 
bot hof this city, married Saturday the 26th December, 1795. 

1796 — Saturday, January 30. George Onderdonk and Sarah Rapel- 
jte, both of Cow Neck, married Sunday last. 

1796 — Saturday, January 30. Mr. Gerrar, a gentleman from the 
West Indies, and Hannah Grigg, of this city, married Sat- 
urday last. 

1796 — Saturday, January 30. John Schoonmaker and Catharine 
Van Beuren, daughter of James Van Beuren, both of Flatbush, 
married Thursday the 21st. 

1796 — Saturday, January 30. Patrick Steward and Miss Rae, both 
of this city, married Wednesday. 

1796 — Saturday, January 30. Henry Murk and Maria Scott, both 
of this city, married Wednesday. 

1796 — Saturday, January 30. John Fisher and Cornelia Rapalye, 
daughter of Garret Rapalye, deceased, married at Brooklyn, 
L. I., Tuesday. 

[253] 



1796 — Saturday, January 30. Duncan M'Donald and Maria Moorb, 
both of this city, married Tuesday. 

1796 — Saturday, January 30. Thomas L. Ogden and Miss Ham- 
mond, both of this city, married on the 23rd by Dr. Moore. 

1796 — Saturday, January 30. Garret Van Dyne and Maria Mon- 
foort, both of New Hackensack, married Thursday the 7th at 
New Hackensack. 

1796 — Saturday, January 30. George Pearson, of Albany, and Gitty 
Huck, of Claverack, married at Claverack the 4th. 

1796 — Saturday, January 30. Albert O'Blemis, of Flatbush, and 
Letty Cortelyou, of New Utrecht, married Sunday the 3rd. 

1796 — Saturday, January 30. William Cole and Betsey Totten, 
daughter of Gilbert Totten, all of Staten Island, married Thurs- 
day the 31st at Staten Island. 

1795 — Saturday, January 30. John D. P. Douw, of Albany, and 
Peggy Livingston, daughter of Peter R. Livingston, of the. 
Manor, married at Livingston Manor a short time since. 

1796 — Saturday, January 30. Laurence Egan and Catharine Min- 
ehan, married Sunday last. 

1796 — Saturday, January 30. Richard Ellis and Catharine Van 
Tuyl, both of this city, married Sunday last. 

1796 — Saturday, February 6. Mr. Revough and Mrs. Mary Stit- 
cher, both of this city, married Saturday last. 

1796 — Saturday, February 6. Daniel R. Durning, merchant, Jane 
Murray, daughter of James Murray, all of this city, married 
Saturday last. 

1796 — Saturday, February 6. John Adeel and Hannah Smith, both 
of this city, married Sunday last. 

1796 — Saturday, February 6. James Morris and Helen Van Cort- 
landt, daughter of Augustus, married Monday last at Yonkers. 

1796 — Saturday, February 6. Andrew Stout, of this city, Polly 
Humphreys, late of Kinderhook, married Monday last. 

1796 — Saturday, February 6. John Smith and Barbrah Frazier, 
both of this city, married Monday last. 

1796 — Saturday, February 6. William Allen and Phoebe Tred- 
well, daughter of Dr. Tredwell, all of North Hempstead, mar- 
ried Wednesday last. 

1796 — Saturday, February 6. James Wyatt, aged 107 years, and 
Mrs. Anne Yorke, of Mempnet, aged 91, married at West- 
harptry. 

1796 — Saturday, February 13. William Pitt Smith died yester- 
day, aged 36 years. 

1796 — Saturday, February 13. John E. Parker and Effee Wool- 
sey, married Wednesday the 3rd. 

1796 — Saturday, February 13. Alexander Hutcheson and Wrc>ow 
Hutcheson, of this city, married Saturday last. 

1796 — Saturday, February 13. James Young and Christiana Rida- 
bock, both of this city, married Sunday last. 

1796 — Saturday, February 13. W. Manley and Ann Thompson, both 
of this city, married Monday last. 

1796 — Saturday, February 13. De Witt Clinton and Maria Frank- 
lin, both of this city, married Wednesday last. 

1796 — Saturday, February 13. Robert R. Goelet and Margaret 
Buchanan, daughter of Thomas Buchanan, married Thursday 
last. 

1796 — Saturday, February 13. John Deming, aged 75 and Sally 
Cushing, aged 85, married at Boston. 

1796 — Saturday, February 20. Henry Waring, of this city, and 
Susannah Peck, of Greenwich, Conn., married Thursday the 
11th. 

1796 — Saturday, February 20. Nathaniel Street and Esther 
Weaken, both of Norwalk, married Sunday the 24th. 

1796 — Saturday, February 20. Daniel Duycking and Maria Hildreth, 
both of this city, married Saturday last. 

[254] 



1796 — Saturday, February 20. Capt. Giles T. Taylob and Ann 
Paxton, both of this city, married Monday last. 

1796 — Saturday, February 20. John Fabeell and Jane Bussen, 
lately from Ireland, married Saturday last. 

1796 — Saturday, February 20. John Totten, of Huntington, L. I., 
and Elizabeth Bleecker, of this city, married Saturday last. 

1796 — Saturday, February 27. Gerabd De Peysteb, son of James 
W., of Bloomingdale, and Mabgabet De Peysteb, daughter of 
John De Peyster, of this city, married Sunday last. 

1796 — Saturday, February 27. Robebt B. Batt, of New Rose, Ire- 
land, and Elizabeth Stengeb, daughter of late Capt. Stenger, 
of Waterford, married Thursday 18th at Flatbush. 

1796 — Saturday, February 27. Whitney West and Sally Leek, both 
of this city, married Thursday last. 

1796 — Saturday, February 27. Capt. Chables Harbison died Mon- 
day last in his 56th year. 

1796 — Saturday, February 27. Susannah Siemon, died Thursday the 
18th, in her 15th year. 

1796 — Saturday, March 5. Phillip Allen and Mbs. Chabity Hulet, 
widow of Lawrence Hulet, married Thursday, January 28th, 
at Great Neck. 

1796 — Saturday, March 5. Isaac R. Wynans and Eliza Kip, both 
of this city, married Saturday last. 

1796 — Saturday, March 5. Capt. Joseph Cbook and Helena Thomp- 
son, both of this city, married Saturday last. 

1796 — Saturday, March 5. Mb. Wall and Mbs. Mann, both from 
Ireland, married Sunday last. 

1796 — Saturday, March 5. Chables Welling, Jb., of this city, and 
Eliza Gbenoch, of Hallet's Cove, married Sunday last. 

1796 — Saturday, March 5. William Rimington, merchant, of this 
town, and Rhoda Bullin, of Midway, Mass., married Monday 
last. 

1796 — Saturday, March 5. William Feost, merchant of this city, 
and Sabah Townsend, daughter of James Townsend, of Duck 
Pond, L. I., married Tuesday last. 

1796 — Saturday, March 5. Mbs. Margaret Low, wife of Samuel 
Low, died Wednesday last, aged 26. 

1796 — Saturday, March 12. John I. Moegan, of this city, and Cath- 
arine Warne, of Jamaica, married at Jamaica, L. I., Mon- 
day the 29th. 

1796 — Saturday, March 12. Thomas W. Satterthwaite, merchant, 
and Catharine Bache, daughter of Theophylact Bache, mer- 
chant, New York City, married Saturday last. 

1796 — Saturday, March 12. Peter Bergen, of Brooklyn, and Maria 
Schoonmaker, of that place, married Saturday evening last. 

1796 — Saturday, March 12. Rulouf Jacobus and Catharine Gal- 
loway, both of this city, married Sunday evening last. 

1796 — Saturday, March 12. Jacob Van Nosteand, of this city, and 
Betsey Smith, of Jamaica, married Monday last at Jamaica. 

1796 — Saturday, March 12. Snyles Kibby, merchant of this city, 
and Miss Cobnell, daughter of Whitehead Cornell, of Far 
Rockaway, married Tuesday evening. 

1796 — Saturday, March 19. William L. Mott, son of Jacob Mott, 
merchant, and Miss Scudder, daughter of Samuel Scudder, all of 
this city, married Tuesday last. 

1796 — Saturday, March 19. Daniel Dodge and Ann Tueneb, both 
of this city, married Thursday evening last. 

1796 — Saturday, March 26. Thomas Rich and Sabah Watson, both 
of this city, married Tuesday evening the 15th. 

1796 — Saturday, March 26. John K. Banckeb and Margaret Watson, 
both of this city, married Tuesday evening the 15th. 

1796 — Saturday, March 26. Ezia Weeks and Elizabeth Hitchcock, 
both of this city, married Sunday last. 

1796 — Saturday, March 26. William Wendoveb, of this city, and 
Eleanob Fbost, of West Chester, married Wednesday last. 

[25S] 



1796 — Saturday, April 2. William Blydenburgh, merchant, and 

Sally Arthur, both of Smithtown, L. I., married March 25th. 
1796 — Saturday, April 2. George Townsend, merchant, of this city, 

and Betsey Browne, married Saturday last. 
1796 — Saturday, April 2. Nicholas G. Rutgers and Cornelia Liv- 
ingston, daughter of John, married Saturday last. 
1796 — Saturday, April 2. Theodorus Van Norden and Alletta 

Langdon, both of this city, married Saturday last. 
1796 — Saturday, April 2. Rev. Philip Milledoler, of this city, and 

Susan Benson, daughter of Lawrence, of Harlem, married 

Thursday last. 
1796 — Saturday, April 16. Charles R. Webster, printer, and Cyn- 
thia Steele, both of Albany, married April 2. 
1796 — Saturday, April 16. Philip Brotherson, of Demarara, and 

Catharine Brooks, of Enfield, Conn., married Wednesday the 

30th (March). 
1796 — Saturday, April 16. Henry A. Livingston and Eliza Beek- 

man, daughter of James I., of this city, married Saturday 

last. 
1796 — Saturday, April 16. Peter Conrey and Elehah Duykinck, 

both of this city, married Saturday last. 
1796 — Saturday, April 16. Granville Smith and Eliza Kennedy, 

married Sunday last. 
1796 — Saturday, April 16. Richard Van Lew, of Jamaica, and Polly 

Cornwell, of Foster's Meadow, married Sunday last at Ja- 
maica. 
1796 — Saturday, April 16. William Wood, of this city, and Anne 

Craig, of Philadelphia, married Wednesday last. 
1796 — Saturday, April 16. Jane Kiersted, widow of Benjamin Kier- 

sted, died March 24th, in her 95th year. 
1796 — Saturday, April 23. Matthew L. Davis, printer of this city, 

and Sarah Eayres, of Boston, married April 10th at Boston. 
1796 — Saturday, April 23. Allan Pollick, merchant, of this city, 

and Mary Bradlie, of Boston, married "a few evenings since." 
1796 — Saturday, April 23. Rev. Mr. Ostrander, of Pumpton, N. J., 

and Maria Duryee, of that place, married April 14th at New 

Utreght. 
1796 — Saturday, April 23. Mott Hicks, merchant, and Esther 

Cock, both of this city, married Saturday last. 
1796 — Saturday, April 23. Abraham Wyckoff and Deborah Stoot- 

huff, both of Platlands, L. I., married Saturday last. 
1796 — Saturday, April 30. William Maurice Thompson and Sally 

Gale, both of Goshen, N. Y., married April 16th at Goshen. 
1796 — Saturday, April 30. William Hulshart and Polly Hernet, 

both of this city, married Saturday last. 
1796 — Saturday, April 30. Elliot Hopkins, printer, of Newton, 

and Julia Howell, of Goshen, married April 23d at Goshen, 

N. Y. 
1796 — Saturday, May 7. Robinson Thomas, of Elizabeth Town, and 

Eliza Smith, of Princeton, N. J., married Sunday the 24th 

(April) at Elizabeth Town. 
1796 — Saturday, May 7. James Gill and Jane Guthrie, both of 

this city, married Sunday last. 
1796 — Saturday, May 7. James Anderson and Ann Montanye, both 

of this city, married Wednesday the 27th. 
1796 — Saturday, May 7. James Lewis and Sally Wright, both of 

this city, married Tuesday the 26th. 
1796 — Saturday, May 7. David Brown and Hannah Bush, both of 

this city, married Thursday last. 
1796 — Saturday, May 14. Nathaniel Valentine, of Phillipsburgh, 

and Sally Briggs, daughter of George Briggs, of Westchester, 

married April 17th. 
1796 — Saturday, May 14. Stephen Dutch, of this city, formerly 

of Ipswich, Mass., and Ruth Close, of Greenwich, Conn., mar- 
ried 25th April. 

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